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Far-Field Approximation in the Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH) Model

Description: Quantitative gamma spectrometry measurements of uranium frequently require corrections for attenuation by an equipment or container layer and by the uranium bearing material itself. It is common to correct for attenuation using the ''far-field approximation''. Under this approximation, the minimum thickness of equipment or material is used for the correction rather than an average thickness over the detector field-of-view. In reality this aspect of the far-field approximation is really a narrow field-of-view approximation. The price of this simplification is the introduction of a bias. This bias will be investigated in this paper. In addition, there is a distance dependence of the radial response of a detector. This dependence will also be investigated.
Date: September 7, 2006
Creator: Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A. & Chiang, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proton-Nucleus Scattering Approximations and Implications for LHC Crystal Collimation

Description: In particle accelerators, scattered protons with energies close to the incident particles may travel considerable distances with the beam before impacting on accelerator components downstream. To analyze such problems, angular deflection and energy loss of scattered particles are the main quantities to be simulated since these lead to changes in the beam's phase space distribution and particle loss. Simple approximations for nuclear scattering processes causing limited energy loss to high-energy protons traversing matter are developed which are suitable for rapid estimates and reduced-description Monte Carlo simulations. The implications for proton loss in the Large Hadron Collider due to nuclear scattering on collimation crystals are discussed.
Date: June 7, 2010
Creator: Noble, Robert; /SLAC & ,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetic Energy Principle And Neoclassical Toroidal Torque In Tokamaks

Description: It is shown that when tokamaks are perturbed the kinetic energy principle is closely related to the neoclassical toroidal torque by the action invariance of particles. Especially when tokamaks are perturbed from scalar pressure equilibria, the imaginary part of the potential energy in the kinetic energy principle is equivalent to the toroidal torque by the Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV). A unified description therefore should be made for both physics. It is also shown in this case that the potential energy operator can be self-adjoint and thus the stability calculation can be simplified by minimizing the potential energy
Date: November 7, 2011
Creator: Park, Jong-Kyu
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probing the nonlocal approximation to resonant collisions ofelectrons with diatomic molecules

Description: A numerically solvable two-dimensional model introduced bythe authors [Phys. Rev. A 73, 032721 (2006)]is used to investigate thevalidity of the nonlocal approximation to the dynamics of resonantcollisions of electrons with diatomic molecules. The nonlocalapproximation to this model is derived in detail, all underlyingassumptions are specified and explicit expressions for the resonant andnon-resonant (background) T matrix for the studied processes are given.Different choices of the so-called discrete state, which fully determinesthe nonlocal approximation, are discussedand it is shown that a physicalchoice of this state can in general give poorer results than otherchoices that minimize the non-adiabatic effects and/or the backgroundterms of the T matrix. The background contributions to the crosssections, which are usually not considered in the resonant theory ofelectron-molecule collisions, can be significant not only for elasticscattering but also for the inelastic process of vibrationalexcitation.
Date: September 7, 2007
Creator: Houfek, Karel; Rescigno, Thomas N. & McCurdy, C. William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

How Very Massive Metal Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization

Description: The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include non-equilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the Case B approximation using adaptively ray traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of {approx}10{sup 6}. These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small scales voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are! embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately 5 ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}} halos are dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}}, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15--50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Supernova feedback in these more massive halos creates a more diffuse medium, allowing the stellar radiation to escape more easily and maintaining the ratio of 5 ionizing ...
Date: November 7, 2007
Creator: Wise, John H. & Abel, Tom
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monte Carlo Mean Field Treatment of Microbunching Instability in the FERMI@Elettra First Bunch Compressor

Description: Bunch compressors, designed to increase the peak current, can lead to a microbunching instability with detrimental effects on the beam quality. This is a major concern for free electron lasers (FELs) where very bright electron beams are required, i.e. beams with low emittance and energy spread. In this paper, we apply our self-consistent, parallel solver to study the microbunching instability in the first bunch compressor system of FERMI{at}Elettra. Our basic model is a 2D Vlasov-Maxwell system. We treat the beam evolution through a bunch compressor using our Monte Carlo mean field approximation. We randomly generate N points from an initial phase space density. We then calculate the charge density using a smooth density estimation procedure, from statistics, based on Fourier series. The electric and magnetic fields are calculated from the smooth charge/current density using a novel field formula that avoids singularities by using the retarded time as a variable of integration. The points are then moved forward in small time steps using the beam frame equations of motion, with the fields frozen during a time step, and a new charge density is determined using our density estimation procedure. We try to choose N large enough so that the charge density is a good approximation to the density that would be obtained from solving the 2D Vlasov-Maxwell system exactly. We call this method the Monte Carlo Particle (MCP) method.
Date: May 7, 2009
Creator: Bassi, G.; Inst., /Liverpool U. /Cockroft; Ellison, J.A.; Heinemann, K.; U., /New Mexico; Warnock, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department