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Proceedings of the Symposium and Workshop on Advanced Battery Research and Design : March 22-24, 1976

Description: The idea for this meeting evolved from interest expressed by members of the Chicago Section of the Electrochemical Society in convening a symposium on the development of high-energy secondary batteries. The relevance of this subject is evidenced by the several research programs that have been initiated recently in the United States and Europe to develop advanced batteries for use as energy storage devices on electric utility networks and as power sources for electric automobiles.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Selman, J. Robert; Steunenberg, Robert K.; Barghusen, John J. & Howard, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Results for 36-V Li/FeS Battery

Description: This report describes a collaborative effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Westinghouse Naval Systems Division from 1986 to 1989. This effort resulted in the design, fabrication, and testing of two 36-V lithium-alloy/iron monosulfide (Li/FeS) batteries. The test results provided validation of a conceptual design for a full-scale electric van battery, as well as design and performance data for 12-V Li/FeS modules and fractional-scale battery components.
Date: January 1990
Creator: Chilenskas, A. A.; Malecha, R. F.; DeLuca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F. & Hogrefe, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Development of Lithium/Metal Sulfide Battery Technology for Vehicle Propulsion : Summary Report, October 1977- September 1978

Description: The research, development, and management activities done in preparation for in-vehicle testing of engineering-scale lithium/metal sulfide batteries are described. These activities were carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) from October 1977 to September 1978. Over the past year, lead--acid batteries were tested both in the laboratory and in a Renault automobile. The data obtained from these tests will be used to assess the performance of lithium/metal sulfide batteries. Testing of a 40 kWh lithium/metal sulfide battery in a vehicle is planned for early 1979. The equipment needed to evaluate the performance of this battery was designed and fabricated. Testing of this equipment is expected to begin at the end of 1978. In order to carry out the above in-vehicle test, the lithium/metal sulfide battery must have a thermally efficient case and a charger. Construction of such a case is in progress. A portable charger/equalizer that has the capability of charging up to six lithium/metal sulfide cells was fabricated.
Date: March 1979
Creator: Barney, Duane L.; Chilenskas, A. A.; DeLuca, W. H.; Hayes, E. R.; Hornstra, F.; Farahat, M. K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of storage battery system cost estimates

Description: Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Brown, D.R. & Russell, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost Estimate for the Commercial Manufacture of Lithium/Iron Sulfide Cells for Load-Leveling

Description: An estimate was made of the cost of commercial manufacture of batteries for load-leveling in utility networks, based on the lithium-aluminum/iron sulfide system. The battery design chosen is the 0.92-kWh cell proposed for the BEST Facility. The manufacturing plant was sized to produce 5000 of such cells per day. These cells are assembled for sale in battery cases or sub-modules, 24 cells to a case. The plant investment is estimated to be $12,500,000. A selling price of $29.16 per kWh is projected; this price yields a 25 percent return on invested capital. An allowance for recycle lithium yields a net price of $27.33 per kWh.
Date: 1976
Creator: Towle, W. L.; Graae, Johan E. A.; Chilenskas, A. A. & Ivins, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Performance Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage and Electric-Vehicle Propulsion, Progress Report: October 1978-September 1979

Description: This report covers the research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978-September 1979. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400-500 C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS2, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte.
Date: March 1980
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Performance Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage and Electric-Vehicle Propulsion, Progress Report: October 1978-March 1979

Description: This report covers the research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 - March 1979. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy--storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400-500 C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS2, facing electrodes of lithium-aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Nelson, P. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of ceramic papers and tapes for use as separators in thermal batteries.

Description: Ceramic tapes and papers were evaluated for potential use as separators in high-temperature thermal batteries. The bulk of the tests involved fiberglass tape and borosilicate filter discs. Quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) materials were also examined to a limited extent. In addition, custom-prepared MgO-coated ceramic discs from Inventek Inc. were evaluated as separators. The tapes and paper discs were impregnated with LiCl-KCl eutectic or LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolytes using three different techniques. Test discs were punched from the tapes and papers, impregnated with electrolyte and evaluated as separators in Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} single cells at 400 or 500 C at a steady-state current of 63 or 125 mA/cm{sup 2}. The performance of single cells containing these discs generally improved with increased electrolyte loading for most of the materials in the case of the LiCl-KCl eutectic. Better results were obtained with the paper filter discs than with the tapes. The best results with the paper discs were obtained with Whatman GF/A filter discs. Active lives for cells with these separators were about 85% of standard cells with pressed-powder separators. Good results were obtained in one battery test with the eutectic electrolyte. Mixed results were obtained with the LiCl-LiBr-LiF electrolyte under similar conditions. Higher loadings of electrolyte did not always translate into improved cell performance. Self-discharge reactions are believed responsible. The best overall results were obtained with the Inventek separators. Based on the results of this study, more work in this technology area is merited.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Reinhardt, Frederick William & Guidotti, Ronald Armand
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining the "State of Charge" of Nickel-Cadmium Batteries by Farad Capacitance Measurements

Description: From abstract: "A rapid simple method has been developed for determining state of charge of the widely used nickel-cadium rechargeable battery. The method described is based on the experimentally verified relationship between farad capacitance and state of charge."
Date: August 1968
Creator: Latner, Norman
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods of Chemical Analysis Used to Characterize Battery Materials

Description: Procedures are given for the chemical analysis of a variety of materials of interest in battery development and research. These materials include LiCl-KCl eutectic, Li-Al alloys, lithium sulfide, lithium aluminum chloride, calcium sulfide, titanium sulfide, and various sulfides of iron, nickel, copper, and cobalt.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Jensen, Kenneth J. & Streets, W. Elane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Battery research at Argonne National Laboratory

Description: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has, for many years, been engaged in battery-related R and D programs for DOE and the transportation industry. In particular, from 1973 to 1995, ANL played a pioneering role in the technological development of the high-temperature (400 C) lithium-iron disulfide battery. With the emphasis of battery research moving away from high temperature systems toward ambient temperature lithium-based systems for the longer term, ANL has redirected its efforts toward the development of a lithium-polymer battery (60--80 C operation) and room temperature systems based on lithium-ion technologies. ANL`s lithium-polymer battery program is supported by the US Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), 3M and Hydro-Quebec, and the lithium-ion battery R and D efforts by US industry and by DOE.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Thackeray, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Depth of Discharge on Lead-Acid Battery Overcharge Requirements

Description: Proper charging is essential to achieve maximum performance and life of lead-acid batteries. Excessive overcharging gives rise to increased battery temperature, gassing rates, electrolyte maintenance, and component corrosion, whereas repeated undercharging causes a gradual decrease in battery capacity, which often becomes irreversible. To develop an optimal charge procedure, the relation between battery available capacity, applied overcharge, and the depth-of-discharge (DOD) level prior to charging needed to be established.
Date: February 1986
Creator: DeLuca, W. H. & Tummillo, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Operating Temperature on the Characteristics of Nickel/Iron Traction Batteries

Description: Performance of improved Ni/Fe electric vehicle batteries was measured at ambient temperatures of 0, 25, and 50 C for a range of overcharge levels, open-circuit stand times, and charge and discharge rates. Tests in which charges and discharges were performed at different battery operating temperatures showed that the discharge capacity of a Ni/Fe battery is directly related to its operating temperature, but its charge acceptance is decreased at 0 and 50 C by approx. 6% from that obtained at 25 C. The decline in battery efficiency at high temperatures is the result of increased self-discharge losses. In the first 0.5 h after charge, the Ah self-discharge loss at 50 C is twice (6%) that at 0 and 25 C (approx. 3%), corresponding to an increase in initial self-discharge rate from approx. 8 to 16 A. The increased self-discharge rate apparently occurs during the latter part of charging and, thereby, causes the 6% decline in charge acceptance. A decrease in battery efficiency also resulted at 50 C (6% coulombic and 4% energy efficiency loss) when the charge current was reduced from the 3-h to the 6-h rate. In comparison, low temperatures impact battery internal resistance and IR-free voltage more than high temperatures. For an increase in ambient temperature from 25 to 50 C, battery IR-free voltage increased less than 1% and battery resistance decreased only 3%. However, a decrease from 25 to 0 C resulted in a 2.3% decrease in IR-free voltage and about a 22% increase in resistance. The available capacity and operating efficiency of a Ni/Fe battery are maximal near 25 C. To maintain the same Ah capacity achieved at 25 C with a 20% overcharge, the overcharge must be doubled at 50 C (42%) and tripled at 0 C (60%). Test procedures and equipment are described, test data ...
Date: July 1986
Creator: DeLuca, W. H.; Biwer, R. L. & Tummillo, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Preliminary Estimate of the Manufacturing Cost for Lithium/Metal Sulfide Cells for Stationary and Mobile Applications

Description: A preliminary estimate has been made of the manufacturing cost for lithium/iron sulfide cells for stationary energy-storage and electric-vehicle applications. This preliminary cost analysis indicated that the manufacturing cost (in 1979 dollars) is $24 to 41/kW-h for stationary energy-storage cells and $31 to 55/kW-h for electric-vehicle cells. The materials cost was found to contribute between 52 and 65% of this manufacturing cost. The most expensive materials and components were lithium (metal and compounds), $4.61 to $14.26/kW-h; BN felt, $4.00 to 8.50/kW-h; feed-through components, $2.40/kW-h; positive current collectors, $1.48 to 2.20/kW-h; and aluminum, $1.43 to 1.66/kW-h. The projected lithium requirements were determined for use in lithium/iron sulfide batteries and conventional uses to the year 2006. The results showed that the lithium requirements were about 275,000 short tons by 2006, which is equivalent to about 51% of presently known US resources. Of this amount, about 33% would be used in battery production and 67% consumed in conventional uses. It is expected that the lithium used in battery production would be recycled.
Date: January 1980
Creator: Chilenskas, A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced batteries for electric vehicle applications

Description: A technology assessment is given for electric batteries with potential for use in electric powered vehicles. Parameters considered include: specific energy, specific power, energy density, power density, cycle life, service life, recharge time, and selling price. Near term batteries include: nickel/cadmium and lead-acid batteries. Mid term batteries include: sodium/sulfur, sodium/nickel chloride, nickel/metal hydride, zinc/air, zinc/bromine, and nickel/iron systems. Long term batteries include: lithium/iron disulfide and lithium- polymer systems. Performance and life testing data for these systems are discussed. (GHH)
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Henriksen, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AGEING PROCEDURES ON LITHIUM BATTERIES IN AN INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION CONTEXT

Description: The widespread introduction of electrically-propelled vehicles is currently part of many political strategies and introduction plans. These new vehicles, ranging from limited (mild) hybrid to plug-in hybrid to fully-battery powered, will rely on a new class of advanced storage batteries, such as those based on lithium, to meet different technical and economical targets. The testing of these batteries to determine the performance and life in the various applications is a time-consuming and costly process that is not yet well developed. There are many examples of parallel testing activities that are poorly coordinated, for example, those in Europe, Japan and the US. These costs and efforts may be better leveraged through international collaboration, such as that possible within the framework of the International Energy Agency. Here, a new effort is under development that will establish standardized, accelerated testing procedures and will allow battery testing organizations to cooperate in the analysis of the resulting data. This paper reviews the present state-of-the-art in accelerated life testing in Europe, Japan and the US. The existing test procedures will be collected, compared and analyzed with the goal of international collaboration.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Belt, Jeffrey R.; Bloom, Ira; Conte, Mario; Conte, Fiorentino Valerio; Morita, Kenji; Ikeya, Tomohiko et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing and Evaluation of Batteries for a Fuel Cell Powered Hybrid Bus

Description: Argonne National Laboratory conducted performance characterization and life-cycle tests on various batteries to qualify them for use in a fuel cell/battery hybrid bus. On this bus, methanol-fueled, phosphoric acid fuel cells provide routine power needs, while batteries are used to store energy recovered during bus braking and to produce short-duration power during acceleration. Argonne carried out evaluation and endurance testing on several lead-acid and nickel/cadmium batteries selected by the bus developer as potential candidates for the bus application. Argonne conducted over 10,000 hours of testing, simulating more than 80,000 miles of fuel cell bus operation, for the nickel/cadmium battery, which was ultimately selected for use in the three hybrid buses built under the direction of H-Power Corp.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Miller, J.F.; Webster, C.E.; Tummillo, A.F. & DeLuca, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of electronic, geometric, and surface properties on the mechanism of the electrochemical hydriding/dehydriding reactions

Description: Since 1990 there has been an ongoing collaboration among the authors to investigate the role of individual elements on the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydriding/dehydriding reactions. This review article presents the electrochemical and physicochemical characteristics of hydriding/dehydriding reactions from the point of view of their dependence on electronic, geometric and surface properties of the hydride materials. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) studies were based on AB{sub 5} type alloys, partially substituted by other elements. Expansion of the unit cell volume and a larger Ni d band vacancy are beneficial for increasing the amount of the hydrogen storage. XAS and SVET showed that the Ce substitution for La in an AB{sub 5} alloy enhances the lifetime of hydride electrode.
Date: March 1996
Creator: Srinivasan, S.; Zhang, W. & Kumar, M. P. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department