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Uranium in Petroleum and Rock Asphalt

Description: The following report summarizes briefly current knowledge of the association of uranium with petroleum and asphalts and presents analytical data compiled during the course of investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The primary concern of this paper is focused on uranium and petroleum and natural asphalts.
Date: September 1957
Creator: Bell, Kenneth G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles

Description: We analyze the solar reflectance of asphalt roofing shingles that are covered with pigmented mineral roofing granules. The reflecting surface is rough, with a total area approximately twice the nominal area. We introduce a simple analytical model that relates the 'micro-reflectance' of a small surface region to the 'macro-reflectance' of the shingle. This model uses a mean field approximation to account for multiple scattering effects. The model is then used to compute the reflectance of shingles with a mixture of different colored granules, when the reflectances of the corresponding mono-color shingles are known. Simple linear averaging works well, with small corrections to linear averaging derived for highly reflective materials. Reflective base granules and reflective surface coatings aid achievement of high solar reflectance. Other factors that influence the solar reflectance are the size distribution of the granules, coverage of the asphalt substrate, and orientation of the granules as affected by rollers during fabrication.
Date: February 17, 2008
Creator: Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Jacobs, Jeffry & Klink, Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products

Description: The widespread use of solar-reflective roofing materials can save energy, mitigate urban heat islands and slow global warming by cooling the roughly 20% of the urban surface that is roofed. In this study we created prototype solar-reflective nonwhite concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing materials using a two-layer spray coating process intended to maximize both solar reflectance and factory-line throughput. Each layer is a thin, quick-drying, pigmented latex paint based on either acrylic or a poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic blend. The first layer is a titanium dioxide rutile white basecoat that increases the solar reflectance of a gray-cement concrete tile from 0.18 to 0.79, and that of a shingle surfaced with bare granules from 0.06 to 0.62. The second layer is a 'cool' color topcoat with weak near-infrared (NIR) absorption and/or strong NIR backscattering. Each layer dries within seconds, potentially allowing a factory line to pass first under the white spray, then under the color spray. We combined a white basecoat with monocolor topcoats in various shades of red, brown, green and blue to prepare 24 cool color prototype tiles and 24 cool color prototypes shingles. The solar reflectances of the tiles ranged from 0.26 (dark brown; CIELAB lightness value L* = 29) to 0.57 (light green; L* = 76); those of the shingles ranged from 0.18 (dark brown; L* = 26) to 0.34 (light green; L* = 68). Over half of the tiles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.40, and over half of the shingles had a solar reflectance of at least 0.25.
Date: November 20, 2009
Creator: Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Wood, Kurt; Skilton, Wayne & Petersheim, Jerry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996

Description: OAK A271 Rockwell International Hot Laboratory decontamination and dismantlement interim progress report 1987-1996. The Rockwell International Hot Laboratory (RIHL) is one of a number of former nuclear facilities undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) at the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The RIHL facility is in the later stages of dismantlement, with the final objective of returning the site location to its original natural state. This report documents the decontamination and dismantlement activities performed at the facility over the time period 1988 through 1996. At this time, the support buildings, all equipment associated with the facility, and the entire above-ground structure of the primary facility building (Building 020) have been removed. The basement portion of this building and the outside yard areas (primarily asphalt and soil) are scheduled for D&D activities beginning in 1997.
Date: May 6, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FIELD TESTING OF THE TABORR (TANK BOTTOM RECOVERY AND REMEDIATION) PROCESS USING THE ASPHALT AND DRY BOTTOMS CONFIGURATIONS

Description: The TaBoRR{reg_sign} (Tank Bottom Recovery and Remediation) process being developed at Western Research Institute (WRI) offers an alternative to current disposal methods. The TaBoRR process is designed to: (1) process these wastes, (2) provide a cost saving, and (3) limit or reduce the environmental liability of the producers. This process removes the water through evaporation, eliminating water disposal costs, creates a salable crude oil that has been valued at or above the current market price for sweet West-Texas intermediate crude, and reduces the solids to a benign state for disposal at a landfill. This report presents the background information associated with this program, a detailed description of the process, and the work that has been completed during the first year of this program. The plant assembly, unit operations, product analyses of the materials created during operations, the pyrolyzer design, and permitting of the process in Wyoming are described. Also discussed in the report is the future work required to take this process to commercialization. Future work discussed includes shakedown and operation of the pyrolyzer, control systems and plant automation, integrated operations, equipment reliability, effluent sample analysis, and long-term testing of the process.
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Satchwell, Robert M.; Sethi, Vijay K.; Lyle A. Johnson, Jr. & Brecher, Lee E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

Description: Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Grimes, P.W. & Miknis, F.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PETROLEUM RESIDUA SOLUBILITY PARAMETER/POLARITY MAP: STABILITY STUDIES OF RESIDUA PYROLYSIS

Description: A new molecular weight/polarity map based on the Scatchard-Hildebrand solubility equation has been developed for petroleum residua. A series of extractions are performed with solvents of increasing solubility parameter, and the fractions are analyzed by vapor pressure osmometry for number average molecular weight and by analytical-scale size exclusion chromatography for molecular weight spread. Work was performed for a heavy oil material subjected to three increasing severities of thermal treatment prior to and through the onset of coke formation. The results are diagnostic of the layers of solvations by resin-type molecules around a central asphaltene core. Two additional stability diagnostic methods were also used. These were the Heithaus titration ''P-index'' and Gaestel ''G'' index, which have been applied to paving asphalts for decades. The Heithaus titration involves the titration of three toluene solutions of a residuum at three concentrations with a poor solvent, such as isooctane, to the point of asphaltene flocculation. In the present work, the significance of the data are developed in terms of the Hildebrand solubility parameter. The Heithaus results are combined with data from the new molecular weight/polarity map. The solubility parameters for the toluene-soluble asphaltene components are measured, and the solubility parameters of the maltenes can be calculated. As thermal treatment progresses, the solubility parameters of asphaltene materials increase and the molecular weights decrease. A new coking index is proposed based on Heithaus titration data. Preliminary results suggest that an alternative, simpler coking index may be developed by measuring the weight percent of cyclohexane solubles in heptane asphaltenes. Coking onset appears to coincide with the depletion of these resin-type asphaltene solubilizing components of residua. The objective of the present study was to develop a mapping tool that will enhance understanding of the changes that occur in residua during upgrading and support the industry-sponsored work in which ...
Date: April 30, 1999
Creator: Schabron, John F.; Pauli, A. Troy & Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

History of dams at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

Description: Since the production of nuclear material at SRS for weapons required large quantities of cooling water, a series of canals, dikes, and dams were constructed to provide conveyance systems and reservoirs. This paper presents a brief overview of the history of the construction of the dams and dikes. Attention is given to the use of asphaltic concrete for 30 years (and its maintenance and repair) to line the banks of dikes and the upstream slopes of dams to prevent erosion and possible failure. The ability of asphaltic concrete in preventing dam/dike failure was proven. Benefits and drawbacks to the use of this material are discussed based on the extensive experience at SRS.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Jones, M.P. & Wilson, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

Description: This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.
Date: October 31, 2004
Creator: Tikalsky, Pauul J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi- and Hyper-Spectral Sensing for Autonomous Ground Vehicle Navigation

Description: Robotic vehicles that navigate autonomously are hindered by unnecessary avoidance of soft obstacles, and entrapment by potentially avoidable obstacles. Existing sensing technologies fail to reliably distinguish hard obstacles from soft obstacles, as well as impassable thickets and other sources of entrapment. Automated materials classification through advanced sensing methods may provide a means to identify such obstacles, and from their identity, to determine whether they must be avoided. Multi- and hyper-spectral electro-optic sensors are used in remote sensing applications to classify both man-made and naturally occurring materials on the earth's surface by their reflectance spectra. The applicability of this sensing technology to obstacle identification for autonomous ground vehicle navigation is the focus of this report. The analysis is restricted to system concepts in which the multi- or hyper-spectral sensor is on-board the ground vehicle, facing forward to detect and classify obstacles ahead of the vehicle. Obstacles of interest include various types of vegetation, rocks, soils, minerals, and selected man-made materials such as paving asphalt and concrete.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: FOGLER, ROBERT J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INTERIM BARRIER AT HANFORDS TY FARM TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA

Description: An innovative interim surface barrier was constructed as a demonstration project at the Hanford Site's TY Tank Farm. The purpose of the demonstration barrier is to stop rainwater and snowmelt from entering the soils within the tank farm and driving contamination from past leaks and spills toward the ground water. The interim barrier was constructed using a modified asphalt material with very low permeability developed by MatCon{reg_sign}. Approximately 2,400 cubic yards of fill material were added to the tank farm to create a sloped surface that will gravity drain precipitation to collection points where it will be routed through buried drain lines to an evapotranspiration basin adjacent to the farm. The evapotranspiration basin is a lined basin with a network of perforated drain lines covered with soil and planted with native grasses. The evapotranspiration concept was selected because it prevents the runoff from percolating into the soil column and also avoids potential monitoring and maintenance issues associated with standing water in a traditional evaporation pond. Because of issues associated with using standard excavation and earth moving equipment in the farm a number of alternate construction approaches were utilized to perform excavations and prepare the site for the modified asphalt.
Date: January 13, 2011
Creator: DL, PARKER; MJ, HOLM; JC, HENDERSON & RW, LOBER
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of superior asphalt recycling agents: Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report

Description: About every 12 years, asphalt roads must be reworked, and this is usually done by placing thick layers (hot-mix overlays) of new material on top of failed material, resulting in considerable waste of material and use of new asphalt binder. A good recycling agent is needed, not only to reduce the viscosity of the aged material but also to restore compatibility. Objective is to establish the technical feasibility (Phase I) of determining the specifications and operating parameters for producing high quality recycling agents which will allow most/all the old asphalt-based road material to be recycled. It is expected that supercritical fractionation can be used. The advanced road aging simulation procedure will be used to study aging of blends of old asphalt and recycling agents.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Bullin, J.A.; Glover, C.J.; Davison, R.R.; Lin, Moon-Sun; Chaffin, J.; Liu, Meng et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development

Description: An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt`s potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Freeman, H.D. & Romine, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of an eastern shale oil residue as an asphalt additive

Description: An evaluation of eastern shale oil (ESO) residue as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age-hardening and moisture susceptibility was conducted. The ESO residue, having a viscosity of 23.9 Pa{sm_bullet}s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F), was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts, AAD-1, AAK-1, and AAM-1, that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. Rheological and infrared analyses of the unaged and aged asphalts and the blends were then conducted to evaluate oxidative age-hardening. In addition, the petroleum-derived asphalts and the blends were coated onto three different aggregates, Lithonia granite (RA), a low-absorption limestone (RD), and a silicious Gulf Coast gravel (RL), and compacted into briquets. Successive freeze-thaw cycling was then conducted to evaluate the moisture susceptibility of the prepared briquets. The abbreviations used above for the asphalts and the aggregates are part of the Strategic Highway Research Program nomenclature.
Date: December 19, 1995
Creator: Thomas, K.P. & Harnsberger, P.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.
Date: September 1, 2000
Creator: Tobiason, D. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000

Description: Post-closure inspection requirements for the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 427) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427. Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV-561. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 16, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Inspection Plan) was approved by the NDEP on August 27, 1999. The annual post-closure inspection at CAU 427 consists of the following: Verification of the presence of all leachfield and septic tank below-grade markers; Verification that the warning signs are in-place, intact, and readable; and Visual observation of the soil and asphalt cover for indications of subsidence, erosion, and unauthorized use. The site inspections were conducted on June 20, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. No maintenance or repairs were conducted at the site. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. Copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachments C.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: Campbell, K. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2001

Description: Post-closure inspection requirements for the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] 427) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427, Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOENV-56 1, August 1999. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 16, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Inspection Plan) was approved by the NDEP on August 27, 1999. As stated in Section 5.1 of the NDEP-approved CR, the annual Post-Closure inspection at CAU 427 consists of the following: (1) Verification of the presence of all leachfield and septic tank below-grade markers. (2) Verification that all warning signs are in-place, intact, and readable. (3) Visual observation of the soil and asphalt cover for indications of subsidence, erosion, and unauthorized use. The site inspections were conducted on May 16, 2001, and November 6, 2001. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. No maintenance or repairs were conducted at the site. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. Copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and a copy of the inspection photographs is found in Attachments C.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Campbell, K. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 390: Areas 9, 10, and 12 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 390 consists four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 9, 10, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site. The closure activities performed at the CASs include: (1) CAS 09-99-03, Wax, Paraffin: 2 cubic yards of drilling polymer was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (2) CAS 10-99-01, Epoxy Tar Spill: 2 cubic feet of asphalt waste was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (3) CAS 10-99-03, Tar Spills: 3 cubic yards of deteriorated asphalt waste was removed on June 20,2005, and transported to the Area 9 Landfill for disposal. (4) CAS 12-25-03, Oil Stains (2); Container: Approximately 16 ounces of used oil were removed from ventilation equipment on June 28,2005, and recycled. One CAS 10-22-19, Drums, Stains, was originally part of CAU 390 but was transferred out of CAU 390 and into CAU 550, Drums, Batteries, and Lead Materials. The transfer was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on August 19,2005, and a copy of the approval letter is included in Appendix D of this report.
Date: October 1, 2005
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for Coal Storage Area Stabilization Project

Description: The scope of this project is to stabilize the abandoned coal storage area and redirect the storm water runoff from sanitary sewer system to the storm drain system. Currently, the existing storm water runoff is directed to a perimeter concrete drainage swale and collected in a containment basin. The collected water is then pumped to a treatment facility and after treatment, is discharged to the Y-12 sanitary sewer system. The existing drainage swale and collection basin along with silt fencing will be used during aggregate placement and grading to provide erosion and sediment control. Inlet protection will also be installed around existing structures during the storm water diversion construction. This project scope will include the installation of a non-woven geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base (paving optional) to stabilize the site. The geotextile specifications are provided on the vendor cut sheets in Appendix B. The installation of a storm water collection/retention area will also be installed on the southern side of the site in accordance with EPA Technical Guidance on Implementing the Stormwater Runoff Requirements for federal Projects under Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act. The total area to be disturbed is approximately 2.5 acres. The order of activities for this Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) will be: (1) post notice of coverage (NOC) in a prominent display near entrance of the site; (2) install rain gauge on site or contact Y-12 Plant Shift Superintendent daily for Met tower rain gauge readings; (3) install stabilized construction exit on site; (4) install silt fencing along perimeter as indicated on the attached site plan; (5) regrade site; (6) install geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base; (7) install catch basin inlet protection where required; (8) excavate and lower existing catch basin tops, re-grade and asphalt to drain; and ...
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Engineering, Project and Design
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Final technical progress report

Description: After an introduction and a literature survey in Chap. 1, Chap. 2 describes the tasks, together with objectives and important results obtained for each task throughout the entire project. Chaps. 3 thru 7 detail work in developing a qualitative and quantitative knowledge of asphalt oxidation, composition dependence of asphalt properties, and guidelines for producing superior asphalt binders through composition control. They also detail the development of a kinetic model for asphalt oxidative aging and present an understanding of the composition dependence of asphalt oxidation as well as other performance-related properties. Chaps. 8 and 9 compare the aging performance of recycled blends produced using commercial recycling agents and industrial supercritical fractions as rejuvenating agents. Oxidative aging of the recycled blends were evaluated along with the performance of the recycled blends in terms of the strategic highway research program performance grading procedure. Chap. 10 summarizes the work completed in the areas of processing schemes development, projection updates, and scale-up and commercialization plans.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Chaffin, J.; Liu, M. & Madrid, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

Description: About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R. & Glover, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of an Eastern Shale Oil Residue as an Asphalt Additive - Subtask 2.5: Topical report, February 1, 1994-February 1, 1995

Description: An evaluation of eastern shale oil as an asphalt additive to reduce oxidative age hardening and moisture susceptibility is being conducted. An eastern shale oil residue having a viscosity of 1.30 Pa`s at 60{degrees}C (140{degrees}F) was blended with three different petroleum-derived asphalts that are known to be very susceptible to oxidative aging. In addition, blends of the eastern shale oil residue and the petroleum-derived asphalts are being coated onto three different aggregates that are known to be susceptible to water stripping. The oxidative age hardening portion of this study is not complete at this time. To date, information has been obtained on the unaged samples and two of the aged petroleum-derived asphalts (AAD-1 and AAK-1). When complete, this data will include rheological data on the unaged, RTFO-aged, and the RTFO/PAV-aged samples and infrared data on the unaged and RTFO/PAV-aged samples. With respect to the rheological data, asphalt AAD-1 meets the specifications of a PG 58 asphalt while asphalt AAK-1 does not. In the latter case this indicates that AAK-1 is more appropriately evaluated at a higher temperature range. The infrared spectroscopic data obtained for the eastern shale oil residue show that it contains appreciable amounts of carbonyl and sulfoxide compound types, 0.22 absorbance units and 0. 27 moles/L, respectively. Thus, upon the addition of this residue to the three petroleum-derived asphalts the blends contain increased amounts of these functional groups relative to the petroleum-derived asphalts. This has been observed with other additives and is not considered detrimental. In addition, the data that has been collected to date indicate that the moisture susceptibility of blends of eastern shale oil residue and asphalt AAK-1 are somewhat improved when coated onto Lithonia granite.
Date: December 31, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department