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Improved Austenitic Steels for Power Plant Applications

Description: Using alloy design principles, an austenitic alloy, with base composition of Fe-16Cr-16Ni-2Mn-1Mo (in weight percent, wt%), was formulated to which up to 5 wt% Si and/or Al were added specifically to improve the oxidation resistance. Cyclic oxidation tests were carried out in air at 700 and 800 C for 1000 hours. For comparison, Fe-18Cr-8Ni type-304 stainless steel alloys was also tested. The results showed that at 700 C, all the alloys were twice as oxidation resistant as the type-304 alloy (i.e., the experimental alloys showed weight gains about half that of type-304). Surprisingly, at 800 C, alloys that contained both Al and Si additions were less oxidation resistant than the type-304 alloy. However, alloys containing only Si additions were significantly more oxidation resistant than the type 304 alloys (i.e., showed weight gains 4 times less than the type-304 alloy). Further, alloys with only Si additions pre-oxidized at 800 C, showed zero weight gain in subsequent testing for 1000 hours at 700 C. This implies the potential for producing in-situ protective coating for these alloys. Preliminary exposure tests (1%H2S at 700 C for 360 hrs) indicated that the Si-modified alloys are more sulfidation resistant than type-304 alloy. The mechanical properties of the alloys, modified with carbide forming elements, were also evaluated; and at 600, 700 and 800 C the yield stresses of the carbide modified alloys were twice that of type-304 stainless steel. In this temperature range, the tensile properties of these alloys were comparable to literature values for type-347 stainless steel. It should be emphasized that the microstructures of the carbide forming alloys were not optimized with respect to grain size, carbide size and/or carbide distribution. Also, presented are initial results of vari-strain weld tests used to determine parameters for joining these alloys.
Date: August 6, 2002
Creator: Alman, David E.; Dunning, John S.; Schrems, Karol K.; Rawers, James C.; Wilson, Rick D.; Hawk, Jeffrey A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of nanometer-scale precipitation in a rapidly solidified stainless steel

Description: The authors have rapid-solidification-processed many stainless steels by gas atomization and achieved strength improvements of over 50% relative to conventionally-processed stainless steels with concomitant improvement in corrosion and oxidation behavior. These strength improvements are most pronounced after aging treatments when elevated concentrations of oxygen and vanadium are present in the stainless steel. An austenitic (FCC) stainless steel was prepared by gas atomization and consolidated by hot extrusion at 900 C. These specimens were heat treated for 1 hour at 1,000 C and aged at 600 C for 500 hours. The microstructure of each alloy composition was observed in TEM with bright field imaging. After aging, most alloys showed the same precipitate morphology as before aging. An obvious change, however, was found only in the alloy with highest oxygen content. A high number density of 15 to 20 nm diameter precipitates was measured in this alloy. Moreover, with weak-beam dark field imaging, a very high number density of coherent, 6 to 10 nm diameter precipitates is observed throughout the matrix by Moire fringe contrast. An atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM) investigation showed that FIM provides high contrast imaging the precipitates. In order to get a more global view of the structure, energy-filtered composition imaging on a LEO EM 912 was used to map the oxygen and nitrogen in carbon extraction replicas of the aged specimens. These images confirm that the 18 nm precipitates are oxides, however, it appears that the 8 nm precipitates are not extracted.
Date: March 21, 1997
Creator: Wisutmethangoon, S.; Kelly, T.F.; Camus, P.P.; Flinn, J.E.; Larson, D.J. & Miller, M.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Unlimited Damage Accumulation in Metallic Materials Under Cascade-Damage Conditions

Description: Most experiments on neutron or heavy-ion cascade-produced irradiation of pure metals and metallic alloys demonstrate unlimited void growth as well as development of the dislocation structure. In contrast, the theory of radiation damage predicts saturation of void swelling at sufficiently high irradiation doses and, accordingly, termination of accumulation of interstitial-type defects. It is shown in the present paper that, under conditions of steady production of one-dimensionally (1-D) mobile clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in displacement cascades, any one of the following three conditions can result in indefinite damage accumulation. First, if the fraction of SIAs generated in the clustered form is smaller than some finite value of the order of the dislocation bias factor. Second, if solute, impurity or transmuted atoms form atmospheres around voids and repel the SIA clusters. Third, if spatial correlations between voids and other defects, such as second-phase precipitates and dislocations, exist that provide shadowing of voids from the SIA clusters. The driving force for the development of such correlations is the same as for void lattice formation and is argued to be always present under cascade-damage conditions. It is emphasised that the mean-free path of 1-D migrating SIA clusters is typically at least an order of magnitude longer than the average distance between microstructural defects; hence spatial correlations on the same scale should be taken into consideration. A way of developing a predictive theory is discussed. An interpretation
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Barashev, Aleksandr & Golubov, Stanislav I
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the Eight Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials

Description: Objective of the meeting was to conduct R and D on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The work is divided into ceramics, new alloys, corrosion, and technology assessment/transfer. The 39 papers are arranged under the session headings: ceramics, ceramics and new alloys, and intermetallics and advanced austenitics; a workshop on new materials development and applications is summarized briefly. The papers are processed separately for the data base.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Cole, N. C. & Judkins, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ITER breeding blanket design

Description: A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Gohar, Y.; Cardella, A.; Ioki, K.; Lousteau, D.; Mohri, K.; Raffray, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Tritium Performance of Alloy 22-13-5

Description: Previously published studies of the performance of high strength austenitic steels and superalloys in tritium have demonstrated significant shortcomings in toughness and sensitivity to decay helium in the metal matrix. The alloy 22Cr-13Ni-5Mn exhibits high cracking thresholds in hydrogen, and promising performance in tritium-charged and aged smooth tensile specimens. It is readily forged to strengths beyond 690 MPa, and is commercially available. The tensile performance of 22-13-5 is compared to that of 21-6-9 and JBK-75. Aspects of a development program are outlined.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: Robinson, Steven L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced nondestructive examination technologies for measuring fatigue damage in nuclear power plant components

Description: This paper presents recent results from an ongoing project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop advanced nondestructive methods to characterize the aging degradation of nuclear power plant pressure boundary components. One of the advanced methods, positron annihilation, is being developed for in situ characterization of fatigue damage in nuclear power plant piping and other components. This technique can detect and correlate the microstructural changes that are precursors of fatigue cracking in austenitic stainless steel components. In fact, the initial INEL test results show that the method can detect fatigue damage in stainless steel ranging from a few percent of the fatigue life up to 40 percent.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N. & Akers, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomistic simulation of the hydrogen-induced fracture process in an iron-based superalloy

Description: Austenitic superalloys exhibit dramatic reductions in ductility and crack growth resistance when high fugacity hydrogen and hydrogen-producing environments trigger a change in fracture mode from microvoid coalescence to slip band and intergranular fracture. Of particular importance is the change to intergranular fracture. We have therefore combined the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) with Monte Carlo simulations and molecular dynamics calculations to help define the effects of hydrogen on segregation and fracture at the atomic level. Nickel was used to simulate the face-centered-cubic austenite lattice while symmetric and asymmetric {sigma}9 tilt boundaries were used to simulate grain boundaries. These simulations show that grain boundaries are strong trap sites for hydrogen. They further show that hydrogen dramatically reduces the bond strength between atoms at grain boundary sites while inhibiting dislocation generation.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Moody, N.R.; Foiles, S.M.; Baskes, M.I. & Angelo, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A guide for the ASME code for austenitic stainless steel containment vessels for high-level radioactive materials

Description: The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for high-level radioactive materials containment vessels used in packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code provides material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing specifications for nuclear power plant components. However, many of the requirements listed in the Code are not applicable to containment vessels made from austenitic stainless steel with austenitic or ferritic steel bolting. Most packaging designers, engineers, and fabricators are intimidated by the sheer volume of requirements contained in the Code; consequently, the Code is not always followed and many requirements that do apply are often overlooked during preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that constitutes the basis to evaluate the packaging for certification.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Raske, D.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Phase transformations and microstructure development in low alloy steel welds

Description: Microstructure development in low alloy steel welds depends on various phase transformations that are a function of weld heating and cooling. The phase changes include non-metallic oxide inclusion formation in the liquid state, weld pool solidification, and solid state transformations. In this paper the mechanism of inclusion formation during low alloy steel welding is considered and the model predictions are compared with published results. The effect of inclusions on the austenite to ferrite transformation kinetics is measured and the mechanisms of transformation are discussed. The austenite gain development is related to the driving force for transformation of {delta} ferrite to austenite.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Babu, S.S.; David, S.A. & Vitek, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct Observation of Phase Transformations in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds Using In-situ Spatially Resolved and Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction

Description: Spatially resolved x-ray diffraction (SRXRD) and time resolved x-ray diffraction (TRXRD) were used to investigate real time solid state phase transformations and solidification in AISI type 304 stainless steel gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds. These experiments were conducted at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) using a high flux beam line. Spatially resolved observations of {gamma} {leftrightarrow} {delta} solid state phase transformations were performed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of moving welds and time-resolved observations of the solidification sequence were performed in the fusion zone (FZ) of stationary welds after the arc had been terminated. Results of the moving weld experiments showed that the kinetics of the {gamma}{yields}{delta} phase transformation on heating in the HAZ were sufficiently rapid to transform a narrow region surrounding the liquid weld pool to the {delta} ferrite phase. Results of the stationary weld experiments showed, for the first time, that solidification can occur directly to the {delta} ferrite phase, which persisted as a single phase for 0.5s. Upon solidification to {delta}, the {delta} {yields} {gamma} phase transformation followed and completed in 0.2s as the weld cooled further to room temperature.
Date: September 23, 1999
Creator: Elmer, J.; Wong, J. & Ressler, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High resolution interface nanochemistry and structure. Progress report, December 1, 1994--November 30, 1995

Description: Progress is described in the following research areas concerned with high resolution interface nanochemistry and structure: ceramic interfaces and grain boundaries; metal/alpha (6H)-SiC(0001) interfaces; oxygen distributions in monolithic silicon carbide; SiC/nitride and metal on nitride interfaces; and interface synthesis.
Date: August 15, 1995
Creator: Carpenter, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials. Fossil Energy AR and TD Materials Program

Description: Objective of the AR&TD Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The 37 papers are arranged into 3 sessions: ceramics, new alloys/intermetallics, and new alloys/advanced austenitics. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Date: July 1, 1993
Creator: Cole, N. C. & Judkins, R. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boron Addition to Model Austenitic Steels and void Nucleation

Description: Fe-15Cr-16Ni, -0.25Ti, -500appmB, and -0.25Ti-500appmB have been irradiated in FFTF/MOTA over a wide range of dose rate which covers more than two orders difference in magnitude, within the very limited temperature range of 387-444 C. The effects of dose rate and boron addition on swelling are examined. Lower dose rates increase the swelling by shortening the incubation dose for swelling. Addition of boron does not significantly change the swelling nor the dose rate dependence of swelling for both the ternary and Ti-modified alloy. The helium pressure of cavities is found to be much smaller than the surface tension at every irradiation condition including the lowest dose and dose rate, helium generated by boron transmutant does not play any role in cavity formation in this experiment. Cavities form without helium. The difference in cavity morphology by boron addition is most likely caused by formation of borides and by lithium.
Date: October 30, 2003
Creator: Okita, T; Wolfer, W G; Garner, F A & Sekimura, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transformation plasticity in ductile solids. Annual progress report, June 1, 1993--May 31, 1994

Description: Research has addressed the role of martensitic transformation plasticity in the enhancement of toughness in high-strength austenitic steels, and the enhancement of formability in multiphase low-alloy sheet steels. In the austenitic steels, optimal processing has achieved a significant increase in strength level, in order to investigate the interaction of strain-induced transformation with the microvoid nucleation and shear localization mechanisms operating at ultrahigh strength levels. The degree of transformation interaction is sensitive to both strength level and degree of constraint. The stress-state dependence of transformation and fracture mechanisms has been investigated in model alloys, comparing behavior in uniaxial tension and blunt-notch tension specimens. A reformulated numerical constitutive model for transformation plasticity has allowed a more thorough analysis of transformation/fracture interactions, including local processes of microvoid nucleation. Processing of a new low alloy steel composition has been optimized to stabilize retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation after intercritical annealing. Results show a good correlation of uniform ductility with the austenite amount and stability, and new compositions are designed for improved stability.
Date: April 1, 1994
Creator: Olson, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fatigue of ferritic and austenitic steels. Final technical report, June 1, 1984--July 31, 1991

Description: One aim of this research program has been to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue crack growth as influenced by such parameters as the specific material, crack length, R-ratio, overloads, temperature and the environment. A second objective has been to utilize this understanding in the development of semi-empirical quantitative methods for the prediction of fatigue crack growth behavior. Although there are still many questions remaining concerning fatigue crack growth, we feel that some significant progress in meeting these two objectives has been made.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: McEvily, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Irradiation creep at temperatures of 400 {degrees}C and below for application to near-term fusion devices

Description: To study irradiation creep at 400{degrees}C and below, a series of six austenitic stainless steels and two ferritic alloys was irradiated sequentially in two research reactors where the neutron spectrum was tailored to produce a He production rate typical of a fusion device. Irradiation began in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor; and, after an atomic displacement level of 7.4 dpa, the specimens were moved to the High Flux Isotope Reactor for the remainder of the 19 dpa accumulated. Irradiation temperatures of 60, 200, 330, and 400{degrees}C were studied with internally pressurized tubes of type 316 stainless steel, PCA, HT 9, and a series of four laboratory heats of: Fe-13.5Cr-15Ni, Fe-13.5Cr-35Ni, Fe-1 3.5Cr-1 W-0.18Ti, and Fe-16Cr. At 330{degrees}C, irradiation creep was shown to be linear in fluence and stress. There was little or no effect of cold-work on creep under these conditions at all temperatures investigated. The HT9 demonstrated a large deviation from linearity at high stress levels, and a minimum in irradiation creep with increasing stress was observed in the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary alloys.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Grossbeck, M.L.; Gibson, L.T. & Mansur, L.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced austenitic alloys for fossil power systems. CRADA final report

Description: In 1993, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ABB Combustion Engineering t examine advanced alloys for fossil power systems. Specifically, the use of advanced austenitic stainless steels for superheater/reheater construction in supercritical boilers was examined. The strength of cold-worked austenitic stainless steels was reviewed and compared to the strength and ductility of advanced austenitic stainless steels. The advanced stainless steels were found to retain their strength to very long times at temperatures where cold-worked standard grades of austenitic stainless steels became weak. Further, the steels exhibited better long-time stability than the stabilized 300 series stainless steels in either the annealed or cold worked conditions. Type 304H mill-annealed tubing was provided to ORNL for testing of base metal and butt welds. The tubing was found to fall within range of expected strength for 304H stainless steel. The composite 304/308 stainless steel was found to be stronger than typical for the weldment. Boiler tubing was removed from a commercial boiler for replacement by newer steels, but restraints imposed by the boiler owners did not permit the installation of the advanced steels, so a standard 32 stainless steel was used as a replacement. The T91 removed from the boiler was characterized.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Swindeman, R.W.; Cole, N.C.; Canonico, D.A. & Henry, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal stability of high temperature structural alloys

Description: High temperature structural alloys were evaluated for suitability for long term operation at elevated temperatures. The effect of elevated temperature exposure on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a number of alloys was characterized. Fe-based alloys (330 stainless steel, 800H, and mechanically alloyed MA 956), and Ni-based alloys (Hastelloy X, Haynes 230, Alloy 718, and mechanically alloyed MA 758) were evaluated for room temperature tensile and impact toughness properties after exposure at 750 C for 10,000 hours. Of the Fe-based alloys evaluated, 330 stainless steel and 800H showed secondary carbide (M{sub 23}C{sub 6}) precipitation and a corresponding reduction in ductility and toughness as compared to the as-received condition. Within the group of Ni-based alloys tested, Alloy 718 showed the most dramatic structure change as it formed delta phase during 10,000 hours of exposure at 750 C with significant reductions in strength, ductility, and toughness. Haynes 230 and Hastelloy X showed significant M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide precipitation and a resulting reduction in ductility and toughness. Haynes 230 was also evaluated after 10,000 hours of exposure at 850, 950, and 1050 C. For the 750--950 C exposures the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides in Haynes 230 coarsened. This resulted in large reductions in impact strength and ductility for the 750, 850 and 950 C specimens. The 1050 C exposure specimens showed the resolution of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} secondary carbides, and mechanical properties similar to the as-received solution annealed condition.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Jordan, C.E.; Rasefske, R.K. & Castagna, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-pressure tritium equipment

Description: Some solutions to problems of compressing and containing tritium gas to 200 MPa at 700 K are discussed The principal emphasis is on commercial compressors and high-pressure equipment that can be modified easily by the researcher for safe use with tritium. Experience with metal belows and diaphragm compressors has been favorable. Selection of materials, fittings and gauges for high- pressure tritium work also is reviewed briefly.
Date: December 31, 1976
Creator: Coffin, D.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metal cutting simulation of 4340 steel using an accurate mechanical description of meterial strength and fracture

Description: Strength and fracture constitutive relationships containing strain rate dependence and thermal softening are important for accurate simulation of metal cutting. The mechanical behavior of a hardened 4340 steel was characterized using the von Mises yield function, the Mechanical Threshold Stress model and the Johnson- Cook fracture model. This constitutive description was implemented into the explicit Lagrangian FEM continuum-mechanics code EPIC, and orthogonal plane-strain metal cutting calculations were performed. Heat conduction and friction at the toolwork-piece interface were included in the simulations. These transient calculations were advanced in time until steady state machining behavior (force) was realized. Experimental cutting force data (cutting and thrust forces) were measured for a planning operation and compared to the calculations. 13 refs., 6 figs.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Maudlin, P.J. & Stout, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of Microstructure Evolution in Austenitic Stainless Steels Irradiated Under Light Water Reactor Conditions

Description: A model for the development of microstructure during irradiation in fast reactors has been adapted for light water reactor (LWR) irradiation conditions (275 {approximately} 325 C, up to {approximately}10 dpa). The original model was based on the rate-theory, and included descriptions of the evolution of both dislocation loops and cavities. The model was modified by introducing in-cascade interstitial clustering, a term to account for the dose dependence of this clustering, and mobility of interstitial clusters. The purpose of this work was to understand microstructural development under LWR irradiation with a focus on loop nucleation and saturation of loop density. It was demonstrated that in-cascade interstitial clustering dominates loop nucleation in neutron irradiation in LWRS. Furthermore it was shown that the dose dependence of in-cascade interstitial clustering is needed to account for saturation behavior as commonly observed. Both quasi-steady-state (QSS) and non-steady-state (NSS) solutions to the rate equations were obtained. The difference between QSS and NSS treatments in the calculation of defect concentration is reduced at LWR temperature when in-cascade interstitial clustering dominates loop nucleation. The mobility of interstitial clusters was also investigated and its impact on loop density is to reduce the nucleation term. The ultimate goal of this study is to combine the evolution of microstructure and microchemistry together to account for the radiation damage in austenitic stainless steels.
Date: November 30, 1998
Creator: Gan, J.; Stoller, R.E. & Was, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent developments in the study of phase stability of austenitic stainless steels and its relation to properties

Description: Much work has been done over the years in alloy development of stainless steels and in the characterization of stainless steel microstructures and properties. However, in recent years there have been significant new advances made, and insights gained, into the physical metallurgy of these materials. In particular, advanced techniques have led to new information on the phase stability of stainless steels and the influence of the phase stability on mechanical properties. This paper will highlight some of these new advances, with an emphasis on work that has been done at ORNL on these alloys. For stainless steel alloys, the phase stability can be influenced by several factors. They include solidification behavior, the ferrite/austenite solid-state transformation, other high temperature phase transformations, and low temperature phase transformations. Recent advances in theoretical and experimental methods have led to new developments in understanding and characterizing these factors. Advanced solidification theory has been applied to understand the influence of rapid solidification on phase formation during solidification. New thermodynamic evaluation methods have shown great potential in providing details on the overall phase stability, including details on the influence of composition on phase stability. finite-difference techniques have been applied to the stainless steel alloy system to gain much insight into the ferrite/austenite transformation behavior. Finally, advanced techniques such as analytical electron microscopy, atom probe field ion microscopy, nano-indentation techniques, and specimen miniaturization techniques have provided valuable information on the response of stainless steel microstructures and properties to thermal treatment. All of these new methods and approaches are described in detail in this presentation.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Vitek, J.M. & David, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department