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Advances in the theory of box integrals

Description: Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.
Date: June 25, 2009
Creator: Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M. & Crandall, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic Effects of Annually Diverting 131,000 Acre-Feet of Water from Dillon Reservoir, Central Colorado

Description: From abstract: because of the increased demands for water in eastern Colorado, principally in the urbanizing Denver metropolitan area, increased diversions of water from Dillon Reservoir are planned. Estimates of end-of-month storage in Dillon Reservoir, assuming the reservoir was in place and 131,000 acre-feet of water were diverted from the reservoir each year, were reconstructed by mass balance for the 1931-77 water years. Based on the analysis, the annual maximum end-of-month drawdown below the elevation at full storage would have been 171 feet.
Date: January 1979
Creator: Alley, W. M.; Bauer, D. P.; Veenhuis, J. E. & Brennan, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing of the TriP Chip Running at 132 nsec Using a Modified AFE Board

Description: In this note we describe the first set of tests done with a sample of TriP chips that were mounted on a modified AFE board. The modifications consisted of different firmware and the replacement of one power supply switch. The board used was a standard AFEIc board (red type) on which new MCMs (MCMIIs) were mounted. The new MCMs were designed to support the TriP and emulate the SVX for readout when mounted on an AFEIc board. The TriP and the MCMs are described in Ref. [1]. Two versions of the MCMII were designed and built: one (MCMIIb) supports two TriP chips wirebonded directly to the MCM substrate. The other, (MCMIIc) supports one TriP which can be either wirebonded directly or packaged into a standard TQFP surface mount package. Due to space constraints, this MCM can support only 1 TriP. We tested 6 TriP chips on 3 different MCMIIb (MCMIIb-1, MCMIIb-2 and MCMIIb-3) and 2 other TriPs were tested on MCMIIc, one of them with an unpackaged TriP (MCMIIc-1) and the other with a packaged TriP (MCMIIc-2). A set of 10 programable internal registers control the TriP operation, the description of these registers can be found in [1]. Table 1 shows the values used for the tests described in this note. In Ref. [1] there is a description of the signals that are needed to operate the TriP chip. We implemented in a Field Programable Gate Array (FPGA), also part of the MCM, a set of shift registers that allow us to download via the 1553 interface to the AFE board, any desired timing for the signals that the FPGA has to send to the TriP chip. These registers are run with a 121.21 MHz clock (which is 16x the crossing clock and phase locked to it), which means that ...
Date: December 19, 2003
Creator: al., Juan Estrada et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a RAMI Program for LANSCE upgrade

Description: Improvement of beam availability is a prime objective of the present LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center) Upgrade. A RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability) program is being developed to identify the most cost-effective improvements to achieve the availability goal. The beam-delivery system is divided into subsystems appropriate for the modeling of availability. The availability of each subsystem is determined from operation data and assessment of individual component designs. These availability data are incorporated in an availability model to predict the benefit of improvement projects to achieve cost-benefit prioritization. Examination of the data also identifies a comprehensive list of factors affecting availability. A good understanding of these factors using root-cause analysis is essential for availability improvement. This paper describes the RAMI program and the development of the availability model.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Chan, K.C.D.; Hutson, R.L.; Macek, R.J.; Tallerico, P.J. & Wilkinson, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen separation membranes - annual report for FY 2007.

Description: The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry.
Date: January 31, 2008
Creator: Chen, L.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eastern Seaboard Electric Grid Fragility Maps Supporting Persistent Availability

Description: Persistently available power transmission can be disrupted by weather causing power outages with economic and social consequences. This research investigated the effects on the national power grid from a specific weather event, Hurricane Irene, that caused approximately 5.7 million customer power outages along the Eastern Seaboard in August of 2011. The objective was to describe the geographic differences in the grid s vulnerability to these events. Individual factors, such as wind speed or precipitation, were correlated with the number of outages to determine the greatest mechanism of power failure in hopes of strengthening the future power grid. The resulting fragility maps not only depicted 18 counties that were less robust than the design-standard robustness model and three counties that were more robust, but also drew new damage contours with correlated wind speeds and county features.
Date: November 1, 2012
Creator: Walker, Kimberly A; Weigand, Gilbert G & Fernandez, Steven J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

Description: This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Denit, Jeffery & Planicka, J. Gregory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removal of Lattice Imperfections that Impact the Optical Quality of Ti:Sapphire using Advanced Magnetorheological Finishing Techniques

Description: Advanced magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques have been applied to Ti:sapphire crystals to compensate for sub-millimeter lattice distortions that occur during the crystal growing process. Precise optical corrections are made by imprinting topographical structure onto the crystal surfaces to cancel out the effects of the lattice distortion in the transmitted wavefront. This novel technique significantly improves the optical quality for crystals of this type and sets the stage for increasing the availability of high-quality large-aperture sapphire and Ti:sapphire optics in critical applications.
Date: February 26, 2008
Creator: Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J; Davis, P J; Ebbers, C A; Wolfe, J E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The ARAC client system: network-based access to ARAC

Description: The ARAC Client System allows users (such as emergency managers and first responders) with commonly available desktop and laptop computers to utilize the central ARAC system over the Internet or any other communications link using Internet protocols. Providing cost-effective fast access to the central ARAC system greatly expands the availability of the ARAC capability. The ARAC Client system consists of (1) local client applications running on the remote user's computer, and (2) ''site servers'' that provide secure access to selected central ARAC system capabilities and run on a scalable number of dedicated workstations residing at the central facility. The remote client applications allow users to describe a real or potential them-bio event, electronically sends this information to the central ARAC system which performs model calculations, and quickly receive and visualize the resulting graphical products. The site servers will support simultaneous access to ARAC capabilities by multiple users. The ARAC Client system is based on object-oriented client/server and distributed computing technologies using CORBA and Java, and consists of a large number of interacting components.
Date: July 12, 1999
Creator: Leach, M J; Sumikawa, D & Webster, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Complexity versus availability for fusion: The potential advantages of inertial fusion energy

Description: Probably the single largest advantage of the inertial route to fusion energy (IFE) is the perception that its power plant embodiments could achieve acceptable capacity factors. This is a result of its relative simplicity, the decoupling of the driver and reactor chamber, and the potential to employ thick liquid walls. We examine these issues in terms of the complexity, reliability, maintainability and, therefore, availability of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants and compare these factors with corresponding scheduled and unscheduled outage data from present day fission experience. We stress that, given the simple nature of a fission core, the vast majority of unplanned outages in fission plants are due to failures outside the reactor vessel itself Given we must be prepared for similar outages in the analogous plant external to a fusion power core, this puts severe demands on the reliability required of the fusion core itself. We indicate that such requirements can probably be met for IFE plants. We recommend that this advantage be promoted by performing a quantitative reliability and availability study for a representative IFE power plant and suggest that databases are probably adequate for this task.
Date: September 5, 1996
Creator: Perkins, L.J.,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jefferson Laboratory: Maintenance overview

Description: Maintenance, repair, and upgrades to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, a DOE laboratory located in Newport News, VA, USA, is based upon a two-week run cycle followed by a one-shift maintenance period. The rationale for this approach will be presented including a brief look at the maintenance funding, support staff, and beam availability. Means for improving the machine will be presented including record keeping of downtime, compilation of data, dissemination of findings, and allocation of resources. Maintenance problems facing Jefferson Lab will be presented.
Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: F.Suhring, Steve
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Firmware-only implementation of Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) in Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

Description: A Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) implemented in general purpose field-programmable gate array (FPGA) for the Fermilab CKM experiment will be presented. The TDC uses a delay chain and register array structure to produce lower bits in addition to higher bits from a clock counter. Lacking the direct controls custom chips, the FPGA implementation of the delay chain and register array structure had to address two major problems: (1) the logic elements used for the delay chain and register array structure must be placed and routed by the FPGA compiler in a predictable manner, to assure uniformity of the TDC binning and short-term stability. (2) The delay variation due to temperature and power supply voltage must be compensated for to assure long-term stability. They used the chain structures in the existing FPGAs that the venders designed for general purpose such as carry algorithm or logic expansion to solve the first problem. To compensate for delay variations, they studied several digital compensation strategies that can be implemented in the same FPGA device. Some bench-top test results will also be presented in this document.
Date: November 7, 2003
Creator: Wu, Jinyuan; Shi, Zonghan & Wang, Irena Y
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Utility green pricing programs: A statistical analysis of program effectiveness

Description: Development of renewable energy. Such programs have grown in number in recent years. The design features and effectiveness of these programs varies considerably, however, leading a variety of stakeholders to suggest specific marketing and program design features that might improve customer response and renewable energy sales. This report analyzes actual utility green pricing program data to provide further insight into which program features might help maximize both customer participation in green pricing programs and the amount of renewable energy purchased by customers in those programs. Statistical analysis is performed on both the residential and non-residential customer segments. Data comes from information gathered through a questionnaire completed for 66 utility green pricing programs in early 2003. The questionnaire specifically gathered data on residential and non-residential participation, amount of renewable energy sold, program length, the type of renewable supply used, program price/cost premiums, types of consumer research and program evaluation performed, different sign-up options available, program marketing efforts, and ancillary benefits offered to participants.
Date: February 1, 2004
Creator: Wiser, Ryan; Olson, Scott; Bird, Lori & Swezey, Blair
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEASURES OF DISTORTION IN POSSIBILISTIC APPROXIMATIONS OF CONSISTENT RANDOM SETS AND INTERVALS

Description: The availability of probability or possibility measures for random set (Dempster-Shafer evidence theoretical) structures are highly desirable. Probabilistic conditions involve disjointness or specificity, while possibilistic conditions involve consonance of the underlying focal elements. Consistency results in possibilistic distributions, but not measures, but then a unique approximation is available. Especially in random interval measurement situations, this condition is common. In this paper we develop some of the mathematical ideas necessary to develop a measure of the distortion introduced by this consonant approximation of a consistent random set.
Date: April 1, 2001
Creator: JOSLYN, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of AEO 2007 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX FuturesPrices

Description: On December 5, 2006, the reference case projections from 'Annual Energy Outlook 2007' (AEO 2007) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables play in mitigating such risk (see, for example, http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf). As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. As a refresher, our past work in this area has found that over the past six years, forward natural gas contracts (with prices that can be locked in--e.g., gas futures, swaps, and physical supply) have traded at a premium relative to contemporaneous long-term reference case gas price forecasts from the EIA. As such, we have concluded that, over the past six years at least, levelized cost comparisons of fixed-price renewable generation with variable-price gas-fired generation that have been based on AEO natural gas price forecasts (rather than forward prices) have yielded results that are 'biased' in favor of gas-fired generation, presuming that long-term price stability is valued. In this memo we simply update our past analysis to include the latest long-term gas price forecast from the EIA, as contained in AEO 2007. For the sake of brevity, we do not rehash information (on methodology, potential explanations for the premiums, etc.) contained in our earlier reports on this topic; readers interested in such information are encouraged to download that work from http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf. As was the case in the past six AEO releases (AEO 2001-AEO 2006), we ...
Date: December 6, 2006
Creator: Bolinger, Mark & Wiser, Ryan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tackling U.S. energy challenges and opportunities: preliminary policy recommendations for enhancing energy innovation in the United States

Description: The report offers preliminary recommendations for near-term actions to strengthen the U.S. effort to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies. The report comes as the Obama Administration and the 111th U.S. Congress face enormous challenges and opportunities in tackling the pressing security, economic, and environmental problems posed by the energy sector. Improving the technologies of energy supply and end-use is a prerequisite for surmounting these challenges in a timely and cost-effective way, and this report elaborates on how policy can support develop of these important energy technologies.
Date: February 18, 2009
Creator: Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew & Jones, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

Description: Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.
Date: March 28, 2005
Creator: Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi & Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Electron Lasers: Present Status and Future Prospects

Description: Free-electron lasers as scientific instruments are reviewed. The present status and future prospects are delineated with attention drawn to the size, complexity, availability, and performance capability of this new tool. The Free-Electron Laser (FEL) was proposed by John Madey in 1970 (1), although earlier work, relevant to the concept, had been performed by Motz (2) and by Phillips (3). Experimental demonstration was achieved by Madey, et. al. in 1975 and 1976 (4). Since that time, FELs of diverse configurations have been operated at several laboratories around the world. At present, FEL development is focused in two directions: in constructing reliable FELs for scientific research and in extending FEL capability to vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) and even shorter wavelengths. In this article we shall only very briefly review the principles of an FEL, putting emphasis on those aspects that limit performance, after which we shall discuss the applications, present status and future prospects of FELs. Much material that we wish to present is in the form of Tables, and they are an essential part of this article.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Kim, K.-J. & Sessler, Andrew M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department