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A program to assess microbial impacts on nuclear waste containment

Description: In this paper we discuss aspects of a comprehensive program to identify and bound potential effects of microorganisms on long-term nuclear waste containment, using as examples, studies conducted within the Yucca Mountain Project. A comprehensive program has been formulated which cuts across standard disciplinary lines to address the specific concerns of microbial activity in a radioactive waste repository. Collectively, this program provides bounding parameters of microbial activities that modify the ambient geochemistry and hydrology, modify corrosion rates, and transport and transform radionuclides under conditions expected to be encountered after geological waste emplacement. This program is intended to provide microbial reaction rates and bounding conditions in a form that can be integrated into existing chemical and hydrological models. The inclusion of microbial effects will allow those models to more accurately assess long term repository integrity.
Date: February 20, 1996
Creator: Horn, J. & Meike, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Watershed assessment and in-stream monitoring

Description: This paper provides a brief introduction to fundamental issues for watershed and regional assessments and identifies the needs for physical, chemical, and biological monitoring and research to be designed and integrated to support such assessments. Regional management requires organizing paradigms or conceptual models, and an assessment framework can serve this purpose; risk assessment is used as an example. Spatial scale (watersheds and ecoregions) can also serve as a strong organizing paradigm for management The role of federal and state monitoring and assessment programs is discussed with examples for biomonitoring. The two classes of biomonitoring methods are discussed: ecological surveys and toxicity testing. Biological criteria can provide an appropriate reference for monitoring and assessment and can establish statistical and ecological (practical) significance. This paper is based on Chapter 5 of Water Environment Federation`s new book, Biomonitoring, in the Water Environment.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Hunsaker, C.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

Description: Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.
Date: August 31, 1997
Creator: Davis, C.E. & Janecek, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial ecology analysis - final report

Description: This work is intended to contribute to the foundations for formalizing industrial ecology analyses of energy systems (systems for energy generation, transfer. or transformation) and to examine how the tools for performing these analyses can also enhance the field of industrial ecology in other applications. We discuss requirements for studying materials and energy , cycling in industrial processes. with particular emphasis on energy generating systems, through explicit inclusion of entropy concepts in industrial ecology considerations. This perspective is intended to contribute to the theoretical basis for industrial ecology, to the development of tools for comparing the ecological (human and environmental health. and institutional) impacts of energy generating and other industrial processes, and to possible changes in engineering curricula with emphasis on design.
Date: October 19, 1998
Creator: Kastenberg, W.E. & Lowenthal, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vascular Plants of the Hanford Site

Description: This report provides an updated listing of the vascular plants present on and near the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. This document is an update of a listing of plants prepared by Sackschewdky et al. in 1992. Since that time there has been a significant increase in the botanical knowledge of the Hanford Site. The present listing is based on an examination of herbarium collections held at PNNL, at WSU-Tri Cities, WSU-Pullman, Brigham Young University, and The University of Washington, and on examination of ecological literature derived from the Hanford and Benton county areas over the last 100 years. Based on the most recent analysis, there are approximately 725 different plant species that have been documented on or around the Hanford Site. This represents an approximate 20% increase in the number of species reported within Sackschewsky et al. (1992). This listing directly supports DOE and contractor efforts to assess the potential impacts of Hanford Site operations.
Date: September 28, 2001
Creator: Sackschewsky, Michael R & Downs, Janelle L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Landscape ecosystems of the University of Michigan Biological Station: Ecosystem diversity and ground-cover diversity

Description: The aim of this research is to provide an understanding of the three-dimensional (air-earth-organism) units of the landscape of the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) that the author calls landscape ecosystem types, or simply ecosystems. Specifically, he has focused on the kinds, spatial location and patterns, and composition (physiography, soil, vegetation) of the local landscape ecosystem types of UMBS and Colonial Point. Future research on the functioning of these ecosystems together with inventories of their plant and animal life will add significantly to the landscape ecology research that has been initiated. A major reason for this research is to provide the conceptual basis and baseline data for understanding ecosystem change. Although it is popular to speak of climate change, entire ecosystems change; some components change faster than others.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Pearsall, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A preliminary survey of the National Wetlands Inventory as mapped for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

Description: Approximately 135 areas within the boundaries of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been mapped as wetland habitat as part of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). A preliminary survey of these wetlands was conducted to examine their general characteristics and status, to provide an estimation of relative ecological importance, to identify additional information needed to complete ecological characterization of important INEL wetlands, and to identify high priority wetland areas on the INEL. The purpose of the survey was to provide information to support the preparation of the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Information characterizing general vegetation, hydrology, wildlife use, and archaeology was collected at 105 sample sites on the INEL. Sites representing NWI palustrine, lacustrine, and riverine wetlands (including manmade), and areas unmapped or unclassified by the NWI were included in the sample. The field information was used to develop a preliminary ranking of relative ecological importance for each wetland visited during this survey. Survey limitations are identified.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Hampton, N.L.; Rope, R.C.; Glennon, J.M. & Moor, K.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain. Quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: More than 1100 bacterial isolates were obtained over a two year period from 31 springs in a region along the southern boarder of California and Nevada. Water samples were collected from 17 springs in Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and 14 springs in Death Valley National Park. Bacteria isolated from these samples were subjected to extraction and gas chromatography to determine the cellular fatty acid profile of each isolate. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) extracted from cell membranes were separated and classified using the Hewlett Packard by gas chromatography. The FAME profiles of each isolate were then subjected to cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages. During this quarter the relatedness of FAME patterns of bacterial isolates were examined at the genus level by counting the number of clusters produced in a MIDI dendrogram at a Euclidian distance of 25. This information was then used to determine microbiological relationships among springs.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Stetzenbach, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of Annual and Seasonal Variations in Four Species of Reptiles and Amphibians at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: Baseline studies of reptiles and amphibians of the Pajarito wetlands at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been conducted by the Ecology group since 1990. With the data gathered from 1990-1997 (excluding 1992), we examined the annual and seasonal population changes of four species of reptiles and amphibians over the past seven years. The four species studied are the Woodhouse toad (Bufo woodhousii), the western chorus frog (Pseudacris triseriata), the many-lined skink (Eunzeces nudtivirgatus), and the plateau striped whiptail lizard (Cnemidophorus velox). Statistical analyses indicate a significant change on a seasonal basis for the western chorus frog and the many-lined skink. Results indicate a significant difference in the annual population of the Woodhouse toad.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Keller, D.C.; Nelson, E.I.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S. & Haarmann, T.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diet of desert tortoises at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and implications for habitat reclamation

Description: The diet of desert tortoises at Yucca Mountain was assessed during 1992 to 1995 using a combination of feeding observations and scat analysis. Feeding observation data (1993 through 1995) showed that tortoises fed on a wide variety of items. The most frequently eaten items were forbs and annual grasses. These two forage groups comprised more than 90% of all bites taken. Analysis of scat (1992 and 1993) also showed that grasses and forbs were the most common groups, making up more than 80% of the composition of scat. Yearly differences between proportions of species in the diet were observed and were most likely attributable to differences in plant productivity, which is linked to rainfall patterns. Non-native species were an important component of the diet in all years, accounting for 13 to 50% of all bites observed and 6 to 24% of scat contents. A list of all items encountered in the diet is provided. To facilitate reclamation of desert tortoise habitat disturbed by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, native forage species that should be included in reclamation seed mixes, when feasible, were identified. Although shrubs make up only a small proportion of the diet, they should also be included in reclamation efforts because they provide habitat structure. Tortoise cover sites, and microhabitats amenable to seed germination and seedling establishment. In addition, non-native species should not be planted on reclaimed sites and, if necessary, sites should be recontoured and soil compaction reduced prior to planting.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Rakestraw, D. L.; Holt, E. A. & Rautenstrauch, K. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zooplankton data: Vertical distributions of zooplankton in the Norweigian and Greenland Seas during summer, 1989

Description: Recent studies of zooplankton populations in the Greenland Sea have focused on processes at the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) and the areas immediately adjacent to it under the ice and in open water. These studies have shown a relatively short period of intense secondary productivity which is closely linked temporally and spatially to phytoplankton blooms occurring near the ice edge in spring and early summer. During the summer of 1989 we participated in a project focusing on benthic and water column processes in the basins of the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. This study allowed us to compare biological processes at the MIZ with those occurring in the open waters of the Greenland Sea, and to compare processes at both of these locations with those in the Norwegian Sea. The data presented in this report are the results of zooplankton net tows covering the upper 1000 meters of the water column over the Norwegian Sea basin and the Greenland Sea basin, and the upper 500 meters of open water adjacent to the MIZ in the Greenland Sea. Sampling was conducted between 12 and 29 July 1989.
Date: August 1, 1993
Creator: Lane, P. V. Z.; Smith, S. L. & Schwarting, E. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of the Macrozooplankton within the Samples Taken at theMobile Site from November 1977 through November 1978:A Data Report of theLawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Description: This report brings together the results of a re-examination of zooplankton samples from the Mobile OTEC site (29{sup o}N-88{sup o}W) in the northern Gulf of Mexico for macrozooplankton larger than 15 mm. Five cruises were made to the Mobile OTEC site aboard the R/V Virginia Key. Cruise dates were: 17-20 November 1977; 27 February-2 March 1978; 9-17 June 1978; 15-24 August 1978; and 21 October-3 November 1978.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Steen, John & Gunter, Gordon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-year movement patterns of adult desert tortoises at Yucca Mountain

Description: We studied the home-range size and site fidelity of adult desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, during 1992-1994. Of 67 adult tortoises monitored at Yucca Mountain during this period, we evaluated the movements of 22 female and 16 male radiomarked tortoises that were located >50 times during each of the 1992, 1993, and 1994 activity seasons. We measured annual and three-year home range sizes by either 100% minimum convex polygon (MCP) or by 95% cluster.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Holt, E.A. & Rautenstrauch, K.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

Description: RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Cheng, Jing-Jy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

Description: During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Foxx, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

Description: Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.
Date: March 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Baseline tritium concentrations in soils and vegetation: The Tshirege woodland site at TA-54

Description: In compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, a preoperational environmental survey was conducted for the Tshirege woodland site--an experimental area managed by the Earth and Environmental Science Group (EES-15)--where radioactive tritium ({sup 3}H) will be injected ten cm deep in and around the base of pinyon (Pinus edulis) and one-seeded juniper (Juniperus monosperma) trees during the summer of 1990. The site is located at the lower end of Canada del Buey close to the intersection of Pajarito and State Road 4. Baseline values of {sup 3}H were measured in soil and plant samples from five locations immediately surrounding the study area. Mean values of {sup 3}H in soils collected from the 0--5 and 25--30 cm depths were 1.24 ({+-}0.22) and 1.08 ({+-}0.41) pCi mL{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Pinyon needles averaged 1.68 ({+-}0.18) pCi mL{sup {minus}1} and blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis) averaged 1.16 ({+-}0.95) pCi mL{sup {minus}1}.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Fresquez, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A survey of macromycete diversity at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bandelier National Monument, and Los Alamos County; A preliminary report

Description: The authors have completed a 5-year survey (1991--1995) of macromycetes found in Los Alamos County, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Bandelier National Monument. The authors have compiled a database of 1,048 collections, their characteristics, and identifications. The database represents 123 (98%) genera and 175 (73%) species reliably identified. Issues of habitat loss, species extinction, and ecological relationships are addressed, and comparisons with other surveys are made. With this baseline information and modeling of this baseline data, one can begin to understand more about the fungal flora of the area.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Jarmie, N. & Rogers, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Training Center Fort Irwin expansion area aquatic resources survey

Description: Biologists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were requested by personnel from Fort Irwin to conduct a biological reconnaissance of the Avawatz Mountains northeast of Fort Irwin, an area for proposed expansion of the Fort. Surveys of vegetation, small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and aquatic resources were conducted during 1995 to characterize the populations and habitats present with emphasis on determining the presence of any species of special concern. This report presents a description of the sites sampled, a list of the organisms found and identified, and a discussion of relative abundance. Taxonomic identifications were done to the lowest level possible commensurate with determining the status of the taxa relative to its possible listing as a threatened, endangered, or candidate species. Consultation with taxonomic experts was undertaken for the Coleoptera ahd Hemiptera. In addition to listing the macroinvertebrates found, the authors also present a discussion related to the possible presence of any threatened or endangered species or species of concern found in Sheep Creek Springs, Tin Cabin Springs, and the Amargosa River.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Cushing, C.E. & Mueller, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical and radiochemical background concentrations of geologic materials beneath Fermilab

Description: This document consists of a group of tables containing chemical and radiochemical analytical results of samples of geologic materials at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The results are for materials from ground surface to approximately 375 feet below ground surface. The results are from materials obtained from previously undisturbed areas and represent background values. Material for analyses were taken from boreholes drilled as part of the NuMI ground water monitoring network.
Date: June 23, 2000
Creator: Kesich, Paul M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Baseline mapping study of the Steed Pond aquifer and vadose zone beneath A/M Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

Description: This report presents the second phase of a baseline mapping project conducted for the Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) at Savannah River Site. The purpose of this second phase is to map the structure and distribution of mud (clay and silt-sized sediment) within the vadose zone beneath A/M Area. The results presented in this report will assist future characterization and remediation activities in the vadose zone and upper aquifer zones in A/M Area.
Date: January 27, 2000
Creator: Jackson, D.G. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SRS Geology/Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document

Description: The purpose of the Savannah River Site Geology and Hydrogeology Environmental Information Document (EID) is to provide geologic and hydrogeologic information to serve as a baseline to evaluate potential environmental impacts. This EID is based on a summary of knowledge accumulated from research conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and surrounding areas.
Date: August 31, 1999
Creator: Denham, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department