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Random Density Inhomogeneities and Focusability of the Output Pulses for Plasma-based Powerful Backward Raman Amplifiers

Description: Random plasma density inhomogeneities may defocus the output pulses of powerful backward Raman amplifiers (BRA). Because of ultra-high intensities of even non-focused BRA outputs, such distortions, if occur, are then difficult to correct. We derive a simple expression for the largest BRA length for which the output pulse focusability is not yet spoiled. Interestingly, this limitation does not depend on the pump laser intensity. We also note a useful effect of plasma inhomogeneities that might help to suppress premature pump backscattering by thermal noise.
Date: January 21, 2003
Creator: Solodov, A. A.; Malkin, V. M. & Fisch, N. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Finite-duration Seeding Effects in Powerful Backward Raman Amplifiers

Description: In the process of backward Raman amplification (BRA), the leading layers of the seed laser pulse can shadow the rear layers, thus weakening the effective seeding power and affecting parameters of output pulses in BRA. We study this effect numerically and also analytically by approximating the pumped pulse by the ''*-pulse'' manifold of self-similar solutions. We determine how the pumped pulse projection moves within the *-pulse manifold, and describe quantitatively the effective seeding power evolution. Our results extend the quantitative theory of BRA to regimes where the effective seeding power varies substantially during the amplification. These results might be of broader interest, since the basic equations, are general equations for resonant 3-wave interactions.
Date: July 14, 2003
Creator: Yampolsky, N.A.; Malkin, V.M. & Fisch, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pump Side-scattering in Ultra-powerful Backward Raman Amplifiers

Description: Extremely large laser power might be obtained by compressing laser pulses through backward Raman amplification (BRA) in plasmas. Premature Raman backscattering of a laser pump by plasma noise might be suppressed by an appropriate detuning of the Raman resonance, even as the desired amplification of the seed persists with a high efficiency. In this paper, we analyze side-scattering of laser pumps by plasma noise in backward Raman amplifiers. Though its growth rate is smaller than that of backscattering, the side-scattering can nevertheless be dangerous, because of a longer path of side-scattered pulses in plasmas and because of an angular dependence of the Raman resonance detuning. We show that side-scattering of laser pumps by plasma noise in BRA might be suppressed to a tolerable level at all angles by an appropriate combination of two detuning mechanisms associated with plasma density gradient and pump chirp.
Date: March 2, 2004
Creator: A.A. Solodov, V.M. Malkin, and N.J. Fisch
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dynamic Volume Holography and Optical Information Processing by Raman Scattering

Description: A method of producing holograms of three-dimensional optical pulses is proposed. It is shown that both the amplitude and the phase profile of three-dimensional optical pulse can be stored in dynamic perturbations of a Raman medium, such as plasma. By employing Raman scattering in a nonlinear medium, information carried by a laser pulse can be captured in the form of a slowly propagating low-frequency wave that persists for a time large compared with the pulse duration. If such a hologram is then probed with a short laser pulse, the information stored in the medium can be retrieved in a second scattered electromagnetic wave. The recording and retrieving processes can conserve robustly the pulse shape, thus enabling the recording and retrieving with fidelity of information stored in optical signals. While storing or reading the pulse structure, the optical information can be processed as an analogue or digital signal, which allows simultaneous transformation of three-dimensional continuous images or computing discrete arrays of binary data. By adjusting the phase fronts of the reference pulses, one can also perform focusing, redirecting, and other types of transformation of the output pulses.
Date: September 5, 2002
Creator: Dodin,I.Y. & Fisch, N.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MeV-ion beam analysis of the interface between filtered cathodic arc-deposited a-carbon and single crystalline silicon

Description: Amorphous carbon (a-C) films were deposited on Si(100) wafers by a filtered cathodicvacuum arc (FCVA) plasma source. A negative electrical bias was applied tothe silicon substrate in order to control the incident energy of carbon ions. Effects ofthe electrical bias on the a-C/Si interface characteristics were investigated by usingstandard Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in the channeling modewith 2.1-MeV He2+ ions. The shape of the Si surface peaks of the RBS/channelingspectra reflects the degree of interface disorder due to atomic displacement fromthe bulk position of the Si crystal. Details of the analysis method developed aredescribed. It was found that the width of the a-C/Si interface increases linearlywith the substrate bias voltage but not the thickness of the a-C film.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Kamwanna, T.; Pasaja, N.; Yu, L.D.; Vilaithong, T.; Anders, A. & Singkarat, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced research capabilities for neutron science and technology: Neutron polarizers for neutron scattering

Description: The authors describe work on the development of polarized gaseous {sup 3}He cells, which are intended for use as neutron polarizers. Laser diode arrays polarize Rb vapor in a sample cell and the {sup 3}He is polarized via collisions. They describe development and tests of such a system at LANSCE.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Penttila, S. I.; Fitzsimmons, M. R. & Delheij, P. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Propagation and Backscattering of Soliton-Like Pulses in a Chain of Quartz Beads and Related Problems. (I). Propagation

Description: We confirm that for vanishingly small loading and large impact condition, it may be possible to generate solitons in a chain of grains that are characterized by Herkian contacts. For uniform or progressive loading conditions throughout the chain, one generates soft-solitons which are weakly dispersive in space and time. Under conditions of weak impact one generates acoustic pulses through the chain. We describe the displacements, velocities and accelerations suffered by the individual grains when subjected to solitons, soft-solitons and acoustic pulses and describe the effects of restitution on the propagating pulse.
Date: January 22, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RBS Study of a Dilute Alloy of Ga(99.8% at.):Bi(0.2% at.)

Description: This paper from the 2016 Conference on Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry conference proceedings describes an attempt to observe an atomic bismuth monolayer with Rutherford backscattering to demonstrate the surface concentration of the bismuth over the alloy in the bulk.
Date: October 26, 2017
Creator: Peterson, Randolph S.; Augustine, Carlyn N.; Beriont, Griffin G.; Farr, Aidan T.; Jenkins, William T. J.; Morris, Taylor A. et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Backscattering from Tunnels

Description: Low-frequency electromagnetic scattering from one or more tunnels in a lossy dielectric half-space is considered. The tunnel radii are assumed small compared to the wavelength of the electromagnetic field in the surrounding medium; a tunnel can thus be modeled as a thin scatterer, described by an equivalent impedance per unit length. We examine the normalized backscattering width for cases in which the air-ground interface is either smooth or rough.
Date: January 16, 2007
Creator: Casey, K & Pao, H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NLC photon collider option progress and plans

Description: The idea of producing beams of high energy photons by Compton backscattering of laser photons was proposed over 20 years ago. At the time, producing the required laser pulses was not feasible. However, recent advances in high average power, diode pumped lasers appear to have solved this problem. The US Collaboration is now turning its attention to the engineering requirement of mating the laser and optics components with the accelerator structures in the confined space of the a colliding beam interaction region. The demonstration of a technically feasible interaction region design is planned for the Snowmass conference in 2001.
Date: August 31, 2000
Creator: Gronberg, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The effects of backscattering upon self-absorption correction curves are demonstrated. Data are given for the backscattering powers of several substances for the beta radiations from C{sup 14}, and for se1f-absorption of samples of barium carbonate and wax, containing C{sup 14}, mounted on aluminum.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Yankwich, Peter E. & Weigl, John.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-dimensional elastic lidar winds

Description: Maximum cross-correlation techniques have been used with satellite data to estimate winds and sea surface velocities for several years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently using a variation of the basic maximum cross-correlation technique, coupled with a deterministic application of a vector median filter, to measure transverse winds as a function of range and altitude from incoherent elastic backscatter lidar data taken throughout large volumes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Hourly representations of three- dimensional wind fields, derived from elastic lidar data taken during an air-quality study performed in a region of complex terrain near Sunland Park, New Mexico, are presented and compared with results from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved laser doppler velocimeter. The wind fields showed persistent large scale eddies as well as general terrain following winds in the Rio Grande valley.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Buttler, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rutherford backscattering analysis of the failure of chlorine anodes

Description: Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry, carried out at the ORNL Surface Modification And Characterization Collaborative Research Center (SMAC) facility, has been applied to the nondestructive analysis of Ru02-Ti02 electrodes of 5000A, which mimic the DSA anodes in composition and the method of preparation. Occidental Chemical Corporation provided electrodes, which had been subjected to lifetime testing in H2S04 solution, for analysis by ORNL. The results were used to test the hypothesis of degradation of these, and similar electrodes, from a process involving a decrease in the Ru02:Ti02 ratio at and near the electrode surface and the related decrease in the electrode electrical conductivity. The drop in electrode activity is closely linked to a decrease in Ru content, and the measured profiles show that the loss takes place across the thin Ru02-Ti02 coating. No buildup of a pure Ti02 layer is apparent. The data agree quantitatively with the critical concentration previously reported by ORNL for materials produced by ion implantation and characterized by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Photoacoustic Spectrometry. The study has brought a better understanding of the degradation process in electrodes of great technological importance, and has given a more solid background in designing new fabrication procedures for improved electrodes.
Date: June 1996
Creator: Tilak, B. V. & Vallet, C. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-Rays

Description: Bomb Detection Using Backscattered X-rays* Currently the most common method to determine the contents of a package suspected of containing an explosive device is to use transmission radiography. This technique requires that an x-ray source and film be placed on opposite sides of the package. This poses a problem if the pachge is placed so that only one side is accessible, such as against a wall. There is also a threat to persomel and property since exTlosive devices may be "booby trapped." We have developed a method to x-ray a paclage using backscattered x-rays. This procedure eliminates the use of film behind the target. All of the detection is done from the same side as the source. When an object is subjected to x-rays, some of them iare scattered back towards the source. The backscattenng of x-rays is propordoml to the atomic number (Z) of the material raised to the 4.1 power. This 24"' dependence allows us to easily distinguish between explosives, wires, timer, batteries, and other bomb components. Using transmission radiography-to image the contents of an unknown package poses some undesirable risks. The object must have an x-ray film placed on the side opposite the x-ray source; this cannot be done without moving the package if it has been placed firmly against a wall or pillar. Therefore it would be extremely usefid to be able to image the contents of a package from only one side, without ever having to disturb the package itself. where E is the energy of the incoming x-ray. The volume of x-rays absorbed is important because it is, of course, directly correlated to the intensity of x-mys that will be scattered. Most of the x-rays that scatter will do so in a genemlly forward direction; however, a small percentage do scatter in a backward ...
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Jacobs, J.; Lockwood, G.; Selph, M; Shope, S. & Wehlburg, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast 3-D seismic modeling and prestack depth migration using generalized screen methods. Final report for period January 1, 1998 - December 31, 2000

Description: Completed a theoretical analysis of phase screen propagators to answer several critical questions: the existence of a singularity in the Green's function for the case of a zero vertical wavenumber, the stability and accuracy of such propagators, and the effects of backscattering for large contrast heterogeneous media. The theory is based on separating the wavefield into forescattering and backscattering parts. The approach is robust and appropriate for earth structures with high velocity contrast. This theory also resolves the apparent singularity problem that has persisted in generalized screen propagator formulations. With this formulation we studied the effects of the commonly used approximations as a function of the degree of velocity contrast in the media.
Date: March 31, 2001
Creator: Toksoz, M. Nafi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

''Magic'' Energies for Detecting Light Elements with Resonant Alpha Particle Backscattering

Description: Resonant backscattering is widely used to improve the detection limit of the light elements such as B, C, N and O. One disadvantage, however, is that several incident energies are normally needed if the sample contains a number of the light elements. There are ''magic'' energies at which several light elements can be detected simultaneously with suitable sensitivities. When these energies are used along with the elastic recoil detection of hydrogen, multiple elements can be detected without changing the beam energy, and the analysis time is greatly reduced. These reactions along with examples will be discussed.
Date: November 4, 1998
Creator: Wetteland, C.J.; Maggiore, C.J.; Tesmer, J.R.; He, X-M. & Lee, D-H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CART and GSFC Raman lidar measurements of atmospheric aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles for EOS validation and ARM radiation studies

Description: The aerosol retrieval algorithms used by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Multi-Angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) sensors on the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) AM-1 platform operate by comparing measured radiances with tabulated radiances that have been computed for specific aerosol models. These aerosol models are based almost entirely on surface and/or column averaged measurements and so may not accurately represent the ambient aerosol properties. Therefore, to validate these EOS algorithms and to determine the effects of aerosols on the clear-sky radiative flux, the authors have begun to evaluate the vertical variability of ambient aerosol properties using the aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Raman Lidars. Using the procedures developed for the GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL), the authors have developed and have begun to implement algorithms for the CART Raman Lidar to routinely provide profiles of aerosol extinction and backscattering during both nighttime and daytime operations. Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles are computed for both lidar systems using data acquired during the 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (IOPs). By integrating these aerosol extinction profiles, they derive measurements of aerosol optical thickness and compare these with coincident sun photometer measurements. They also use these measurements to measure the aerosol extinction/backscatter ratio S{sub a} (i.e. lidar ratio). Furthermore, they use the simultaneous water vapor measurements acquired by these Raman lidars to investigate the effects of water vapor on aerosol optical properties.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Ferrare, R.A.; Turner, D.D.; Melfi, S.H.; Evans, K.D.; Whiteman, D.N.; Schwemmer, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron backscatter diffraction: A powerful tool for phase identification in the SEM

Description: EBSD in the SEM has been developed into a tool that can provide identification of unknown crystalline phases with a spatial resolution that is better than one micrometer. This technique has been applied to a wide range of materials. Use of the HOLZ rings in the EBSD patterns has enabled the reduced unit cell to be determined from unidexed EBSD patterns. This paper introduces EBSD for phase identification and illustrates the technique with examples from metal joining and particle analysis. Reduced unit cell determination from EBSD patterns is then discussed.
Date: December 2, 1999
Creator: Michael, J.R. & Goehner, R.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department