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Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

Description: The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Scientist, Staff; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max & Dickerhoff, Darryl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Daylighting Requirements within ASHRAE Standard 90.1

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), under the Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) funded by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), provides support to the ASHRAE/IES/IESNA Standard 90.1(Standard 90.1) Standing Standards Project Committee (SSPC 90.1) and its subcommittees. In an effort to provide the ASHRAE SSPC 90.1 with data that will improve the daylighting and fenestration requirements in the Standard, PNNL collaborated with Heschong Mahone Group (HMG), now part of TRC Solutions. Combining EnergyPlus, a whole-building energy simulation software developed by DOE, with Radiance, a highly accurate illumination modeling software (Ward 1994), the daylighting requirements within Standard 90.1 were analyzed in greater detail. The initial scope of the study was to evaluate the impact of the fraction of window area compared to exterior wall area (window-to-wall ratio (WWR)) on energy consumption when daylighting controls are implemented. This scope was expanded to study the impact of fenestration visible transmittance (VT), electric lighting controls and daylighted area on building energy consumption.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Liu, Bing & Rosenberg, Michael I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Understanding Energy Code Acceptance within the Alaska Building Community

Description: This document presents the technical assistance provided to the Alaska Home Financing Corporation on behalf of PNNL regarding the assessment of attitudes toward energy codes within the building community in Alaska. It includes a summary of the existing situation and specific assistance requested by AHFC, the results of a questionnaire designed for builders surveyed in a suburban area of Anchorage, interviews with a lender, a building official, and a research specialist, and recommendations for future action by AHFC.
Date: February 14, 2012
Creator: Mapes, Terry S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recommended Modified zone Method Correction Factor for Determining R-values of Cold-Formed Steel Wall Assemblies

Description: Currently, ASHRAE has determined the zone method and modified zone method are appropriate calculation methods for materials with a high difference in conductivity, such as cold-formed steel (CFS) walls. Because there is currently no standard U-Factor calculation method for CFS walls, designers and code officials alike tend to resort to the zone method. However, the zone method is restricted to larger span assemblies because the zone factor coefficient is 2.0. This tends to overestimate the amount of surface area influenced by CFS. The modified zone method is restricted to C-shaped stud, clear wall assemblies with framing factors between 9 and 15%. The objective of the research is to narrow the gap of knowledge by re-examining the modified zone method in order to more accurately determine R-Values and U-Factors for CFS wall assemblies with whole wall framing factor percentages of 22% and above.
Date: May 2011
Creator: Black, John
Partner: UNT Libraries

Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

Description: Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.
Date: February 1, 2009
Creator: Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max & Nazaroff, William W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 Final Determination Quantitative Analysis

Description: The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2007 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. The final analysis considered each of the 44 addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007. All 44 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2007 from Standard 90.1-2004 were reviewed by DOE, and their combined impact on a suite of 15 building prototype models in 15 ASHRAE climate zones was considered. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s final determination. However, out of the 44 addenda, 9 were preliminarily determined to have measureable and quantifiable impact.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: Halverson, Mark A.; Liu, Bing; Richman, Eric E. & Winiarski, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 Final Qualitative Determination

Description: A final qualitative analysis of all addenda to American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2004 that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 was conducted. All 44 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2007 from Standard 90.1-2004 were evaluated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for their impact on energy efficiency. DOE preliminarily determined whether that addenda would have a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building efficiency. Table S.1 shows the number of positive and negative changes for each section of Standard 90.1.
Date: January 1, 2011
Creator: Halverson, Mark A.; Liu, Bing; Richman, Eric E. & Winiarski, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010 Preliminary Determination Quantitative Analysis

Description: The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010, Standard 90.1-2010, or 2010 edition) would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007(ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, Standard 90.1-2007, or 2007 edition). The preliminary analysis considered each of the 109 addenda to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 that were included in ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010. All 109 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2010 from Standard 90.1-2007 were reviewed by DOE, and their combined impact on a suite of 16 building prototype models in 15 ASHRAE climate zones was considered. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s preliminary determination. However, out of the 109 addenda, 34 were preliminarily determined to have measureable and quantifiable impact.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Halverson, Mark A.; Liu, Bing & Rosenberg, Michael I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010 Preliminary Qualitative Determination

Description: A preliminary qualitative analysis of all addenda to American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2007 (Standard 90.1-2007 or 2007 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2010 (Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) was conducted. All 109 addenda processed by ASHRAE in the creation of Standard 90.1-2010 from Standard 90.1-2007 were evaluated by DOE for their impact on energy efficiency. DOE preliminarily determined whether that addenda would have a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building efficiency.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Halverson, Mark A.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Liu, Bing; Rosenberg, Michael I. & Richman, Eric E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

Description: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.
Date: September 30, 2004
Creator: Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B. & Richman, Eric E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Labs21 Laboratory Modeling Guidelines using ASHRAE 90.1-1999

Description: The following is a guideline for energy modeling of laboratory spaces in a building in accordance with the Energy Cost Budget method described in ASHRAE 90.1-1999 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. For the purposes of this document, a laboratory is defined as any space requiring once through ventilation systems (recirculation of air to other spaces in a building is not allowed). To accomplish this, ventilation systems in laboratories typically provide 100% outside air to the occupied space. The guideline is structured similarly to the ASHRAE 90.1-99 standard. Only those sections being clarified or modified are discussed in the guideline; all other sections should be followed as defined in the standard. Specifically, those sections that are affected include the following: (1) 6.3.3.1 - Fan Power Limitation (modification); (2) 6.3.7.2 - Fume Hoods (modification); (3) 11.3.11 - Schedules (modification); (4) 11.4.3 - HVAC Systems (clarification); (5) 11.4.3 (h) Budget Supply-Air-to-Room Air Temperature Difference (modification); (6) 11.4.3(i) - Fan system efficiency (modification); and (7) Table 11.4.3A - Budget System Descriptions (modification). For energy efficiency measures that are not explicitly addressed by the standard, we recommend application of Section 11.5, Exceptional Calculation Methods. This guideline does not cover the details of such calculation methods.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Reilly, Susan; Walsh, Michael; Graham, Carl; Maor, Itzhak; Mathew, Paul; Porter, Fred et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Performance Evaluation of a Low-Energy Academic Building: Preprint

Description: This paper considers the energy performance analyses conducted to document and verify progress toward the building's design objectives. The authors present and discuss energy performance data and draw lessons that can be applied to improve the design of this and future low-energy buildings.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Pless, S. & Torcellini, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Retrospective Analysis of Commercial Building Energy Codes: 1990 – 2008

Description: Building Energy Codes Program's efforts are designed to result in increased stringency in national model energy codes, more rapid and broader adoption by states and localities of updated codes, and increased compliance and enforcement. Report estimates the historical impact of Building Energy Codes Program in terms of energy savings achieved that are based upon various editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 (ASHRAE Standard 90.1).
Date: October 1, 2010
Creator: Belzer, David B.; McDonald, Sean C. & Halverson, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities (Brochure)

Description: This guide regarding energy recovery is one in a series on best practices for laboratories. It was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs 21'), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH - non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 - Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate 'should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory' it specifically indicates that it is intended to 'provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.' The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that provide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure ...
Date: June 1, 2012
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the Low-Energy Design Process and Energy Performance of the Zion National Park Visitor Center: Preprint

Description: Paper discusses NREL's role in the participation of the design process of the Zion National Park Visitor Center Complex and the results documented from monitoring the energy performance of the building for several years. Paper includes PV system and Trombe wall description and lessons learned in the design, construction, and commissioning of the building.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Pless, S. & Judkoff, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

Description: Natural gas furnaces are rated for efficiency using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) test standard under controlled laboratory test conditions. In the home, these furnaces are then installed under conditions that can vary significantly from the standard, require adjustment by the installing contractor to adapt to field conditions, may or may not be inspected over their useful lifetimes, and can operate with little maintenance over a 30-year period or longer. At issue is whether the installation practices, field conditions, and wear over the life of the furnace reduce the efficiency significantly from the rated efficiency. In this project, nine furnaces, with 15-24 years of field service, were removed from Iowa homes and tested in the lab under four conditions to determine the effects of installation practices, field operating conditions, and age on efficiency.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Brand, L.; Yee, S. & Baker, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

Description: This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.
Date: February 1, 2013
Creator: Kozubal, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Grocery Stores--50% Energy Savings

Description: This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of grocery store buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

Description: The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.
Date: April 30, 2004
Creator: Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W. & Richman, Eric E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department