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Some Relationships between Certain Aquatic Actinomycetes and Bacillus Cereus

Description: The purpose of this investigation is to determine if there was a metabolic relationship between the actinomycetes and the gram positive, spore-forming becilli in surface waters, and, if such a relationship was evident, to relate the association to the disappearances of typical actinomycete tastes and odors from waters.
Date: August 1963
Creator: Hoehn, Robert Campbell
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measurements of the Ultraviolet Fluorescence Cross Sections and Spectra of Bacillus Anthracis Simulants

Description: Measurements of the ultraviolet autofluorescence spectra and absolute cross sections of the Bacillus anthracis (Ba) simulants Bacillus globigii (Bg), Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Bacillus subtilis (Bs), and Bacillus cereus (Bc) were measured. Fluorescence spectra and cross sections of pine pollen (Pina echinata) were measured for comparison. Both dried vegetative cells and spores separated from the sporulated vegetative material were studied. The spectra were obtained by suspending a small number (<10) of particles in air in our Single Particle Spectroscopy Apparatus (SPSA), illuminating the particles with light from a spectrally filtered arc lamp, and measuring the fluorescence spectra of the particles. The illumination was 280 nm (20 nm FWHM) and the fluorescence spectra was measured between 300 and 450 nm. The fluorescence cross section of vegetative Bg peaks at 320 nm with a maximum cross section of 5 X 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle while the Bg spore fluorescence peaks at 310 nm with peak fluorescence of 8 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle. Pine pollen particles showed a higher fluorescence peaking at 355 nm with a cross section of 1.7 X 10{sup -13} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle. Integrated cross sections ranged from 3.0 X 10{sup -13} for the Bg spores through 2.25 X 10{sup -12} (cm{sup 2}/sr-particle) for the vegetative cells.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Stephens, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Responses of Bacillus subtilis Spores to Glutaraldehyde

Description: Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 19659) were damaged by exposure to various concentrations of glutaraldehyde, as shown by decreased germination rates. The damage caused was repaired or otherwise obviated by the presence of sodium lactate in the holding medium. When two different salts of lactic acid were compared for ability to overcome the effect of glutaraldehyde, it was found that calcium salt of lactate was more effective than the sodium salt. The damage repair system involved l-alanine, lactate and either the sodium or calcium ions. The study involved in determining the difference in efficiency of spore repair was due to an organic or an amino acii snowed that the presence of two carboxylic functional groups did not effectively alter the reactivity.
Date: May 1985
Creator: Crum, Morris G. (Morris Glenn)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Genetically Remote Pathogenic Strain NVH391-98 of the Bacillus cereus Group Represents the Cluster of Thermophilic Strains

Description: Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group are known to cause food poisoning. A rare phylogenetically remote strain, NVH391-98, was recently characterized to encode a particularly efficient cytotoxin K presumably responsible for food poisoning. This pathogenic strain and its close relatives can be phenotypically distinguished from other strains of the B. cereus group by the inability to grow at temperatures below 17 degrees C and by the ability to grow at temperatures from 48 to 53 degrees C. A temperate phage, phBC391A2, residing in the genome of NVH391-98 allows us to distinguish the three known members of this thermophilic strain cluster.
Date: October 2, 2007
Creator: Auger, Sandrine; Galleron, Nathalie; Bidnenko, Elena; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Lapidus, Alla & Sorokin, Alexei
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bacillus anthracis genome organization in light of whole transcriptome sequencing

Description: Emerging knowledge of whole prokaryotic transcriptomes could validate a number of theoretical concepts introduced in the early days of genomics. What are the rules connecting gene expression levels with sequence determinants such as quantitative scores of promoters and terminators? Are translation efficiency measures, e.g. codon adaptation index and RBS score related to gene expression? We used the whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing of a bacterial pathogen Bacillus anthracis to assess correlation of gene expression level with promoter, terminator and RBS scores, codon adaptation index, as well as with a new measure of gene translational efficiency, average translation speed. We compared computational predictions of operon topologies with the transcript borders inferred from RNA-Seq reads. Transcriptome mapping may also improve existing gene annotation. Upon assessment of accuracy of current annotation of protein-coding genes in the B. anthracis genome we have shown that the transcriptome data indicate existence of more than a hundred genes missing in the annotation though predicted by an ab initio gene finder. Interestingly, we observed that many pseudogenes possess not only a sequence with detectable coding potential but also promoters that maintain transcriptional activity.
Date: March 22, 2010
Creator: Martin, Jeffrey; Zhu, Wenhan; Passalacqua, Karla D.; Bergman, Nicholas & Borodovsky, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis AlHakam

Description: Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen that is widelyused as a biopesticide (3). Here we report the finished, annotated genomesequence of B. thuringiensis Al Hakam, which was collected in Iraq by theUnited Nations Special Commission (2).
Date: April 1, 2007
Creator: Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, Michael R.; Xie, Gary; Bhotika,Smriti S.; Brown, Nancy; Bruce, David et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixed Culture of Chlorella Pyrenoidosa TX71105 and a Variant Strain of Bacillus Megaterium

Description: Very little work has been done on bacteria capable of significantly inhibiting algal growth. This thesis reports the research on mixed cultures of a high-temperature strain of algae, Chlorella pyrenoidosa TX71105, and an organism isolated from the air and tentatively identified as a variant strain of Bacillus megaterium.
Date: August 1970
Creator: Yao, Raymond Che-Fong
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B. Thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis

Description: The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including B anthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.
Date: October 12, 2005
Creator: Han, C S; Xie, G; Challacombe, J F; Altherr, M R; Bhotika, S S; Bruce, D et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BIODEGRADATION OF PETROLEUM-WASTE BY BIOSURFACTANT-PRODUCING BACTERIA

Description: The degradation of petroleum waste by mixed bacterial cultures which produce biosurfactants: Ralstonia pickettii SRS (BP-20), Alcaligenes piechaudii SRS (CZOR L-1B), Bacillus subtilis (1'- 1a), Bacillus sp. (T-1) and Bacillus sp. (T'-1) was investigated. The total petroleum hydrocarbons were degraded substantially (91 %) by the mixed bacterial culture in 30 days (reaching up to 29 % in the first 72 h). Similarly, the toxicity of the biodegraded petroleum waste decreased 3 times after 30 days as compared to raw petroleum waste. Thus, the mixed bacterial strains effectively clean-up the petroleum waste and they can be used in other bioremediation processes.
Date: May 16, 2007
Creator: Brigmon, R.; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; Kamlesh Jangid, K.; Krystyna Lukasik, K; Grzegorz Nalecz-Jawecki, G & Topher Berry, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

Description: Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.
Date: September 14, 2005
Creator: Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Memory in Microbes: Quantifying History-Dependent Behavior in a Bacterium

Description: Memory is usually associated with higher organisms rather than bacteria. However, evidence is mounting that many regulatory networks within bacteria are capable of complex dynamics and multi-stable behaviors that have been linked to memory in other systems. Moreover, it is recognized that bacteria that have experienced different environmental histories may respond differently to current conditions. These"memory" effects may be more than incidental to the regulatory mechanisms controlling acclimation or to the status of the metabolic stores. Rather, they may be regulated by the cell and confer fitness to the organism in the evolutionary game it participates in. Here, we propose that history-dependent behavior is a potentially important manifestation of memory, worth classifying and quantifying. To this end, we develop an information-theory based conceptual framework for measuring both the persistence of memory in microbes and the amount of information about the past encoded in history-dependent dynamics. This method produces a phenomenologicalmeasure of cellular memory without regard to the specific cellular mechanisms encoding it. We then apply this framework to a strain of Bacillus subtilis engineered to report on commitment to sporulation and degradative enzyme (AprE) synthesisand estimate the capacity of these systems and growth dynamics to"remember" 10 distinct cell histories prior to application of a common stressor. The analysis suggests that B. subtilis remembers, both in short and long term, aspects of its cellhistory, and that this memory is distributed differently among the observables. While this study does not examine the mechanistic bases for memory, it presents a framework for quantifying memory in cellular behaviors and is thus a starting point for studying new questions about cellular regulation and evolutionary strategy.
Date: November 15, 2007
Creator: Wolf, Denise M.; Fontaine-Bodin, Lisa; Bischofs, Ilka; Price, Gavin; Keasling, Jay & Arkin, Adam P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROORGANISMS WITH IMPROVED TRANSPORT AND BIOSURFACTANT ACTIVITY FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

Description: Diverse microorganisms were screened for biosurfactant production and anaerobic growth at elevated salt concentrations to obtain candidates most suitable for microbial oil recovery. Seventy percent of the 205 strains tested, mostly strains of Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus sonorensis, produced biosurfactants aerobically and 41% of the strains had biosurfactant activity greater than Bacillus mojavensis JF-2, the current candidate for oil recovery. Biosurfactant activity varied with the percentage of the 3-hydroxy-tetradecanoate isomers in the fatty acid portion of the biosurfactant. Changing the medium composition by incorporation of different precursors of 3-hydroxy tetradecanoate increased the activity of biosurfactant. The surface tension and critical micelle concentration of 15 different, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains was determined individually and in combination with other biosurfactants. Some biosurfactant mixtures were found to have synergistic effect on surface tension (e.g. surface tension was lowered from 41 to 31 mN/m in some cases) while others had a synergistic effect on CMD-1 values. We compared the transport abilities of spores from three Bacillus strains using a model porous system to study spore recovery and transport. Sand-packed columns were used to select for spores or cells with the best transport abilities through brine-saturated sand. Spores of Bacillus mojavensis strains JF-2 and ROB-2 and a natural recombinant, strain C-9, transported through sand at very high efficiencies. The earliest cells/spores that emerged from the column were re-grown, allowed to sporulate, and applied to a second column. This procedure greatly enhanced the transport of strain C-9. Spores with enhanced transport abilities can be easily obtained and that the preparation of inocula for use in MEOR is feasible. Tertiary oil recovery experiments showed that 10 to 40 mg/l of JF-2 biosurfactant in the presence of 0.1 mM 2,3-butanediol and 1 g/l of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) recovered 10-40% of residual oil from Berea ...
Date: May 31, 2004
Creator: McInerney, M.J.; Youssef, N.; Fincher, T.; Maudgalya, S.K.; Folmsbee, M.J.; Knapp, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculating Confidence, Uncertainty, and Numbers of Samples When Using Statistical Sampling Approaches to Characterize and Clear Contaminated Areas

Description: This report discusses the methodology, formulas, and inputs needed to make characterization and clearance decisions for Bacillus anthracis-contaminated and uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas using a statistical sampling approach. Specifically, the report includes the methods and formulas for calculating the • number of samples required to achieve a specified confidence in characterization and clearance decisions • confidence in making characterization and clearance decisions for a specified number of samples for two common statistically based environmental sampling approaches. In particular, the report addresses an issue raised by the Government Accountability Office by providing methods and formulas to calculate the confidence that a decision area is uncontaminated (or successfully decontaminated) if all samples collected according to a statistical sampling approach have negative results. Key to addressing this topic is the probability that an individual sample result is a false negative, which is commonly referred to as the false negative rate (FNR). The two statistical sampling approaches currently discussed in this report are 1) hotspot sampling to detect small isolated contaminated locations during the characterization phase, and 2) combined judgment and random (CJR) sampling during the clearance phase. Typically if contamination is widely distributed in a decision area, it will be detectable via judgment sampling during the characterization phrase. Hotspot sampling is appropriate for characterization situations where contamination is not widely distributed and may not be detected by judgment sampling. CJR sampling is appropriate during the clearance phase when it is desired to augment judgment samples with statistical (random) samples. The hotspot and CJR statistical sampling approaches are discussed in the report for four situations: 1. qualitative data (detect and non-detect) when the FNR = 0 or when using statistical sampling methods that account for FNR > 0 2. qualitative data when the FNR > 0 but statistical sampling methods are used that assume ...
Date: April 27, 2013
Creator: Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Sego, Landon H. & Amidan, Brett G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Fluorescent Antibody Methods for the Enumeration and Identification of Bacillus Cereus

Description: This particular work is proposed as a test of the expedience of using the fluorescent-antibody technique as a method for enumeration and identification of certain strains of B. cereus that have been found to be effective in preventing taste and odor in water supplies resulting from certain Actinomycete blooms.
Date: August 1969
Creator: Ferebee, Robert Newton
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Novel Method for Accurate Operon Predictions in All SequencedProkaryotes

Description: We combine comparative genomic measures and the distance separating adjacent genes to predict operons in 124 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes. Our method automatically tailors itself to each genome using sequence information alone, and thus can be applied to any prokaryote. For Escherichia coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis, our method is 85 and 83% accurate, respectively, which is similar to the accuracy of methods that use the same features but are trained on experimentally characterized transcripts. In Halobacterium NRC-1 and in Helicobacterpylori, our method correctly infers that genes in operons are separated by shorter distances than they are in E.coli, and its predictions using distance alone are more accurate than distance-only predictions trained on a database of E.coli transcripts. We use microarray data from sixphylogenetically diverse prokaryotes to show that combining intergenic distance with comparative genomic measures further improves accuracy and that our method is broadly effective. Finally, we survey operon structure across 124 genomes, and find several surprises: H.pylori has many operons, contrary to previous reports; Bacillus anthracis has an unusual number of pseudogenes within conserved operons; and Synechocystis PCC6803 has many operons even though it has unusually wide spacings between conserved adjacent genes.
Date: December 1, 2004
Creator: Price, Morgan N.; Huang, Katherine H.; Alm, Eric J. & Arkin, Adam P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratory Studies on Surface Sampling of Bacillus anthracis Contamination: Summary, Gaps, and Recommendations

Description: This report summarizes previous laboratory studies to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing/transporting, processing, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis or related surrogates. The focus is on plate culture and count estimates of surface contamination for swab, wipe, and vacuum samples of porous and nonporous surfaces. Summaries of the previous studies and their results were assessed to identify gaps in information needed as inputs to calculate key parameters critical to risk management in biothreat incidents. One key parameter is the number of samples needed to make characterization or clearance decisions with specified statistical confidence. Other key parameters include the ability to calculate, following contamination incidents, the (1) estimates of Bacillus anthracis contamination, as well as the bias and uncertainties in the estimates, and (2) confidence in characterization and clearance decisions for contaminated or decontaminated buildings. Gaps in knowledge and understanding identified during the summary of the studies are discussed and recommendations are given for future studies.
Date: November 28, 2011
Creator: Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G. & Hu, Rebecca
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of pretreatments on surfactin production from potato process effluent by Bacillus subtilis

Description: Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.
Date: May 7, 2000
Creator: Thompson, D. N.; Fox, S. L. & Bala, G. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microbial Production of Isoprene

Description: Isoprene is a volatile hydrocarbon of unknown function, produced by certain bacteria, plants and animals, sometimes in huge amounts—the Earth’s forests are estimated to emit >500 x 106 tons of isoprene per year. With funding from this program we explored the biochemistry and regulation of isoprene formation in the model bacterial system, Bacillus subtilis, with the goals of explaining the biological rationale for isoprene biogenesis and constructing an isoprene-overproducing microbial system. Although the role for isoprene formation in B. subtilis is still uncertain, our current model for regulation of this hydrocarbon’s synthesis is that isoprene production in B. subtilis is controlled by a combination of i) rapid regulation of isoprene synthase activity and ii) supply of the substrate for isoprene synthase, dimethyallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). This model parallels our current thinking about the control of isoprene formation in plant chloroplasts. In this reporting period we have been working to test part ii) of this model; this work has produced new results using genetic and analytical approaches. For examples, we have developed an analytical method to resolve DMAPP and its isomer, isopentenyl diphosphate, from each other in bacteria and plants. We have also shown that the IPP isomerase (type 2) of B. subtilis is not the source of “isoprene synthase” activity, and discovered that B. subtilis releases C5 isoprenoid alcohols to the medium, suggesting that isoprene plus other C5 isoprenoids may be common by-products of metabolism. In addition, we have continued to work on our discovery that wild type B. subtilis strains form prolific biofilms, are normal components of plant root microflora, and are testing the idea that B. subtilis growing in biofilms uses isoprene to induce plant root exudation.
Date: July 29, 2007
Creator: Fall, Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department