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Asia-Pacific energy database

Description: Statistical data is presented in graphic and tabular form on the petroleum market in Asia and Pacific nations. Seven major categories are reported: (1) primary energy production and consumption; (2) historical petroleum product demand and forecasts; (3) crude oil production and exports; (4) import dependence; (5) crude and product pricing assumptions; (6) market share of refined products by suppliers in selected countries; and (7) refining margins. Petroleum demand and forecasts and crude oil production and exports are reported by country. Historical data are presented from 1970 through 1996, and forecasts are made through 2010.
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A basis of settlement: Economic foundations of permanent pioneer communities. [Lunar settlement]

Description: High transport costs will dominate the pattern of lunar development. During the earliest phases, when lunar facilities consist of a research and resource development complex with staff serving tours of a few months, transport costs will encourage local production of food, fuel, and building materials. Once these capabilities are in place and the number of personnel grows to a few hundred, staff rotation might well dominate transport budgets. At that point it would make economic sense to encourage some members of staff to become permanent residents. By analogy with early British settlement in Australia, a vigorous private sector economy could emerge if the lunar organization provided quasi-export earning through its role as the community's major employer and as the major buyer of locally-produced goods. By providing such a market for goods and services, the lunar organization would not only provide a means whereby permanent residents would support themselves but could also accelerate the process of replacing imported goods with local manufactures, thereby reducing the cost of operations. By analogy with recent Alaskan experience, if the resource development activity started making money from sales to orbital customers, severance taxes and/or royalty payments could also provide means by which a lunar community could support itself.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Jones, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sedimentation of the basal Kombolgie Formation (Upper Precambrian-Carpentarian) Northern Territory, Australia: possible significance in the genesis of the underlying Alligator Rivers unconformity-type uranium deposits

Description: The 1400 to 1500 My old Kombolgie Formation of the MacArthur Basin of the Northern Territory overlies or has overlain unconformity-type uranium deposits including Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek and the small deposits of the South Alligator River Valley. A brief study of the basal portion of the formation showed it to consist entirely of mature conglomerates and quartzose sandstones. Analysis of the bedding types (planar cross beds, trough cross beds and parallel beds) and other sedimentary structures (mainly ripple marks and parting lineation) fit a braided alluvial plain model. A paleocurrent study utilizing about 400 measurements from nine localities located along the westward-facing 250 kilometer-long erosional escarpment of the Arnhem Land Plateau showed the dominant paleocurrent trend to be from west and northwest towards the east and southeast, with local divergence. The data and interpretation presented are relevant to the supergene model of uranium deposition at the unconformity, for they add to the suggestion that additional uranium deposits similar to Jabiluka Two may underlie the Kombolgie Formation eastward from the present escarpment.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Ojakangas, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy research and development profile of Australia

Description: Australia is a large, sparsely populated country with an economy based traditionally on raw materials exports. Though still a major international trader in minerals and agricultural products, Australia has suffered a decline in productivity, employment, exports, and economic growth since the 1950s. Most energy research and development (R and D) and policymaking activities are carried out under the National Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (NERDD) program. The NERDD program priorities include, among others, production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas and oil and gas exploration, assessment, and recovery technology (high priority); production of liquid fuels from coal and oil shale by hydrogenation or pyrolysis, coal gasification, and achievement of cost reductions in coal and oil shale exploration and assessment techniques (medium priority); and in-situ coal gasification (low priority). Bilateral agreements for energy R and D with other countries are carried out under the Australian Department of National Development and Energy. Australia currently has agreements related to oil, gas, shale, and coal liquids R and D with the UK, the US, Japan, and West Germany.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Kenkeremath, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Possible variations on the calcrete-gypcrete uranium model

Description: Genetic models and favorability criteria for calcrete and gypcrete uranium deposits based upon Yeelirrie and other occurrences in Western Australia and upon Langer Henirich and others in Namibia-South West Africa are summarized. Viable analogues of these world-class deposits have not yet been found in USA even though several of the favorable conditions occur in the southwest. A principal deterrent to economic concentration has been tectonic instability. But even in the most favorable areas it is not clear that climates have ever been sufficiently similar to that of the valley-calcrete region of Western Australia. Extensive, thick valley (nonpedogenic) calcretes such as those which host the carnotite in Australia and in Namibia have not been documented here. Nevertheless, submarginal occurrances of carnotite have been found in southwestern United States in small bodies of nonpedogenic and mixed pedogenic-nonpedogenic calcrete. Much of the study is based upon occurrences of carnotite-bearing calcrete and calcrete-gypcrete in the Republic of South Africa. Several of these are described briefly. Some reference is also made to new occurrences and to new data on previously described occurrences on the Namib Desert. Possible variations on the Western Australian and Namibia-South West Africa models which are considered are capillary rise of U in solution, addition of new uraniferous sediment over a calcrete, lateral access of U into a pedogenic calcrete, reworking of U from a weekly mineralized pedogenic calcrete or gypcrete into a new or reconstituted calcrete, or into an unrelated environment for fixation of U.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Carlisle, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal energy exploitation in New Zealand

Description: The essential factors, human and technical, which control the operation of geothermal systems, particularly those which allow prediction of behavior during and after exploitation, are sketched. The strategy and co-ordination involved in using New Zealand's geothermal resources for power production are considered. The broader aspects of the technical matters involved in the design of the parasitic plant reservoir system are described. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Elder, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discrete fracture simulations of the hydrogeology at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia

Description: The US Department of Energy is studying the Alligator Rivers Natural Analogue Project site at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia to investigate and simulate radionuclide migration in fractured rocks. Discrete fracture simulations were conducted within a cubic volume (180-m edge length) of fractured Cahill Formation schist oriented with one major axis parallel to the trend of the Koongarra Fault. Five hundred fractures are simulated within this domain. The fractures have a mean orientation parallel to the idealized plane of the Koongarra Fault dipping 55{degrees} SE. Simple flow modeling of this fracture network was conducted by assigning constant head boundaries to upgradient and downgradient vertical faces of the cube, which trend parallel to the fault. No-flow boundaries were assigned to all other faces. The fracture network allows hydraulic communication across the block, in spite of relatively low fracture density across the block.
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Smoot, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Handbook on surficial uranium deposits. Chapter 3. World distribution relative to climate and physical setting

Description: This chapter discusses regional controls which affect the world distribution of surficial chemogenic uranium deposits. The most important of these are (1) climate, (2) geomorphology, including physiographic and climatic stability, and (3) provenance, i.e., the weathering terrain from which uranium and associated substances are derived. The three economically important environments are the calcrete environment, simple evaporative environments and paludal environments. Of these three categories, the calcrete uranium environment is probably the most uniquely constrained in terms of regional climate, geomorphic setting, provenance (vanadium as well as uranium) and especially the need for long term stability of both climate and physiography. Purely evaporative deposits, though subject to some of the same kinds of constraints, can also reflect local circumstances and a wider range of climates, physiographic settings, and source terrains. The third category encompassing bogs, marshes and organic-rich playas can form under an even wider range of climates and settings provided only that organic materials accumulate in abundance and are contacted by uranium-bearing waters. For all of these reasons and also because of the great economic importance of the calcrete environment as well as its relative novelty and complexity the discussion in this chapter is focused on calcrete, dolocrete and gypcrete uranium deposits. Objective data are reviewed first follwed by inferences and suggestions. 13 figures.
Date: unknown
Creator: Carlisle, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

Description: The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.
Date: November 22, 1991
Creator: Johnson, C.J. & Long, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

Description: The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Wallace, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental and economic effects of subsidence: Category 4, Project 1. Final report

Description: A list of more than 70 subsidence areas was screened to select those areas which seemed to have the best potential for providing reliable data. The screening process is described in an appendix. Nine areas were selected for detailed case studies to collect all available data on the environmental and economic effects of the subsidence. Available information from the subsidence areas not selected as case studies was tabulated for each area and is included in an appendix. The nine case study areas are: Arizona; San Joaquin Valley, California; Baldwin Hills, California; Santa Clara Valley, California; Wilmington, California; Las Vegas Valley, Nevada; Houston-Galveston area, Texas; Mexico City, Mexico; and Wairakei, New Zealand. (MHR)
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Viets, V.F.; Vaughan, C.K. & Harding, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Areas of ground subsidence due to geofluid withdrawal

Description: Detailed information is provided on four geothermal areas with histories of subsidence. These were selected on the basis of: physical relevance of subsidence areas to high priority US geothermal sites in terms of withdrawn geofluid type, reservoir depth, reservoir geology and rock characteristics, and overburden characteristics; and data completeness, quality, and availability. The four areas are: Chocolate Bayou, Raft River Valley, Wairakei, and the Geysers. (MHR)
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Grimsrud, G.P.; Turner, B.L. & Frame, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal hydrogen sulfide and health in Rotorua, New Zealand

Description: Rotorua, New Zealand, lies inside a volcanic caldera. Natural steam is extensively used for space and water heating, and electric power generation. This report presents results of a preliminary reconnaissance survey of atmospheric H/sub 2/S levels in the area and attempts to relate these levels to health statistics in the region. 5 refs., 8 tabs. (ACR)
Date: February 15, 1984
Creator: Siegel, S.M. & Siegel, B.Z.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

Description: Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)
Date: January 6, 1978
Creator: Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O. & Lunt, O.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Search for other natural fission reactors

Description: Precambrian uranium ores have been surveyed for evidence of other natural fission reactors. The requirements for formation of a natural reactor direct investigations to uranium deposits with large, high-grade ore zones. Massive zones with volumes approximately greater than 1 m/sup 3/ and concentrations approximately greater than 20 percent uranium are likely places for a fossil reactor if they are approximately greater than 0.6 b.a. old and if they contained sufficient water but lacked neutron-absorbing impurities. While uranium deposits of northern Canada and northern Australia have received most attention, ore samples have been obtained from the following worldwide locations: the Shinkolobwe and Katanga regions of Zaire; Southwest Africa; Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; the Jabiluka, Nabarlek, Koongarra, Ranger, and El Sharana ore bodies of the Northern Territory, Australia; the Beaverlodge, Maurice Bay, Key Lake, Cluff Lake, and Rabbit Lake ore bodies and the Great Bear Lake region, Canada. The ore samples were tested for isotopic variations in uranium, neodymium, samarium, and ruthenium which would indicate natural fission. Isotopic anomalies were not detected. Criticality was not achieved in these deposits because they did not have sufficient /sup 235/U content (a function of age and total uranium content) and/or because they had significant impurities and insufficient moderation. A uranium mill monitoring technique has been considered where the ''yellowcake'' output from appropriate mills would be monitored for isotopic alterations indicative of the exhumation and processing of a natural reactor.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Apt, K.E.; Balagna, J.P.; Bryant, E.A.; Cowan, G.A.; Daniels, W.R. & Vidale, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of market structure on international coal trade

Description: This paper is concerned with the determinants of international steam-coal trade. Most work in projecting coal trade has been either qualitative (a consensus of experts) or, if quantitative, has been based on competitive spatial-equilibrium models. Unfortunately, the competitive model of trade does not appear to account for observed and anticipated trade flows. This is consistent with findings in the commodity trade literature that, although markets may behave in a rational economic fashion, market concentration among producers, traders, and consumers leads to trade patterns significantly different than those associated with competitive markets. The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance and effect on patterns of steam-coal trade of several deviations from the simple competitive model. In addition to perfect competition, we examine monopoly (South Africa) and duopoly (South Africa, Australia) with a competitive fringe (US, Canada, Poland, China and Columbia). Using a simple equilibrium model of coal trade, we examine these market structures and evaluate the extent to which they can explain existing and anticipated trade patterns.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Kolstad, C.D. & Abbey, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DHE (downhole heat exchangers). [Downhole Heat Exchangers (DHE)]

Description: The use of downhole heat exchangers (DHE) for residential or commercial space and domestic water heating and other applications has several desirable features. Systems are nearly or completely passive -- that is, no or very little geothermal water or steam is produced from the well either reducing or completely eliminating surface environmental concerns and the need for disposal systems or injection wells. Initial cost of pumps and installation are eliminated or reduced along with pumping power costs and maintenance costs associated with pumping often corrosive geothermal fluids. Many residential and small commercial systems do not require circulating pumps because the density difference in the incoming and outgoing sides of the loop are sufficient to overcome circulating friction losses in the entire system. The major disadvantage of DHEs is their dependence on natural heat flow. In areas where geological conditions provide high permeability and a natural hydraulic gradient, DHEs can provide a substantial quantity of heat. A single 500-ft (152 m) well in Klamath Falls, Oregon, supplies over one megawatt thermal and output is apparently limited by the surface area of pipe that can be installed in the well bore. In contrast, DHEs used in conjunction with heat pumps may supply less than 8 KW from a well of similar depth. Here output is limited by conductive heat flow with perhaps a small contribution from convection near the well bore. The highest capacity DHE reported to date, in Turkey, supplies 6 MW thermal from an 820-ft (250 m) well. There were two main goals for this project. The first was to gather, disseminate and exchange internationally information on DHES. The second was to perform experiments that would provide insight into well bore/aquifer interaction and thereby provide more information on which to base DHE designs. 27 refs., 31 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Culver, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of pressure, enthalpy and CO/sub 2/ transients in well BR21, Ohaaki, New Zealand

Description: Numerical studies are undertaken, which incorporate both double porosity and noncondensible gas effects, to determine the characteristics of the reservoir near well BR21 of Ohaaki geothermal field, New Zealand. It is shown that the application of numerical techniques to analyze two-phase well data can provide valuable information that may not otherwise be obtained. Numerical techniques allow more of the true reservoir complexities to be included, further constraining the results. The model developed adequately matches observed pressure, enthalpy and flowing CO/sub 2/ mass fraction while providing estimates of important reservoir parameters.
Date: June 1, 1987
Creator: Gaulke, S.W. & Bodvarsson, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OTEC thermal resource report for Dampier Land, Australia

Description: The region off Dampier Land, Australia was selected for study as a potential OTEC site. The region examined was between 13--18/sup 0/ South latitude and 118--121/sup 0/ East longitude. Data coverage was sparse, but the existing data demonstrated a fine potential for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) use. The maximum temperature gradient remains relatively stable throughout the year. The annual average ..delta..T at 1000 meters is 22.6/sup 0/C. At 600 meters, an annual average ..delta..T greater than 20/sup 0/C is obtainable. The continental shelf off Dampier Land is very wide; thus, the distance to water 1500 meters deep may be as much as 480 kilometers (260 nautical miles). Water 1000 meters deep lies at least 265 kilometers (143 nautical miles) offshore. This distance is a major problem, perhaps necessitating the use of a plant ship. Tropical storms can be a problem between December and April. The ocean off Dampier Land has an upper mixed layer throughout the year. Currents are generally moderate, although the surface circulation pattern changes during the year.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Wolff, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazardous waste management and pollution prevention

Description: The management of hazardous wastes is one of the most critical environmental issues that faces many developing countries. It is one of the areas where institutional control and treatment and disposal technology has not kept pace with economic development. This paper reviews the development of hazardous waste management methods over the past decades, and provides the information on the status and trends of hazardous waste management strategy in selected western nations. Several issues pertinent to hazardous waste management will be reviewed, including: (1) definition of hazard; (2) why are we concerned with hazardous wastes; (3) aspects of hazardous waste management system; and (4) prioritization of hazardous waste management options. Due to regulatory and economic pressure on hazardous waste management, pollution prevention has become a very important environmental strategy in many developed countries. In many developed countries, industry is increasingly considering such alternative approaches, and finding many opportunities for their cost effective implementation. This paper provides a review of the status and trends of pollution prevention in selected western nations.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Chiu, Shen-yann.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal resource base of the world: a revision of the Electric Power Research Institute's estimate

Description: Review of the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) method for calculating the geothermal resource base of a country shows that modifications are needed for several of the assumptions used in the calculation. These modifications include: (1) separating geothermal belts into volcanic types with a geothermal gradient of 50{sup 0}C/km and complex types in which 80% of the area has a temperature gradient of 30{sup 0}C/km and 20% has a gradient of 45{sup 0}C/km, (2) using the actual mean annual temperature of a country rather than an assumed 15{sup 0}C average ambient temperature, and (3) making separate calculations for the resource stored in water/brine and that stored in rock. Comparison of this method (Revised EPRI) for calculating a geothermal resource base with other resource base estimates made from a heat flow map of Europe indicates that the technique yields reasonable values. The calculated geothermal resource bases, stored in water and rock to a depth of 5 km, for each country in the world are given. Approximately five times as much energy is stored in rock as is stored in water.
Date: April 1, 1981
Creator: Aldrich, M.J.; Laughlin, A.W. & Gambill, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of the technical specifications of the geothermal power plants in the world: revision 1. Report no. CATMEC/21

Description: Worldwide geothermal power plant installed capacity is listed by country with year of startup. Tables containing technical data are given for each of the geothermal power units installed in the world and for some of those under construction or in planning. The data cover the primary mechanical areas of the power station including the turbine, condenser, gas extraction system, and heat extraction system. In the case of plants which are in the planning stage or under construction, the plant design specifications are listed but must be viewed as preliminary. (MHR)
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: DiPippo, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department