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Wind-tunnel investigation of bomb-bay configurations intended to minimize the tumbling of light-weight bombs

Description: Report presenting an investigation in the 300 mph 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine what modifications could be made to conventional bomb bays to reduce the tumbling difficulties experienced with light-weight bombs. The investigation indicated that there is a definite region of reversed flow inside the bomb bay which must be weakened or destroyed if good drops are to be obtained.
Date: June 25, 1947
Creator: Kuhn, Richard E. & Polhamus, Edward C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the ejection release of several dynamically scaled bluff internal stores at Mach numbers of 0.8, 1.39, and 1.98

Description: Report presenting an investigation to determine flight behavior after ejection from a bomb bay of several dynamically scaled bluff internal stores for a range of Mach numbers and altitudes. The trajectories of all of the stores were smooth, but the pitching motions of the stores were greatly affected by the close vicinity of the bomb bay. Types of stores explored included WADC stores, flared-cylinder stores, and cylindrical stores.
Date: December 26, 1956
Creator: Carter, Howard S. & Lee, John B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Acapulco Bay]

Description: Photograph of the bay in Acapulco de Juárez, Mexico. Palm trees and other vegetation fill the bottom foreground. The bay is visible in the middle ground. Numerous boats are visible in the water. The opposing shore lined with high rise buildings is visible in the background.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

Investigation of the Effects of Bomb-Bay Configuration Upon the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Body With Circular Cross Section at Supersonic Speeds

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation in the 9-inch supersonic tunnel to ascertain the lift, drag, and pitching moment associated with typical body-bomb-bay combinations with and without the bomb. Measurements were made at a range of angles of attack, Mach numbers, and Reynolds numbers.
Date: August 18, 1955
Creator: Rainey, Robert W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of the Release Characteristics of a 1/30 Dynamically Scaled AVCO Booster Vehicle from the Simulated Bomb Bay of the B-52 Airplane : COORD. No. AF-AM-59

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation conducted in the 27- by 27-inch preflight jet of the release characteristics of a dynamically scaled AVCO booster vehicle, internally carried store model from a scale simulated bomb bay of the B-52 airplane at Mach numbers of 0.64 and 0.93. Simulated altitudes were -11,800 feet and 50,000 feet. Successful releases were obtained at all Mach numbers and simulated altitudes of the test.
Date: October 8, 1956
Creator: Lee, John B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sulfur transformations in early diagenetic sediments from the Bay of Concepcion, off Chile

Description: Despite the recognition that both organic sulfur and pyrite form during the very early stages of diagenesis, and that the amount of H{sub 2}S generated in bacterial sulfate reduction primarily limits their formation, the mechanisms and the active species involved still are not clear. In this study, we quantified the major forms of sulfur distributed in sediments to assess the geochemical mechanisms involved in these transformations. XANES spectroscopy, together with elemental analysis, were used to measure sulfur speciation in the organic-rich sediments from the Bay of Concepcion, Chile. Organic polysulfides constituted the major fraction of the organic sulfur, and occurred maximally just below the sediment surface (1--3 cm), where intermediates from H{sub 2}S oxidation were likely to be generated most abundantly. Sulfonates, which could be formed through the reactions of sulfate and thiosulfate, also showed a sub-surface maximum in the vicinity of the ``oxic-anoxic interface``. These results strongly suggest a geochemical origin for organic polysulfides and sulfonates, and illustrate that intermediates from H{sub 2}S oxidation play a dominant role in incorporating sulfur into organic matter. Pyrite was absent in the surficial layer, and first appeared just below the H{sub 2}S maximum, where organic polysulfides began to decrease in abundance. From these results, we argue, that an iron monosulfide precursor formed first from reactions with H{sub 2}S, and then reacts with organic polysulfides, completing the synthesis of pyrite in the sediment column.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Vairavamurth, M.A.; Wang, Shengke; Khandelwal, B.; Manowitz, B.; Ferdelman, T. & Fossing, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of soil physicochemical properties on hydrology and restoration response in Carolina Bay wetlands.

Description: Carolina Bays are shallow depression wetlands found in the southeast US that have been severely altered by human activity. The need to restore these complex and diverse systems is well established, but our understanding of basic wetland hydrological processes is limited, hence our ability to predict the need for and/or assess the effectiveness of bay restorations is hindered. Differing physicochemical properties of soils within bay interiors may control bay hydrology. However, previous efforts to establish relationships between soil characteristics and bay hydrology have been inconclusive and the question still remains as to why some bays are ponded throughout the year while others, within a similar landscape unit, are predominantly dry. An assessment of soil and hydrologic characteristics was initiated in restored and unrestored control bays to determine if a relationship exists. Soil morphology was described and permanent monitoring wells were installed at each site. Soil samples were collected by horizon to a depth of 2 meters at the topographic center of each site, and then analyzed. After three years, multiple regression analysis (stepwise backward and forward) was used to establish relationships between the soil physicochemical characteristics and bay hydroperiod in the undisturbed sites. Results from surface soils indicated that exchangeable acidity (EA) was the best single predictor of hydrology. The best double predictor was EA and total N and EA, total N and total C as the best triple predictor. A significant relationship (r2 = 0.96) between hydroperiod and clay content in the argillic horizon (Bt) was also observed. Subsequently, this relationship was utilized to predict hydrologic response using pre-restoration hydroperiod data. The model accurately identified sites that did not need hydrologic restoration (too wet), and effectively showed sites that responded well to restoration activities.
Date: April 1, 2006
Creator: Barton, C. D.; Andrews, D.M. & Kolka, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[View from le Mont-Saint-Michel]

Description: Photograph of the view from le Mont-Saint-Michel Island in France. In the foreground, one of the fortress towers is visible to the right above some trees. The bay and ocean are visible in the background.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

[Bay view]

Description: Photograph of the view from Mont-Saint-Michel in France. In the foreground, multiple rows of arched columns are visible. The Mont-Saint-Michel Bay is visible through the arches.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gough, Ray
Partner: UNT College of Visual Arts + Design

New perspectives on substorm injections

Description: There has been significant progress in understanding substorm injections since the Third International Conference on Substorms in 1996. Progress has come from a combination of new theories, quantitative modeling, and observations--particularly multi-satellite observations. There is now mounting evidence that fast convective flows are the mechanism that directly couples substorm processes in the mid tail, where reconnection occurs, with substorm processes the inner magnetosphere where Pi2 pulsations, auroral breakups, and substorm injections occur. This paper presents evidence that those flows combined with an earthward-propagating compressional wave are responsible for substorm injections and discusses how that model can account for various substorm injection signatures.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Reeves, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Storm/substorm signatures in the outer belt

Description: The response of the ring current region is compared for periods of storm and substorm activity, with an attempt to isolate the contributions of both processes. The authors investigate CRRES particle data in an overview format that allows the display of long-term variations of the outer radiation belt. They compare the evolution of the ring current population to indicators of storm (Dst) and substorm (AE) activity and examine compositional changes. Substorm activity leads to the intensification of the ring current at higher L (L {approximately} 6) and lower ring current energies compared to storms (L {approximately} 4). The O{sup +}/H{sup +} ratio during substorms remains low, near 10%, but is much enhanced during storms (can exceed 100%). They conclude that repeated substorms with an AE {approximately} 900 nT lead to a {Delta}Dst of {approximately} 30 nT, but do not contribute to Dst during storm main phase as substorm injections do not form a symmetric ring current during such disturbed times.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Korth, A.; Friedel, R.H.W.; Mouikis, C. & Fennell, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Substorm effects in MHD and test particle simulations of magnetotail dynamics

Description: Recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations demonstrate that a global tail instability, initiated by localized breakdown of MHD, can cause plasmoid formation and ejection as well as dipolarization and the current diversion of the substorm current wedge. The connection between the reconnection process and the current wedge signatures is provided by earthward flow from the reconnection site. Its braking and diversion in the inner magnetosphere causes dipolarization and the magnetic field distortions of the current wedge. The authors demonstrate the characteristic properties of this process and the current systems involved. The strong localized electric field associated with the flow burst and the dipolarization is also the cause of particle acceleration and energetic particle injections. Test particle simulations of orbits in the MHD fields yield results that are quite consistent with observed injection signatures.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Birn, J. & Hesse, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Restoration of Lost Lake, recovery of an impacted Carolina Bay

Description: Lost Lake is one of approximately 200 Carolina bays found on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Until 1984 Lost Lake was contaminated by heavy metals and solvents overflowing from a nearby settling basin. Up to 12 inches of surface soil and all vegetation was removed from the bay as part of a RCRA removal action. A plan for restoration was initiated in 1989 and implemented in 1990 and 1991. Extensive planning led to defined objectives, strategies, treatments, and monitoring programs allowing successful restoration of Lost Lake. The primary goal of the project was to restore the wetland ecosystem after a hazardous waste clean up operation. An additional goal was to study the progress of the project and the success of the restoration activity. Several strategy considerations were necessary in the restoration plan. The removal of existing organic soils had to have compensation, a treatment scheme for planting and the extent of manipulation of the substrate had to be considered, monitoring decisions had to be made, and the decision whether or not to actively control the hydrology of the restored system.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Wike, L.D.; Gladden, J.B.; Mackey, H.E. Jr. & Rogers, V.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

Description: A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.
Date: December 15, 2007
Creator: Barton, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Status Report II 2000-2004.

Description: A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report. Post restoration monitoring will continue through 2005. A final report to the Mitigation Bank Review Team will be submitted in mid-2006.
Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Barton, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

Description: Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Ledvina, Joseph A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana Open Bays

Description: Data were collected prior to termination of discharge at three sites (including two open bay sites at Delacroix Island and Bay De Chene) for the risk assessments. The Delacroix Island Oil and Gas Field has been in production since the first well drilling in 1940; the Bay De Chene Field, since 1942. Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Po, and 228Th were measured in discharges. Radium conc. were measured in fish and shellfish tissues. Sediment PAH and metal conc. were also available. Benthos sampling was conducted. A survey of fishermen was conducted. The tiered risk assessment showed that human health risks from radium in produced water appear to be small; ecological risk from radium and other radionuclides in produced water also appear small. Many of the chemical contaminants discharged to open Louisiana bays appear to present little human health or ecological risk. A conservative screening analysis suggested potential risks to human health from Hg and Pb and a potential risk to ecological receptors from total effluent, Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ag, Zn, and phenol in the water column and PAHs in sediment; quantitiative risk assessments are being done for these contaminants.
Date: June 23, 1995
Creator: Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P. & Holtzman, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

July 29, 2977 magnetic storm: observations and modeling of energetic particles at synchronous orbit

Description: A brief description of the energetic particle studies carried out by Subgroup 6 of CDAW-2 is presented. Instrumentation onboard six spacecraft at (or near) geostationary orbit was used in the analysis. Timing of particle injection during the last, and largest, substorm on July 29, 1977 (approx. 1200 UT) was investigated, as was the particle phase space density variation associated with this event. Energetic proton gradient anisotropies were also used to examine large-scale magnetospheric boundary motions. Finally, adiabatic modeling calculations were performed for the substorm event period, including effects of injection, convection, corotation, and particle drifts. We find substantial evidence to suggest storage of solar wind-derived energy in the magnetotail prior to the substorm and we find this stored energy to be suddenly released at substorm expansion onset. We also find particles at geostationary orbit to be newly accelerated during the substorm to energies greater than or equal to 1 MeV (..mu.. greater than or equal to 100 MeV/G) and modeling shows that these particles could have been convected (and injected) from beyond 10 R/sub E/ in the nightside magnetosphere.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Baker, D.N.; Fritz, T.A. & Wilken, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dungeness crab and razor clam surveys at sites near Grays Harbor, Washington, and at Willapa Bay bar entrance, September 1993

Description: Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay are shallow embayments on the outer coast of Washington state. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District is responsible for maintenance of navigational channels in these areas, a task that requires routine dredging of deposited sediments. Dredged sediments are normally transported to designated sites for disposal. At the entrance to Grays Harbor, severe shoreline erosion has occurred. To slow erosional processes and prevent a breach at the base of the South Jetty, the USACE proposed the beneficial use of dredged materials from the bar and entrance reaches of Grays Harbor. Dredged materials deposited as sediment berms just offshore of South Beach, to the south of the jetty base, and at Half Moon Bay, to the north and east of the jetty base, could mitigate erosional processes in two ways: (1) by providing nearshore sacrificial material and a sediment supply for accretion on the shores, and (2) by tripping larger waves further offshore from the beaches. Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory was contracted to conduct surveys at four sites in September 1993. The primary objective of this work was to determine the density of Dungeness crab at sites associated with dredging activities or dredged-materials disposal. A related objective was to assess the density of juvenile razor clams at the South Beach site, the only site in this study with potential to be an important recruitment area for juvenile razor clams.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Antrim, L. D.; Gardiner, W. W.; Pohlod, K. L. & Karle, L. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report: Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays

Description: Potential human health and environmental impacts from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico are of concern to regulators at the State and Federal levels, the public, environmental interest groups and industry. Current and proposed regulations require a zero discharge limit for coastal facilities, based primarily on studies in low energy, poorly flushed environments. However, produced water discharges in coastal Louisiana include a number of open bay sites, where potential human health and environmental impacts are likely to be smaller than those demonstrated for low energy canal environments, but greater than the minimal impacts associated with offshore discharges. Additional data and assessments are needed to support risk managers at the State and Federal levels in the development of regulations that protect human health and the environment without unnecessary cost to the economic welfare of the region and the nation. This project supports the Natural Gas and Oil Initiative objectives to: (1) improve coordination on environmental research; (2) streamline State and Federal regulation; (3) enhance State, and Federal regulatory decision making capability; (4) enhance dialogue through industry/government/public partnerships; and (5) work with States and Native American Tribes.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P. & Holtzman, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Locations and areas of ponds and Carolina Bays at the Savannah River Plant

Description: The Savannah River Plant has 28 ponds and 189 Carolina Bays on its 192,000-acre site. Excluding the Par Pond system, the mean pond ares is 17.6 acres, with a range of 0.4 to 202.8 acres. Par Pond is the largest pond, with an area of 2500 acres. The mean Carolina Bay area is 6.6 acres, with a range of less than 0.3 to 124.0 acres. The geographical location of each pond and bay has been digitized and can be graphically displayed by computer. This capability will facilitate identification of wetland areas as required by Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands, May 24, 1977).
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Shields, J.D.; Woody, N.D.; Dicks, A.S.; Hollod, G.J.; Schalles, J. & Leversee, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real-time ISEE data system

Description: Prediction of geomagnetic substorms and storms would be of great scientific and commercial interest. A real-time ISEE data system directed toward this purpose is discussed in detail. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution. 6 figures, 1 table.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Tsurutani, B.T. & Baker, D.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department