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DIMAD Based Interactive Simulation of the CEBAF Accelerator

Description: An X-Windows^(TM) based interactive interface to the DIMAD beam optics program enables users to simulate the adjustment of magnets in tuning various segments of the CEBAF beamline.In addition, users can track the effects of random errors on the path of individual particles as magnets are adjusted.The interface sits on top of the standard DIMAD model, retaining the detailed modeling available with that code.Because X-Windows software was used, the code is portable to any system that has X-Windows and the X-Windows Toolkit available.We give results from the studies simulating the extraction portion of the CEBAF beamline.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Douglas, David & Bickley, Matthew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Brown-Servranckx matching transformer for simultaneous RFQ to DTL H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} matching

Description: The issue involved in simultaneous matching of H{sup +} and H{sup -} beams between an RFQ and DTL lies in the fact that both beams experience the same electric-field forces at a given position in the RFQ. Hence, the two beams are focused to the same correlation. However, matching to a DTL requires correlation of the opposite sign. The Brown-Servranckx quarter-wave ({lambda}/4) matching transformer system, which requires four quadrupoles, provides a method to simultaneously match H{sup +} and H{sup -} beams between an RFQ and a DTL. The method requires the use of a special RFQ section to obtain the Twiss parameter conditions {beta}{sup x}={beta}{sup y} and {alpha}{sub x}={alpha}{sub y}=0 at the exit of the RFQ. This matching between the RFQ and DTL is described.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Wadlinger, E.A. & Garnett, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Functional dependence, broad-band fitting, and ancillary conditions

Description: The ability to make multiple passes through a charged particle optical system, as a single step in a mathematical procedure, opens up new computational capa- bilities. At the simplest level, the functional dependence of any transfer matrix of any order, or any beam phase-space parameter can be plotted as a function of any other parameter used to describe the optical con#12;guration. Secondly, broad-band #12;tting can be done on aberrations, where all orders are considered simultaneously according to their importance on the #12;nal phase-space beam distribution. Finally, ancillary conditions may be imposed in the calculation of functional dependences. For example, the dependence of a matrix element on a beam line parameter may be calculated and plotted, subject to constraints imposed on other matrix elements. The computer program TRANSPORT now has these capabilities. Additional examples will be given.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Carey, David C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The linear parameters and the decoupling matrix for linearly coupled motion in 6 dimensional phase space. Informal report

Description: It will be shown that starting from a coordinate system where the 6 phase space coordinates are linearly coupled, one can go to a new coordinate system, where the motion is uncoupled, by means of a linear transformation. The original coupled coordinates and the new uncoupled coordinates are related by a 6 {times} 6 matrix, R. R will be called the decoupling matrix. It will be shown that of the 36 elements of the 6 {times} 6 decoupling matrix R, only 12 elements are independent. This may be contrasted with the results for motion in 4-dimensional phase space, where R has 4 independent elements. A set of equations is given from which the 12 elements of R can be computed from the one period transfer matrix. This set of equations also allows the linear parameters, {beta}{sub i}, {alpha}{sub i} = 1, 3, for the uncoupled coordinates, to be computed from the one period transfer matrix. An alternative procedure for computing the linear parameters, the {beta}{sub i}, {alpha}{sub i} i = 1, 3, and the 12 independent elements of the decoupling matrix R is also given which depends on computing the eigenvectors of the one period transfer matrix. These results can be used in a tracking program, where the one period transfer matrix can be computed by multiplying the transfer matrices of all the elements in a period, to compute the linear parameters {alpha}{sub i} and {beta}{sub i}, i = 1, 3, and the elements of the decoupling matrix R. The procedure presented here for studying coupled motion in 6-dimensional phase space can also be applied to coupled motion in 4-dimensional phase space, where it may be a useful alternative procedure to the procedure presented by Edwards and Teng. In particular, it gives a simpler programming procedure for computing the beta ...
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Parzen, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linear optics correction in the CEBAF accelerator

Description: During commissioning of the CEBAF accelerator, correcting dispersion, momentum compaction and betatron beam envelopes was essential for robust operation. To speed the diagnostic process we developed a method which allows one to track and correct the machine optics on-line. The method is based on measuring the propagation of 30 Hz modulated betatron oscillations. The beam optics of the accelerator was altered to decrease lattice sensitivity at critical points and to simplify control of the betatron function match. The calculation of the Courant-Snyder invariant from signals of each pair of beam position monitors was used for a correction of the betatron functions. The experience of optics correction and the study of long and short term machine reproducibility obtained during 1996 and early 1997 are also discussed. With minor modifications this method can also be used for on-line optics measurement and correction in circular accelerators.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Lebedev, V.A.; Bickley, M. & Bisognano, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Perturbation of the periodic dispersion under beam crossing optics in LHC

Description: Beam crossing and separation schemes in the LHC interaction regions impose non-zero closed orbit in the low-{beta} triplets. The related perturbative dispersion is derived ; propagation, multi-crossing interference, perturbative effects around the ring are investigated and quantified. Horizontal and vertical compensation schemes are presented.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Meot, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low energy ring lattice of the PEP-II asymmetric B-Factory

Description: Developing a lattice that contains a very low beta value at the interaction point (IP) and has adequate dynamic aperture is one of the major challenges in designing the PEP-II asymmetric B-factory. For the Low Energy Ring (LER) the authors have studied several different chromatic correction schemes since the conceptual design report (CDR). Based on these studies, a hybrid solution with local and semi-local chromatic sextupoles has been selected as the new baseline lattice to replace the local scheme in the CDR. The new design simplifies the interaction region (IR) and reduces the number of sextupoles in the arcs. Arc sextupoles are paired at {pi} phase difference and are not interleaved. In this paper the authors describe the baseline lattice with the emphasis on the lattice changes made since the CDR.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Cai, Y.; Donald, M.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Nosochkov, Y.; Ritson, D.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correction of vertical crossing induced dispersion in LHC

Description: Beam crossing schemes in the LHC interaction regions impose non-zero vertical closed orbit in the low-{beta} triplets, which excite a perturbative periodic dispersion ; the phenomenon is described and quantified in detail. It is shown that this dispersion reaches values at the limit of tolerances in the nominal optics of Version 5.0 of the LHC ring, and prohibitively large values in particular in the low- {beta} quadrupoles and interaction regions in the foreseen extreme {beta}-squeeze case ({beta}{sup *} = 0.25 m). Such behaviour justifies including a local correction in the LHC design, in order to damp the effect and confine it as much as possible in the vicinity of the excitation sources (the low-{beta} triplets). An optical compensation scheme based on the use of skew quadrupoles is described in detail, as well as the entailed residual dispersion.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Meot, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How to construct a second-order achromat with a 90 degree phase advance

Description: The author shows how to construct a second order achromatic (T{sub ij6} = 0, i, j {element_of} {l_brace}1,2{r_brace}) beamline with a total phase advance of 450{degree} (360{degree} + 90{degree}). The goal is to construct a 90{degree} cell which is achromatic to second order. One possible way to do this is to construct a 360{degree} sector followed by a 90{degree} cell; put dipoles and sextupoles in the 360{degree} sector; and throw the aberrations into the 90{degree} cell such that the final transformation is achromatic. The author expresses the aberrations in the 360{degree} sector in terms of the 90{degree} cell and determine whether any combination of sextupoles gives the correct cancellation.
Date: July 5, 2000
Creator: Kobilarcik, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: For the year 2001 run, a bent crystal was installed in the yellow ring of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The crystal forms the first stage of a two stage collimation system. By aligning the crystal to the beam, halo particles are channeled through the crystal and deflected into a copper scraper. The purpose is to reduce beam halo with greater efficiency than with a scraper alone. In this paper we present the first results from the use of the crystal collimator. We compare the crystal performance under various conditions, such as different particle species, and beta functions.
Date: June 2, 2002
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative approach to general coupled linear optics

Description: The Twiss parameters provide a convenient description of beam optics in uncoupled linear beamlines. For coupled beamlines, a variety of approaches are possible for describing the linear optics; here, we propose an approach and notation that naturally generalizes the familiar Twiss parameters to the coupled case in three degrees of freedom. Our approach is based on an eigensystem analysis of the matrix of second-order beam moments, or alternatively (in the case of a storage ring) on an eigensystem analysis of the linear single-turn map. The lattice functions that emerge from this approach have an interpretation that is conceptually very simple: in particular, the lattice functions directly relate the beam distribution in phase space to the invariant emittances. To emphasize the physical significance of the coupled lattice functions, we develop the theory from first principles, using only the assumption of linear symplectic transport. We also give some examples of the application of this approach, demonstrating its advantages of conceptual and notational simplicity.
Date: November 29, 2005
Creator: Wolski, Andrzej
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uncoupled achromatic tilted S-bend

Description: A particular section of the electron beam transport line, to be used in the e-cooling project [l] of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), is constrained to displace the trajectory with both horizontal and vertical offsets so that the outgoing beamline is parallel to the incoming beamline. We also require that section be achromatic in both planes. This mixed horizontal and vertical achromatic Sbend is accomplished by rotating the two dipoles and the quadrupoles of the line, about the longitudinal axis of the incoming beam. However such a rotation of the magnetic elements may couple the transported beam through the first order beam transfer matrix (linear coupling). In this paper we study a sufficient condition, that the first order transport matrix (R-matrix) can satisfy, so that this section of beam transfer line is both achromatic and linearly uncoupled. We provide a complete solution for the beam optics which satisfies both conditions.
Date: June 23, 2008
Creator: Tsoupas,N.; Kayran, D.; Litvinenko, V. & MacKay, W.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Machine Studies During Beam Commissioning of the SPS-to-LHC Transfer Lines

Description: Through May to September 2008, further beam commissioning of the SPS-to-LHC transfer lines was performed. For the first time, optics and dispersion measurements were also taken in the last part of the lines, and into the LHC. Extensive trajectory and optics studies were conducted, in parallel with hardware checks. In particular dispersion measurements and their comparison with the beam line model were analysed in detail and led to propose the addition of a dispersion-free steering algorithm in the existing trajectory correction program. Its effectiveness was simulated and is briefly discussed.
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Meddahi, M.; Agapov, I.; Fuchsberger, K.; Goddard, B.; Herr, W.; Kain, V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Luminosity Variations Along Bunch Trains in PEP-II

Description: In the spring of 2005 after a long shut-down, the luminosity of the B-Factory PEP-II decreased along the bunch trains by about 25-30%. There were many reasons studied which could have caused this performance degradation, like a bigger phase transient due to an additional RF station in the Low-Energy-Ring (LER), bad initial vacuum, electron cloud, chromaticity, steering, dispersion in cavities, beam optics, etc. The initial specific luminosity of 4.2 sloped down to 3.2 and even 2.8 for a long train (typical: 130 of 144), later in the run with higher currents and shorter trains (65 of 72) the numbers were more like 3.2 down to 2.6. Finally after steering the interaction region for an unrelated reason (overheated BPM buttons) and the consequential lower luminosity for two weeks, the luminosity slope problem was mysteriously gone. Several parameters got changed and there is still some discussion about which one finally fixed the problem. Among others, likely candidates are: the LER betatron function in x at the interaction point got reduced, making the LER x stronger, dispersion reduction in the cavities, and finding and fixing a partially shorted magnet.
Date: May 18, 2007
Creator: Decker, F.J.; Boyes, M.; Colocho, W.S.; Novokhatski, A.; Sullivan, M.K.; Turner, J.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Three simultaneous polar-coordinate component equations in an aximuthally homogeneous magnetic field of a cyclotron are integrated by a fixed- point program on the IBM 650 computer to give the orbits of particles in the cyclotron. A regenerator action for extracting particles is computed as an inpulse once each turn as a subprogram when desired. The program is described and instructions for its use are included. (auth)
Date: May 12, 1958
Creator: Stubbins, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analyzing measurements of nonlinear transfer functions with Tschebyshev polynomials

Description: Recently, due to advances in computers and data aquisition systems, the following type of measurement has become more common: (1) Impress a given modulation on a device to be tested. (2) Acquire a data stream, usually at equally spaced sample intervals, of the response of the system to the modulation. (3) Fit the data thereby acquired to some nonlinear function set that might (or might not!) describe the response of the device. In this paper it is pointed out that by choosing to modulate the test parameter sinusoidally, and by fast-Fourier transforming the acquired data stream, one unambiguously determines the Tschebyshev expansion of the response function around the working point, potentially yielding quantitative information about high nonlinear orders in the system response. The need for data fitting is thereby eliminated. A detailed example, the analysis of the nonlinear phase-phase transfer function in the Jefferson Lab injector, is presented.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Krafft, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Notes on lie algebraic analysis of achromats

Description: Normal form technique is a powerful method to analyze the achromat problem. Assume the one cell map M{sub cell} = ARe{sup :h{sub 3}}:{sub e}{sup :h{sub 4}}: A{sup {minus}1}, where h{sub 3},h{sub 4} are the normal forms of the generators of the unit cell map, and A is the nonlinear transformation that brings M{sub cell} into its normal form; then the map of the whole system is M{sub N} = M{sub cell}{sup N} = AR{sup N} A{sup {minus}1} = I, provided that we can set e{sup :h{sub 3}}:, e{sup :h{sub 4}}, and R{sup N} to the identity (or only {delta} dependent) maps. Therefore, the conditions to form an achromat are h{sub 3} and h{sub 4} equal to zero (or {delta} dependent only) and the total linear map is identity. In this report, we will apply these conditions to a FODO array (a simple model system) to make it an achromat. We will start from Hamiltonians and work all the way up to obtain the analytical expressions of the required sextupole and octupole strengths.
Date: January 1, 1995
Creator: Wang, Chunxi & Chao, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department