89 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Comparative Biochemistry and Evolution of Aspartate Transcarbamoylase from Diverse Bacteria

Description: Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) catalyzes the first committed step in pyrimidine biosynthesis. Bacterial ATCases are divided into three classes, A, B and C. Class A ATCases are largest at 450-500, are. dodecamers and represented by Pseudomonas ATCase. The overlapping pyrBC' genes encode the Pseudomonases ATCase, which is active only as a 480 kDa dodecamer and requires an inactive pyrC'-encoded DHOase for ATCase activity. ATCase has been studied in two non-pathogenic members of Mycobacterium, M. smegmatis and M. phlei. Their ATCases are dodecamers of molecular weight 480 kDa, composed of six PyrB and six PyrC polypeptides. Unlike the Pseudomonas ATCase, the PyrC polypeptide in these mycobacteria encodes an active DHOase. Moreover, the ATCase: DHOase complex in M. smegmatis is active both as the native 480 kDa and as a 390 kDa complex. The latter lacks two PyrC polypeptides yet retains ATCase activity. The ATCase from M. phlei is similar, except that it is active as the native 480 kDa form but also as 450,410 and 380 kDa forms. These complexes lack one, two, and three PyrC polypeptides, respectively. By contrast,.ATCases from pathogenic mycobacteria are active only at 480 kDa. Mycobacterial ATCases contain active DHOases and accordingly. are placed in class A1 . The class A1 ATCases contain active DHOases while class A2 ATCases contain inactive DHOases. ATCase has also been purified from Burkholderia cepacia and from an E. coli strain in which the cloned pyrB of B. cepacia was expressed. The B. cepacia ATCase has a molecular mass of 550 kDa, with two different polypeptides, PyrB (52 kDa) and PyrC of (39 kDa). The enzyme is active both as the native enzyme at 550 kDa and as smaller molecular forms including 240 kDa and 165 kDa. The ATCase synthesized by the cloned pyrB gene has a molecular weight of 165 kDa composed ...
Date: May 1999
Creator: Hooshdaran, Massoumeh Ziba
Partner: UNT Libraries

Adenylate Energy Charge Determinations of Soil Bacteria Grown in Soil Extract Medium

Description: The adenylate energy charge values of twenty bacteria isolated from soil and cultured in a medium consisting of soil and distilled water were determined by the luciferin-luciferase bioluminescense method. The purpose of this study was to examine the growth and energy charge values of these organisms in soil extract medium, and to determine what effect the addition of glucose has on their energy charge values. Three of the organisms employed in this study showed energy charge values similar to those reported for bacteria grown in enriched media. The remainder of the isolates demonstrated low energy charge values, and scant growth in the soil medium.
Date: August 1988
Creator: Rodriguez, Luis A. (Luis Antonio)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Role of α-Keto Acids In Cyanide Detoxification and Assimilation by Pseudomonas Bacteria

Description: Cyanide was rapidly removed when added to culture supernatants of seven different Pseudomonas. The ability to remove cyanide was correlated with the accumulation of α-keto acids (pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate). These compounds react with cyanide forming less toxic cyanohydrins, thus conferring a mechanism for bacterial cyanide tolerance. When added to growth media the α-keto acids were shown also to serve as effective cyanide antagonists. While all bacteria tested accumulated α-keto acids, only those capable of utilizing cyanide as a nutritional nitrogen source were able to metabolize cyanohydrins. In P. fluorescens NCIMB 11764, the same enzyme (cyanide oxygenase) shown previously to be involved in cyanide metabolism appears responsible for cyanohydrin transformation. Keto acid excretion is believed to represent a new mechanism of bacterial cyanide detoxification with further enzymatic metabolism of the cyanohydrins helping to explain how cyanide can satisfy the nitrogen requirement in cyanide-utilizing bacteria.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Pan, Guangliang
Partner: UNT Libraries

Isolation and Characterization of a New Capsule-Forming Bacterium

Description: A unique, previously undescribed Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from several soils in Texas and extensively characterized in this study. The cells measured 1-2 by 4-6 μm. The distinguishing characteristic of the bacterium is the extraordinary capsular material which surrounds the cells. The new isolates are aerobic, mesophilic, non motile and have the ability to utilize a variety of organic compounds as the sole source of carbon and energy. The organism grows optimally at 30° C and the optimal pH lies between 7.0-8.0. The isolates produce catalase but oxidase is not produced. They do not produce indole or hydrogen sulfide. The organism can hydrolyze gelatin and Tween 80 but not starch, esculin and casein. The major cellular fatty acid is anteiso 15:0. The guanine and cytosine content is 58-62 mole%. The organism's taxonomic position was further established by specific gene probes, 16S rRNA homology, DNA homology and "ribotyping." These data showed that it was most closely related to members of the genus Paenibacillus, although somewhat divergent from other species classified in this genus. After careful evaluation of the results obtained during this study, it is proposed that this unique bacterium be named Paenibacillus velasolus sp. nov.
Date: May 1999
Creator: Thongmee, Acharawan
Partner: UNT Libraries

Degradation of Phenolic Acids by Azotobacter Species Isolated from Sorghum Fields

Description: Sorghum plants excrete phenolic acids which reduce subsequent crop yields. These acids accumulate in field soil by combining with soil and clay particles to form stable complexes which remain until degraded by bacterial metabolism. The amount of phenolic acids in soil samples were obtained by gas chromatography measurements, while Azotobacter populations were obtained by plate counts in 40 sorghum field samples from Denton County, Texas. One can conclude that increasing the Azotobacter population in the soil increased the degradation rate of phenolic acids proportionally. It is proposed that seed inoculation will introduce selected strains of Azotobacter into the soil. The presence of Azotobacter should increase crop size in subsequent plantings.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Al-Hadhrami, Mohamed N. (Mohamed Nasser)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Pyrimidine Nucleoside Metabolism in Pseudomonads and Enteric Bacteria

Description: Metabolic differences in the strategies used for pyrimidine base and nucleoside salvage were studied in the pseudomonads and enteric bacteria. Fluoro--analogs were used to select mutant strains of E. coli, S. typhimurium, P. putida, and P. aeruginosa blocked in one or more of the uracil and uridine salvage enzymes. HPLC analysis of cell-free extracts from wild-type and mutant strains examined the effectiveness of the selections. Evidence was found for cytidine kinase in Pseudomonas and for an activity that converted uracil compounds to cytosine compounds. Using media supplemented with 150 μg of orotic acid per ml, P. putida SOC 1, a Pyr, upp mutant which utilizes orotic acid as a pyrimidine source was isolated for the first time in any study.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Scott, Allelia Worrall
Partner: UNT Libraries

DNA-DNA Hybridization of Methane Oxidizing Bacteria

Description: Bacteria classified in the family Methylomonadaceae must derive their carbon from one-carbon compounds. They are characterized by the possession of internal membranes of two types. Type I membranes are layered and fill the middle of the cells while type II membranes form concentric layers around the periphery of the cells. Also, there are two metabolic pathways by which the methylobacteria assimilate one-carbon compounds. Further evidence of this dichotomy was sought by DNA-DNA saturation hybridization of DNAs from both types of methylobacteria. Very low DNA-DNA homology was seen between types I and II or within the types. It was not possible, therefore, to correlate the degree of genetic relatedness with either the nature of the internal membranes or the pathway of carbon assimilation.
Date: December 1976
Creator: Ackerson, Jill W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Dielectric Properties of Azotobacter vinelandii in a Microwave Field

Description: A resonant frequency cavity was used to determine the dielectric properties of various preparations of Azotobacter vinelandii ATTC 12837. It was found that the bacteria investigated did interact with microwave radiation in the absence of free water. The data presented here indicate that bacteria demonstrate frequency specific dielectric properties. The techniques employed in these experiments may also be used to determine microwave spectra of other species of bacteria in different physiological stages.
Date: December 1978
Creator: Hargett, John M.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Nonphotochemical Hole-Burning Studies of Energy Transfer Dynamics in Antenna Complexes of Photosynthetic Bacteria

Description: This thesis contains the candidate's original work on excitonic structure and energy transfer dynamics of two bacterial antenna complexes as studied using spectral hole-burning spectroscopy. The general introduction is divided into two chapters (1 and 2). Chapter 1 provides background material on photosynthesis and bacterial antenna complexes with emphasis on the two bacterial antenna systems related to the thesis research. Chapter 2 reviews the underlying principles and mechanism of persistent nonphotochemical hole-burning (NPHB) spectroscopy. Relevant energy transfer theories are also discussed. Chapters 3 and 4 are papers by the candidate that have been published. Chapter 3 describes the application of NPHB spectroscopy to the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex from the green sulfur bacterium Prosthecochloris aestuarii; emphasis is on determination of the low energy vibrational structure that is important for understanding the energy transfer process associated within three lowest energy Q{sub y}-states of the complex. The results are compared with those obtained earlier on the FMO complex from Chlorobium tepidum. In Chapter 4, the energy transfer dynamics of the B800 molecules of intact LH2 and B800-deficient LH2 complexes of the purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila are compared. New insights on the additional decay channel of the B800 ring of bacteriochlorophyll{sub a} (BChl{sub a}) molecules are provided. General conclusions are given in Chapter 5. A version of the hole spectrum simulation program written by the candidate for the FMO complex study (Chapter 3) is included as an appendix. The references for each chapter are given at the end of each chapter.
Date: June 27, 2002
Creator: Matsuzaki, Satoshi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Structural studies of bacterial transcriptional regulatory proteins by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR

Description: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to elucidate detailed structural information for peptide and protein molecules. A small peptide was designed and synthesized, and its three-dimensional structure was calculated using distance information derived from two-dimensional NMR measurements. The peptide was used to induce antibodies in mice, and the cross-reactivity of the antibodies with a related protein was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Two proteins which are involved in regulation of transcription in bacteria were also studied. The ferric uptake regulation (Fur) protein is a metal-dependent repressor which controls iron uptake in bacteria. Two- and three-dimensional NMR techniques, coupled with uniform and selective isotope labeling allowed the nearly complete assignment of the resonances of the metal-binding domain of the Fur protein. NTRC is a transcriptional enhancer binding protein whose N-terminal domain is a {open_quote}receiver domain{close_quote} in the family of {open_quote}two-component{close_quote} regulatory systems. Phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain of NTRC activates the initiation of transcription of aeries encoding proteins involved in nitrogen regulation. Three- and four-dimensional NMR spectroscopy methods have been used to complete the resonance assignments and determine the solution structure of the N-terminal receiver domain of the NTRC protein. Comparison of the solution structure of the NTRC receiver domain with the crystal structures of the homologous protein CheY reveals a very similar fold, with the only significant difference being the position of helix 4 relative to the rest of the protein. The determination of the structure of the NTRC receiver domain is the first step toward understanding a mechanism of signal transduction which is common to many bacterial regulatory systems.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Volkman, B.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Determination of the Effects of Various Concentrations of Sodium Chloride upon the Growth of Three Species of Bacteria

Description: The problem in this investigation is to determine the effects of various concentrations of sodium chloride upon the growth of three species of bacteria. An effort has been made to solve this problem, not only by a study of the relevant literature, but also by laboratory research consisting of cultivation and observation of the three organisms which were arbitrarily chosen for this study.
Date: 1942
Creator: Davis, J. Floyd
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Quantitative and Qualitative Bacterial Analysis of Pecan Creek

Description: Since Pecan Creek receives sewage wastes from an obviously inadequate disposal system, it seemed possible that it could receive pathogenic bacteria. The fact that these might be present in numbers sufficient to cause epidemics, provided the proper natural vectors were present, stimulated an interest in and the pursuance of this study.
Date: 1946
Creator: Cook, Vernice
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Growth of Azotobacter vinelandii on p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid from Soil Medium

Description: The purpose of this study was to search for the substrates utilized by Azotobacter vinelandii in dialysed soil media. Also, we sought to determine the relationship between these substrates and the growth and morphological variations of A. vinelandii. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was shown to be used as the carbon and energy source by A. vinelandii in dialysed soil medium. The amount of this compound in the soil dialysed soil medium ranged from 14 to 21 micrograms per gram of soil. In a dialysed soil medium, p-hydroxybenzoic acid induced A. vinelandii to form minute bodies, similar to the filtrable forms reported by Gonzalez and Vela, although no growth of minute bodies was detected.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Wu, Fang Jy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Differences in Protein Constituents of Some Azotobacter Species

Description: This study used polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to study the acid-phenol soluble proteins of five strains (A. vinelandii 12837, A. vinelandii 0, A. chroococcum 8004, A. macrocytogenes 8702, A. tumefaciens) of bacteria grown on Burk's nitrogen-free media, Trypticase Soy Broth, and 0.3% butanol medium. The results showed that the protein patterns can be used for the identification and possibly the taxonomic classification of the Azotobacter. The change of phenotype of the bacteria in different media followed the change of protein quantity and quality. There was no absolute similarity between any two of the species studied and this suggests a genetically heterogenous group of organisms while the amount of common proteins suggests close genetic relationships. Further studies are necessary to confirm the status of A. tumefaciens.
Date: August 1975
Creator: Hsu, Li-Chu Yao
Partner: UNT Libraries

Colonial dissociation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Description: The studies reported herein indicate that, under the conditions commonly employed for cultivating Neisseria gonorrhoeae, colonial type T1 and T2 cultures of the organism dissociate to type T3 and T4 forms, and that this occurs both among populations of the organism grown in liquid media as well as in individual, well-isolated colonies grown on solid media.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Escamilla, Joel
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of the Bacterial Flora of Food Utensils in Hardin College Cafeteria and Twenty-Five Eating Establishments in Wichita Falls, Texas

Description: The problem of this thesis consists primarily of a bacteriological survey of the eating utensils of Hardin College Cafeteria and twenty-five other eating establishments in the city of Wichita Falls, Texas. This investigation was made primarily with reference to a determination of the possible presence of typhoid and related organisms, and secondarily to an investigation of the actual presence of those bacterial organisms associated with the more common outbreaks of food poisoning.
Date: 1949
Creator: Adams, Isaac Newton
Partner: UNT Libraries

Discovery of a thermophilic nitrogen fixing bacterium

Description: The thermophilic bacterium designated NT-7 was shown to reduce acetylene to ethylene att 35 C. It was found that the organism does not reduce acetylene when it is grown in Burk's medium with 0.3 per cent (w/v) NH4NO3. Reduction of acetylene in Burk's medium at this temperature.
Date: August 1977
Creator: Tabarya, Daniel
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Microbial Survey of Raw Ingredients Used in Finished Products at Kraft Foods Company, Garland, Texas

Description: The purpose of this investigation is to determine through routine checks the number of organisms present in the various raw ingredients used for the preparation of foods. The problem has consisted of, first, a determination of the total bacterial population by numbers; second, a determination of the incidence of colon bacteria in the samples examined; third, a determination of the presence of yeasts and molds; and fourth, an attempt to utilize this information obtained in judging the methods of handling the raw ingredients before they are used in the processing of foods.
Date: 1951
Creator: Langston, Clarence Walter, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Antibiotic Activities of Some Members of the Cactaceae Family

Description: This problem has been concerned with, first, the collection of sixteen species of plants belonging to Cactaceae family; second, the drying of these and the extraction of the oleoresins thereof; third, the determination of the extent to which these substances inhibit the growth of ten gram-positive and ten gram-negative bacterial organisms; and fourth, a determination of the possible utilization of these extracts a prophylactic or chemotherapeutic agents.
Date: 1951
Creator: Gilmore, Derward E.
Partner: UNT Libraries