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The Role of Aspect Ratio and Beta in H-mode Confinement Scalings

Description: The addition of high power, low aspect ratio data from the NSTX and MAST experiments have motivated a new investigation of the effect of aspect ratio on confinement scaling. Various statistical methods, including those that incorporate estimates of measurement error, have been applied to datasets constrained by the standard set of criteria in addition to the range of ? and M(sub)eff appropriate to ITER operation. Development of scalings using engineering parameters as predictor variables results in ?-scaling coefficients that range from 0.38 to 1.29; the transformation of these scalings to physics variables results in an unfavorable dependence of ?? on ?, but a favorable dependence on ?. Because the low aspect ratio devices operate at low ?(sub)T and therefore high ?(sub)T, a strong correlation exists between ? and ?, and this makes scalings based on physics variables imprecise.
Date: October 20, 2005
Creator: Kaye, S. M.; Valovic, M.; Chudnovskiy, A.; Cordey, J. G.; McDonald, D.; Meakins, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inf-sup estimates for the Stokes problem in a periodic channel

Description: We derive estimates of the Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup constant {beta} for two-dimensional incompressible flow in a periodic channel with one flat boundary and the other given by a periodic, Lipschitz continuous function h. If h is a constant function (so the domain is rectangular), we show that periodicity in one direction but not the other leads to an interesting connection between {beta} and the unitary operator mapping the Fourier sine coefficients of a function to its Fourier cosine coefficients. We exploit this connection to determine the dependence of {beta} on the aspect ratio of the rectangle. We then show how to transfer this result to the case that h is C{sup 1,1} or even C{sup 0,1} by a change of variables. We avoid non-constructive theorems of functional analysis in order to explicitly exhibit the dependence of {beta} on features of the geometry such as the aspect ratio, the maximum slope, and the minimum gap thickness (if h passes near the substrate). We give an example to show that our estimates are optimal in their dependence on the minimum gap thickness in the C{sup 1,1} case, and nearly optimal in the Lipschitz case.
Date: December 10, 2008
Creator: Wilkening, Jon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inf-sup estimates for the Stokes problem in a periodic channel

Description: We derive estimates of the Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup constant {beta} for two-dimensional incompressible flow in a periodic channel with one flat boundary and the other given by a periodic, Lipschitz continuous function h. If h is a constant function (so the domain is rectangular), we show that periodicity in one direction but not the other leads to an interesting connection between {beta} and the unitary operator mapping the Fourier sine coefficients of a function to its Fourier cosine coefficients. We exploit this connection to determine the dependence of {beta} on the aspect ratio of the rectangle. We then show how to transfer this result to the case that h is C{sup 1,1} or even C{sup 0,1} by a change of variables. We avoid non-constructive theorems of functional analysis in order to explicitly exhibit the dependence of {beta} on features of the geometry such as the aspect ratio, the maximum slope, and the minimum gap thickness (if h passes near the substrate). We give an example to show that our estimates are optimal in their dependence on the minimum gap thickness in the C{sup 1,1} case, and nearly optimal in the Lipschitz case.
Date: June 27, 2007
Creator: Wilkening, Jon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approximating spheroid inductive responses using spheres

Description: The response of high permeability ({mu}{sub r} {ge} 50) conductive spheroids of moderate aspect ratios (0.25 to 4) to excitation by uniform magnetic fields in the axial or transverse directions is approximated by the response of spheres of appropriate diameters, of the same conductivity and permeability, with magnitude rescaled based on the differing volumes, D.C. magnetizations, and high frequency limit responses of the spheres and modeled spheroids.
Date: December 12, 2003
Creator: Smith, J. Torquil & Morrison, H. Frank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

Description: The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device.
Date: January 18, 2002
Creator: Neumeyer, C.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Kessel, C.; Ono, M.; Peng, M.; Schmidt, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation at low speeds of the pitching derivatives of untapered swept wings

Description: Report presenting a wing-tunnel investigation in straight and pitching flow to determine the effects of independently varying aspect ratio and angle of sweep on the longitudinal rotary stability characteristics of a series of ten untapered wings. The investigation showed that an interdependent relationship existed between the effects of aspect ratio and sweep. Results regarding pitching moment due to pitching velocity and lift due to pitching velocity are provided.
Date: September 29, 1948
Creator: MacLachlan, Robert & Fisher, Lewis R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability and control characteristics of a free-flying model with an unswept wing of aspect ratio 3 (XS-3)

Description: The results of power-off force tests and flight tests of a model with a thin unswept low-aspect-ratio wing are presented. The tests were made with the flaps retracted and deflected. The effects on the lateral flight characteristics of decreasing directional stability were noted.
Date: November 15, 1948
Creator: Bennett, Charles V. & Hassell, James L., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modular Coil Design for the Ultra-low Aspect Ratio Quasi-axially Symmetric Stellarator MHH2

Description: A family of two field-period quasi-axisymmetric stellarators generally known as MHH2 with aspect ratios of only {approx}2.5 was found. These configurations have low field ripples and excellent confinement of {alpha} particles. This discovery raises the hope that a compact stellarator reactor may eventually be designed with the property of tokamak transport and stellarator stability. In this paper we demonstrate that smooth modular coils may be designed for this family of configurations that not only yield plasmas with good physics properties but also possess engineering properties desirable for compact power producing reactors. We show designs featuring 16 modular coils with ratios of major radius to minimum coil-plasma separation {approx}5.5, major radius to minimum coil-coil separation {approx}10 and the maximum field in coil bodies to the field on axis {approx}2 for 0.2 m{sup 2} conductors. These coils is expected to allow plasmas operated at 5% {beta} with {alpha} energy loss < 10% for a reactor of major radius <9 m at 5 T.
Date: September 27, 2005
Creator: Ku LP, the ARIES-CS Team
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Simplified Methods for Estimating Shear Capacity Using JNES/NUPEC Low-Rise Concrete Shear Wall Cyclic Test Data.

Description: The simplified methods in current codes for determining the shear capacity of reinforced concrete shear walls had mostly been validated using the test results of single-element shear walls. Recently available JNES/NUPEC test data of reinforced concrete shear walls under multi-directional cyclic loadings provided a unique opportunity to investigate the adequacy of the simplified methods for use in situations with strong interaction effects. A total of 11 test specimens with aspect ratios between 0.47 and 0.87 have been used in the assessment. Two simplified methods from the ACI 349-01 standard [1] and one from the ASCE 43-05 standard [2] have been evaluated. This paper also presents the development of an adjustment factor to consider the aspect ratio and the development of two approaches to consider interaction effects for one of the simplified methods. It concludes with the insights on the applicability of the code methods when interaction effects exist.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C. & Ali, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Approach for Assessing Structural Uplifting Using Blast Motions.

Description: The simplified methods in current codes for determining the shear capacity of reinforced concrete shear walls had mostly been validated using the test results of single-element shear walls. Recently available JNES/NUPEC test data of reinforced concrete shear walls under multi-directional cyclic loadings provided a unique opportunity to investigate the adequacy of the simplified methods for use in situations with strong interaction effects. A total of 11 test specimens with aspect ratios between 0.47 and 0.87 have been used in the assessment. Two simplified methods from the ACI 349-01 standard [1] and one from the ASCE 43-05 standard [2] have been evaluated. This paper also presents the development of an adjustment factor to consider the aspect ratio and the development of two approaches to consider interaction effects for one of the simplified methods. It concludes with the insights on the applicability of the code methods when interaction effects exist.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Nie,J.; Xu, J.; Hofmayer, C. & Ali, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Practical error estimates for Reynolds' lubrication approximation and its higher order corrections

Description: Reynolds lubrication approximation is used extensively to study flows between moving machine parts, in narrow channels, and in thin films. The solution of Reynolds equation may be thought of as the zeroth order term in an expansion of the solution of the Stokes equations in powers of the aspect ratio {var_epsilon} of the domain. In this paper, we show how to compute the terms in this expansion to arbitrary order on a two-dimensional, x-periodic domain and derive rigorous, a-priori error bounds for the difference between the exact solution and the truncated expansion solution. Unlike previous studies of this sort, the constants in our error bounds are either independent of the function h(x) describing the geometry, or depend on h and its derivatives in an explicit, intuitive way. Specifically, if the expansion is truncated at order 2k, the error is O({var_epsilon}{sup 2k+2}) and h enters into the error bound only through its first and third inverse moments {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1} h(x){sup -m} dx, m = 1,3 and via the max norms {parallel} 1/{ell}! h{sup {ell}-1}{partial_derivative}{sub x}{sup {ell}}h{parallel}{sub {infinity}}, 1 {le} {ell} {le} 2k + 2. We validate our estimates by comparing with finite element solutions and present numerical evidence that suggests that even when h is real analytic and periodic, the expansion solution forms an asymptotic series rather than a convergent series.
Date: December 10, 2008
Creator: Wilkening, Jon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Fabrication of a High Aspect Ratio Cable for a High Gradie nt Quadrupole Magnet

Description: The Large Hadron Collider interaction regions require quadrupoles with a 70 mm diameter bore, a gradient of 250 T/m, and good cooling so that the magnets can operate in a high radiation background without quenching. In order to meet these stringent requirements, a two-layer magnet with a high aspect ratio cable has been designed. This cable ulilizes the SSC inner and outer layer strands, which have been optimized and are available in large quantities. The initial design parameters for both cables are 15.2 mm width; the inner cable has 38 strands of 0.8 mm diam wire and a keystone angle of 0.99 deg. The outer cable has 46 strands of 0.65 mm diam wire and a keystone angle of 0.69 deg. These cables have been fabricated and then subjected to a number of tests to insure their performance in the quadrupole. These test results, including model coil winding studies, electrical property measurements, and mechanical property measurements will be presented.
Date: December 12, 1996
Creator: Scanlan, R.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Caspi, S.; Dell'Orco, D.; Higley, H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Approximate Solutions for a Self-Folding Problem of Carbon Nanotubes

Description: This paper treats approximate solutions for a self-folding problem of carbon nanotubes. It has been observed in the molecular dynamics calculations [1] that a carbon nanotube with a large aspect ratio can self-fold due to van der Waals force between the parts of the same carbon nanotube. The main issue in the self-folding problem is to determine the minimum threshold length of the carbon nanotube at which it becomes possible for the carbon nanotube to self-fold due to the van der Waals force. An approximate mathematical model based on the force method is constructed for the self-folding problem of carbon nanotubes, and it is solved exactly as an elastica problem using elliptic functions. Additionally, three other mathematical models are constructed based on the energy method. As a particular example, the lower and upper estimates for the critical threshold (minimum) length are determined based on both methods for the (5,5) armchair carbon nanotube.
Date: August 22, 2006
Creator: Mikata, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USXR Based MHD, Transport, Equilibria and Current Profile Diagnostics for NSTX. Final Report

Description: The present report resumes the research activities of the Plasma Spectroscopy/Diagnostics Group at Johns Hopkins University performed on the NSTX tokamak at PPPL during the period 1999-2009. During this period we have designed and implemented XUV based diagnostics for a large number of tasks: study of impurity content and particle transport, MHD activity, time-resolved electron temperature measeurements, ELM research, etc. Both line emission and continuum were used in the XUV range. New technics and novel methods have been devised within the framework of the present research. Graduate and post-graduate students have been involved at all times in addition to the senior research personnel. Several tens of papers have been published and lectures have been given based on the obtained results at conferences and various research institutions (lists of these activities were attached both in each proposal and in the annual reports submitted to our supervisors at OFES).
Date: June 1, 2009
Creator: Finkenthal, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement and simulation of jet mass caused by a high-aspect ratio pertubation

Description: Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule performance can be negatively impacted by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. To perform a gas fill on an ICF capsule current plans involve drilling a small hole and inserting a fill tube to inject the gas mixture into the capsule. This introduces a perturbation on the capsule, which can seed hydrodynamic instabilities. The small hole can cause jetting of the shell material into the gas, which might adversely affect the capsule performance. We have performed simulations and experiments to study the hydrodynamic evolution of jets from high-aspect ratio holes, such as the fill tube hole. Although simulations using cold materials over predict the amount of mass in the jet, when a reasonable amount of preheat (< 1 eV) is introduced, the simulations are in better agreement with the experiment.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Keiter, Paul A; Cooley, James; Kyrala, George; Wilson, Doug; Blue, Brent; Elliott, Jim et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxide dispersion strengthening of nickel electrodeposits for microsystem applications.

Description: Oxide dispersion strengthened nickel (ODS-Ni) electrodeposits were fabricated to net shape in a nickel sulfamate bath using the LIGA process. A 20 g/l charge of 10 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder was suspended in the bath during electrodeposition to produce specimens containing an approximately 0.001-0.02 volume fraction dispersion of the alumina particulate. Mechanical properties are compared to baseline specimens fabricated using an identical sulfamate bath chemistry without the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder charge. Results reveal that the as-deposited ODS-Ni exhibited significantly higher yield strength and ultimate tensile strength than the baseline material. This increase in as-deposited strength is attributed to Orowan strengthening. The ODS-Ni also showed improved retention of room temperature strength after annealing over a range of temperatures up to 600 C. Microscopy revealed that this resistance to anneal softening was due to an inhibition of grain growth in the presence of the oxide dispersion. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that the properties of the dispersion strengthened deposit were uniform through its thickness, even in narrow, high aspect ratio structures. At elevated temperatures, the strength of the ODS-Ni was approximately three times greater than that of the baseline material although with a significant reduction in hot ductility.
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Janek, Richard P.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Michael, R. P. & Goods, Steven Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct to Digital Holography

Description: In this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) assisted nLine Corporation of Austin, TX in the development of prototype semiconductor wafer inspection tools based on the direct-to-digital holographic (DDH) techniques invented at ORNL. Key components of this work included, testing of DDH for detection of defects in High Aspect Ratio (HAR) structures, development of image processing techniques to enhance detection capabilities through the use of both phase and intensity, and development of methods for autofocus on the DDH tools.
Date: September 30, 2007
Creator: Bingham, P.R. & Tobin, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct to Digital Holography

Description: In this CRADA, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) assisted nLine Corporation of Austin, TX in the development of prototype semiconductor wafer inspection tools based on the direct-to-digital holographic (DDH) techniques invented at ORNL. Key components of this work included, testing of DDH for detection of defects in High Aspect Ratio (HAR) structures, development of image processing techniques to enhance detection capabilities through the use of both phase and intensity, and development of methods for autofocus on the DDH tools.
Date: June 15, 2002
Creator: Bingham, P.R. & Tobin, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical Modeling of the Radio Nebula from the 2004 December 27 Giant Flare of SGR 1806-20

Description: The authors use the relativistic hydrodynamics code Cosmos++ to model the evolution of the radio nebula triggered by the Dec. 27, 2004 giant flare event of soft gamma repeater 1806-20. They primarily focus on the rebrightening and centroid motion occurring subsequent to day 20 following the flare event. They model this period as a mildly relativistic ({gamma} {approx} 1.07-1.67) jetted outflow expanding into the intergalactic medium (IGM). They demonstrate that a jet with total energy {approx} 10{sup 46} ergs confined to a half opening angle {approx} 20{sup o} fits the key observables of this event, e.g. the flux lightcurve, emission map centroid position, and aspect ratio. In particular, they find excellent agreement with observations if the rebrightening is due to the jet, moving at 0.5 c and inclined {approx} 0{sup o}-40{sup o} toward the observer, colliding with a density discontinuity in the IGM at a radius of several 10{sup 16} cm. They also find that a jet with a higher velocity, {approx}> 0.7c, and larger inclination, {approx}> 70{sup o}, moving into a uniform IGM can fit the observations in general, but tends to miss the details of rebrightening. The latter, uniform IGM model predicts an IGM density more than 100 times lower than that of the former model, and thus suggests an independent test which might discriminate between the two. One of the strongest constraints of both models is that the data seems to require a non-uniform jet in order to be well fit.
Date: May 25, 2006
Creator: Salmonson, J D; Fragile, P C & Aninos, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling Fast Ion Transport in TAE Avalanches in NSTX

Description: Experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557 ] have found strong bursts of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) activity correlated with abrupt drops in the neutron rate. A fairly complete data set offers the opportunity to benchmark the NOVA [C. Z. Cheng, Phys. Reports 211, 1-51 (1992)] and ORBIT [R. B. White and M. S. Chance, Phys. Fluids 27, 2455 (1984)] codes in the low aspect ratio tokamak (ST) geometry. The internal structure of TAE were modeled with NOVA and good agreement is found with measurements made with an array of five fixed-frequency reflectometers. The fast-ion transport resulting from these bursts of multiple TAE were then modeled with the ORBIT code. The simulations are reasonably consistent with the observed drop in neutron rate. While these results represent our best attempts to find agreement, we believe that further refinements in both the simulation of the TAE structure and in the modeling of the fast ion transport are needed. Benchmarking stability codes against present experiments is an important step in developing the predictive capability needed to plan future experiments.
Date: August 17, 2009
Creator: Fredrickson, E D; Bell, R E; Darrow, D; Gorelenkov, N N; Kramer, G; Kubota, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Center Stack Upgrade

Description: The purpose of the NSTX Center Stack Upgrade project is to expand the NSTX operational space and thereby the physics basis for next-step ST facilities. The plasma aspect ratio (ratio of plasma major to minor radius) of the upgrade is increased to 1.5 from the original value of 1.26, which increases the cross sectional area of the center stack by a factor of ~ 3 and makes possible higher levels of performance and pulse duration.
Date: September 24, 2009
Creator: Neumeyer, C; Chrzanowski, J; Dudek, L; Fan, H; Hatcher, R; Heitzenroeder, P et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First Observation Of ELM Pacing With Vertical Jogs In A Spherical Torus

Description: Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies. __________________________________________________
Date: July 15, 2010
Creator: Gerhardt, S. P.; Canik, J. M.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R.; Gates, D.; Goldston, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Planarization of High Aspect Ratio P-I-N Diode Pillar Arrays for Blanket Electrical Contacts

Description: Two planarization techniques for high aspect ratio three dimensional pillar structured P-I-N diodes have been developed in order to enable a continuous coating of metal on the top of the structures. The first technique allows for coating of structures with topography through the use of a planarizing photoresist followed by RIE etch back to expose the tops of the pillar structure. The second technique also utilizes photoresist, but instead allows for planarization of a structure in which the pillars are filled and coated with a conformal coating by matching the etch rate of the photoresist to the underlying layers. These techniques enable deposition using either sputtering or electron beam evaporation of metal films to allow for electrical contact to the tops of the underlying pillar structure. These processes have potential applications for many devices comprised of 3-D high aspect ratio structures. Two separate processes have been developed in order to ensure a uniform surface for deposition of an electrode on the {sup 10}Boron filled P-I-N pillar structured diodes. Each uses S1518 photoresist in order to achieve a relatively uniform surface despite the non-uniformity of the underlying detector. Both processes allow for metallization of the final structure and provide good electrical continuity over a 3D pillar structure.
Date: March 5, 2009
Creator: Voss, L F; Shao, Q; Reinhardt, C E; Graff, R T; Conway, A M; Nikolic, R J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPACT-T User Document Version 1.6

Description: IMPACT-T is a fully three-dimensional program to track relativistic particles taking into account space charge forces and short-range longitudinal and transverse wakenelds. IMPACT-T is one of the few codes used in the photoinjector community that has a parallel implementation, making it very useful for high statistics simulations of beam halos and beam diagnostics. It has a comprehensive set of beamline elements, and furthermore allows arbitrary overlap of their fields, which gives the IMPACT-T a capability to model both the standing wave structure and traveling wave structure. It is also unique in its use of space-charge solvers based on an integrated Green function to efficiently and accurately treat beams with large aspect ratio, and a shifted Green function to efficiently treat image charge effects of a cathode. It is also unique in its inclusion of energy binning in the space-charge calculation to model beams with large energy spread. IMPACT-T has a flexible data structure that allows particles to be stored in containers with common characteristics; for photoinjector simulations the containers represent multiple slices, but in other applications they could correspond, e.g., to particles of different species. Together, all these features make IMPACT-T a powerful and versatile tool for modeling beams in photoinjectors and other systems.
Date: May 17, 2010
Creator: Qiang, Ji
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department