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New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control

Description: In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.
Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Brown, J. editor
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Existing Data Format for Two-Parameter Beta-Gamma Histograms for Radioxenon

Description: There is a need to establish a commonly acceptable format for storing beta-gated coincidence data for stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The current aerosol RMS type data format is not applicable for radioxenon in that the current format contains implicit assumptions specific to conventional gamma-ray spectrometry. Some assumptions in the current RMS format are not acceptable for the beta-gated spectra expected from the U.S. Department of Energy PNNL Automated Radioxenon Sampler-Analyzer (ARSA) and other similar systems under use or development from various countries. The RMS data format is not generally applicable for radioxenon measurements in the CTBT for one or more of the following main reasons: 1) The RMS format does not currently support 2-dimensional data. That is, the RMS data format is setup for a simple l-dimensional gamma-ray energy histogram. Current data available from the ARSA system and planned for other radioxenon monitors includes spectral information from gamma-rays and betas/conversion electrons. It is worth noting that the beta/conversion electron energy information will be used to separate the contributions from the different radioxenons. 2) The RMS data format assumes that the conversion between counts and activity can be calculated based (in part) on a simple calibration curve (detector efficiency curve) that depends only on energy of the gamma-ray. In the case of beta-gated gamma-ray spectra and for 2-dimensional spectra, there are generally two detector calibration curves that must be convoluted, the lower energy cutoff for the betas must be considered, and the energy acceptance window must be taken into account to convert counts into activity. . 3) The RMS format has header information that contains aerosol-specific information that allows the activity (Bq) calculated to be converted into a concentration (Bq/SCM). This calculation is performed by dividing the activity calculated (Bq) into number ...
Date: March 23, 1999
Creator: Bowyer, TW; Heimbigner, TR; McIntyre, JI; McKinnon, AD; Reeder, PL & Wittinger, E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arms Control and Nonproliferation Activities: A Catalog of Recent Events

Description: This report contains brief descriptions of the most prominent arms control and nonproliferation efforts in which the United States has participated during recent years. The entries describe the substance of each arms control effort, the period in which the effort occurred, and the status of the effort at the end of 2004.
Date: January 7, 2005
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Present Status of the Technological Development of Remote Monitoring Systems

Description: Let me begin with some comments about transparency. We all have some perception or vision about the use of transparency for nuclear technology and nuclear non-proliferation. Although we probably have some common understanding of what it implies, there is no precise definition that is agreed upon. One of the most significant ideas in transparency is that it is considered to be a voluntary or unilateral action. The party, or organization, or nation that wants its activities to be transparent voluntarily provides information to other parties with the expectation of receiving some acceptance or good will in return. The organization giving the information determines what information to provide, how much, how often, and when. This is in contrast to official treaties and monitoring regimes, in which specific verification information and activities are prescribed. This should have the advantage for the transparent organization of being less intrusive and less costly than a treaty monitoring regime. Information related to sensitive nuclear technology, proprietary processes, and physical security is more easily protected. The difficultly for both parties, the transparent organization and the information recipients, is in determining what information is necessary for the desired confidence building. It must be recognized that this state of transparency or confidence will only be achieved over an extended period of time, when history confirms that the information was reliable in conveying the true picture.
Date: January 28, 1999
Creator: Matter, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

Description: This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.
Date: April 1, 1999
Creator: Sweeney, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arms control and the rule of law: National measures for enforcement and verification

Description: Much has been written about the deterrence strategies that justified the arms race. Walter Slocombe explained that {open_quotes}[t]he dominant problem of U.S. nuclear strategy is credibly using U.S. nuclear power to deter and if necessary resist nonnuclear as well as nuclear threats to America`s allies, forces, and interests overseas.{close_quotes} As a result, the {open_quotes}flexible response{close_quotes} doctrine was developed to declare {open_quotes}that the United States, in consultation with its allies, is prepared to use nuclear weapons should other means of protection from Soviet attack threaten to fail.{close_quotes} In contrast, Freeman Dyson pointed out the Soviet Union was committed to the concept of {open_quotes}counterforce,{close_quotes} which meant that {open_quotes}if the Soviet Union sees a nuclear attack coming or has reason to believe that an attack is about to be launched, the Soviet Union will strike first at the attacker`s weapons with all available forces, and will then do whatever is necessary in order to survive.{close_quotes} Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the `rule of law.`
Date: April 19, 1997
Creator: Tanzman, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of Cooperative Monitoring Concepts and the CMC

Description: Cooperative monitoring holds the promise of utilizing many technologies from conflicts of the past to implement agreements of peace in the future. Important approaches to accomplish this are to develop the framework for assessing monitoring opportunities and to provide education and training on the technologies and experience available for sharing with others. The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories is working closely with agencies throughout the federal government, academics at home and abroad, and regional organizations to provide the technical tools needed to assess, design, analyze, and implement these cooperative agreements. In doing so, the goals of building regional confidence and increasing trust and communication can be furthered.
Date: May 14, 1999
Creator: Biringer, Kent L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal aspects of national implementation of the chemical weapons convention confidential provisions

Description: Today, I shall discuss legal aspects of implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention`s (CORK) confidentiality provisions. These implementing measures are universal, applying not only to the few States Parties that will declare and destroy chemical weapons, but also to the many States Parties that have never had a chemical weapons program. Progress is reported in actually developing implementing measures for the cork`s confidentiality requirements from Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden.
Date: May 9, 1995
Creator: Tanzman, E.A. & Kellman, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

Description: The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Gupta, Amit & Kamal, Nazir
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/4: Missile Control in South Asia and the Role of Cooperative Monitoring Technology

Description: The succession of nuclear tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998 has changed the nature of their missile rivalry, which is only one of numerous manifestations of their relationship as hardened adversaries, deeply sensitive to each other's existing and evolving defense capabilities. The political context surrounding this costly rivalry remains unmediated by arms control measures or by any nascent prospect of detente. As a parallel development, sensible voices in both countries will continue to talk of building mutual confidence through openness to avert accidents, misjudgments, and misinterpretations. To facilitate a future peace process, this paper offers possible suggestions for stabilization that could be applied to India's and Pakistan's missile situation. Appendices include descriptions of existing missile agreements that have contributed to better relations for other countries as well as a list of the cooperative monitoring technologies available to provide information useful in implementing subcontinent missile regimes.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Kamal, N. & Sawhney, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The value of auxiliary stations and the need for network calibration

Description: To address the question of the value of auxiliary stations placed before the GSE by the Ad Hoc Committee on Nuclear Test Ban, we examined the published location error estimates given by both the NEIS and the IDC. The results of our analysis demonstrate the well-known principle that the uncertainty in the location for a given event decreases as the number of defining phases (or stations) increases and as the azimuthal coverage increases. More importantly, however, the results also show that the location uncertainty dramatically decreases as the distance to the nearest station decreases. We also show that the empirically observed rate of overlap of corresponding IDC and NEIS error ellipses is inconsistent with expectation as determined by statistically modeling the performance of each. To overcome this shortcoming the IMS must be calibrated.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Denny, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verification Technologies: Cooperative Aerial Surveillance in International Agreements

Description: This report examines the potential and limitations of cooperative aerial surveillance as a means of supporting the goals of a variety of international agreements. It surveys the types of aircraft and sensors that might be used. It reviews the status of and issues raised by the Open Skies Treaty negotiations as an extended example of an aerial surveillance regime. The report concludes with a quantitative analysis of one possible use of cooperative over flights: the search for potential arms control violations.
Date: July 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verification Technologies: Managing Research and Development for Cooperative Arms Control Monitoring Measures

Description: This report examines the management of the research and development process from which the new technologies are emerging. Partly as a result of the way in which the research and development process is managed, the allocation of research resources appears to be geared to meeting short-term needs and solving isolated problems, rather than to pursuing long-term goals and developing integrated verification regimes for the future. The report identifies a range of organizational options that might help improve the balance of research emphasis.
Date: May 1991
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Arms Control Ratification: Opportunities for Modifying Agreements

Description: This report briefly examines arms control ratification and opportunities for modifying agreements. On July 14, 2015, Iran, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, and Germany (the P5+1) finalized a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)--an agreement that restricts Iran's nuclear program in an effort to ensure that it can only be used for peaceful purposes.
Date: September 2, 2015
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

Description: This report discusses the New START Treaty signed by Russia and the United States in 2010 which will be abided by until at least 2021 by the United States. The main provisions of the agreement andits ratification process and implementation, and issues for congress to consider are discussed(
Date: February 5, 2018
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The New START Treaty: An Overview of the Verification Regime

Description: The New START Treaty was signed April 8, 2010 stating how many strategic warheads, launchers and heavy bombers The Russian Federation and The United States may operate. This conference topic discusses tools of verification and how onsite verification will take place, and this data will be exchanged between each nation twice each year.
Date: unknown
Creator: Gottemoeller, Rose
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Renegotiating Arms Control Agreements: A Brief Review

Description: This report discusses previous arms control agreements that affected U.S. weapons programs or military activities. On July 14, 2015, Iran, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, China, and Germany finalized a Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA)--an agreement that restricts Iran's nuclear program in an effort to ensure that it can only be used for peaceful purposes.
Date: September 2, 2015
Creator: Woolf, Amy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Withdrawal from International Agreements: Legal Framework, the Paris Agreement, and the Iran Nuclear Agreement

Description: This report outlines the legal framework for withdrawal from international agreements under domestic and international law, and it examines legal issues related to the potential termination of two agreements that may be of significance to the 115th Congress: the Paris Agreement on climate change and the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) related to Iran's nuclear program.
Date: February 9, 2017
Creator: Mulligan, Stephen P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status

Description: Report that discusses the nuclear nonproliferation regime that encompasses several treaties, extensive multilateral and bilateral diplomatic agreements, multilateral organizations and domestic agencies, and the domestic laws of participating countries. The chemical and biological weapons (CBW) nonproliferation regimes contain three elements: the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC), and the Australia Group.
Date: October 25, 2012
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth; Kerr, Paul K. & Hildreth, Steven A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Globalizing Cooperative Threat Reduction: A Survey of Options

Description: Increasingly, Congress and the Bush Administration are looking to utilize nonproliferation assistance programs, including cooperative threat reduction (CTR), to help reduce the risk of terrorist access to weapons of mass destruction (WMD). This report analyzes the range of possible applications of CTR funds, the kinds of assistance that might be supplied, and describes legal, financial, technical, and political constraints on possible assistance.
Date: October 5, 2006
Creator: Squassoni, Sharon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department