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Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues

Description: This report discusses emerging technologies (e.g., forward osmosis, nanocomposite and chlorine resistant membranes) that show promise for reducing desalination costs. It also discusses the research to support development of emerging technologies and to reduce desalination's environmental and social impacts.
Date: January 2, 2015
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Desalination and Membrane Technologies: Federal Research and Adoption Issues

Description: This report discusses emerging technologies (e.g., forward osmosis, nanocomposite and chlorine resistant membranes) show promise for reducing desalination costs. It discusses the Research to support development of emerging technologies and to reduce desalination's environmental and social impacts.
Date: January 8, 2013
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical Generation Using Non-Salable Low BTU Natural Gas

Description: High operating costs are a significant problem for independent operators throughout the U.S. Often, decisions to temporarily idle or abandon a well or lease are dictated by these cost considerations, which are often seen as unavoidable. Options for continuing operations on a marginal basis are limited, but must include non-conventional approaches to problem solving, such as the use of alternative sources of lease power, and scrupulous reduction of non-productive operating techniques and costs. The loss of access to marginal oil and gas productive reservoirs is of major concern to the DOE. The twin difficulties of high operating costs and low or marginal hydrocarbon production often force independent operators to temporarily or permanently abandon existing lease facilities, including producing wells. Producing well preservation, through continued economical operation of marginal wells, must be maintained. Reduced well and lease operating costs are expected to improve oil recovery of the Schaben field, in Ness County, Kansas, by several hundred thousands of barrels of oil. Appropriate technology demonstrated by American Warrior, allows the extension of producing well life and has application for many operators throughout the area.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Corsair, Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint Institute for Nanoscience Annual Report 2003

Description: The Joint Institute for Nanoscience (JIN) is a cooperative venture of the University of Washington and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to encourage and enhance high-impact and high-quality nanoscience and nanotechnology of all types. This first annual report for the JIN summarizes activities beginning in 2001 and ending at the close of fiscal year 2003 and therefore represents somewhat less than two years of activities. Major portions of the JIN resources are dedicated to funding graduate students and postdoctoral research associates to perform research in collaborations jointly directed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff scientists and University of Washington (UW) professors. These fellowships were awarded on the basis of applications that included research proposals. JIN co-sponsors an annual Nanoscale Science and Technology Workshop held in Seattle. In addition to involving PNNL staff in various UW nanoscience courses and seminars, a National Science Foundation grant Development of UW-PNL Collaborative Curriculums in Nano-Science and Technology has allowed the development of three intensive short courses that are taught by UW faculty, PNNL staff, and faculty from other institutions, including Washington State University, the University of Idaho, Stanford University, and the University of Alaska. The initial JIN agreement recognized that expansion of cooperation beyond UW and PNNL would be highly valuable. Starting in early 2003, efforts were initiated to form a regional communication link called the Northwest Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Network (N₄). In concept, N₄ is a tool to encourage communication and help identify regional resources and nanoscience and technology activities.
Date: February 1, 2004
Creator: Baer, Donald R. & Campbell, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint Institute for Nanoscience Annual Report 2004

Description: Due to the inherently interdisciplinary nature of nanoscience and nanotechnology, research in this arena is often significantly enhanced through creative cooperative activities. The Joint Institute for Nanoscience (JIN) is a venture of the University of Washington (UW) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to encourage and enhance high impact and high quality nanoscience and nanotechnology research that leverages the strengths and capabilities of both institutions, and to facilitate education in these areas. This report summarizes JIN award activities that took place during fiscal year 2004 and provides a historical list of JIN awardees, their resulting publications, and JIN-related meetings. Major portions of the JIN efforts and resources are dedicated to funding graduate students and postdoctoral research associates to perform research in collaborations jointly directed by PNNL staff scientists and UW professors. JIN fellowships are awarded on the basis of applications that include research proposals. They have been very successful in expanding collaborations between PNNL and UW, which have led to many excellent joint publications and presentations and enhanced the competitiveness of both institutions for external grant funding. JIN-based interactions are playing a significant role in creating new research directions and reshaping existing research programs at both the UW and PNNL. The JIN also co-sponsors workshops on Nanoscale Science and Technology, four of which have been held in Seattle and one in Richland. In addition to involving PNNL staff in various UW nanoscience courses and seminars, a National Science Foundation grant, Development of UW-PNL Collaborative Curriculums in Nano-Science and Technology, has allowed the development of three intensive short courses that are taught by UW faculty, PNNL staff, and faculty from other institutions, including Washington State University, the University of Idaho, Stanford University, and the University of Alaska. The JIN agreement recognizes that cooperation beyond UW and PNNL is highly valuable. Starting ...
Date: February 1, 2005
Creator: Baer, Donald R. & Campbell, Charles
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

Description: In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J. & Schwendiman, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 10 - technology development integration. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1996

Description: The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in conjunction with the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), will identify and integrate new technologies to meet site-specific environmental management (EM) requirements at contaminated sites appropriate to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) interests. This paper briefly reports overall progress for three activities: technology management, project management, and technology integration. Work performed over the reporting period has focused on providing logistical and administrative support. In addition, six monthly WPI reports to the EERC are included as appendices. The WPI reports contained detailed information for progress in each activity.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Hendrikson, J.G. & Daly, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assembly procedure for column cutting platform

Description: This supporting document describes the assembly procedure for the Column Cutting Platform and Elevation Support. The Column Cutting Platform is a component of the 241-SY-101 Equipment Removal System. It is set up on the deck of the Strongback Trailer to provide work access to cut off the upper portion of the Mitigation Pump Assembly (MPA). The Elevation Support provides support for the front of the Storage Container with the Strongback at an inclined position. The upper portion of the MPA must be cut off to install the Containment Caps on the Storage Container. The storage Container must be maintained in an inclined position until the Containment Caps are installed to prevent any residual liquids from migrating forward in the Storage Container.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Routh, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

Description: For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tazimina hydroelectric project, Iliamna, Alaska. Final technical and construction cost report

Description: The Iliamna-Newhalen-Nondalton Electric Cooperative (INNEC) provides electrical power to three communities of the same names. These communities are located near the north shore of Iliamna Lake in south-central Alaska approximately 175 miles southwest of Anchorage. A hydroelectric project was constructed for these communities, starting in the spring of 1996 and ending in the spring of 1998. The project site is on the Tazimina River about 12 miles northeast of Iliamna Lake. The taximina River flows west from the Aleutian Range. The project site is at Tazimina Falls about 9 miles upstream of the confluence of the Tazimina River and the Newhalen River. The project has an installed capacity of 824 kilowatts (kW) and is expandable to 1.5 megawatts (MW). The project is run-of-the-river (no storage) and uses the approximately 100 feet of natural head provided by the falls. The project features include a channel control sill, intake structure, penstock, underground powerhouse, tailrace, surface control building, buried transmission line and communication cable, and access road.
Date: August 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The introduction of automation systems into many of the facilities dealing with the production, use and disposition of nuclear materials has been an ongoing objective. Many previous attempts have been made, using a variety of monolithic and, in some cases, modular technologies. Many of these attempts were less than successful, owing to the difficulty of the problem, the lack of maturity of the technology, and over optimism about the capabilities of a particular system. Consequently, it is not surprising that suggestions that automation can reduce worker Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) levels are often met with skepticism and caution. The development of effective demonstrations of these technologies is of vital importance if automation is to become an acceptable option for nuclear material processing environments. The University of Texas Robotics Research Group (UTRRG) has been pursuing the development of technologies to support modular small automation systems (each of less than 5 degrees-of-freedom) and the design of those systems for more than two decades. Properly designed and implemented, these technologies have a potential to reduce the worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful development of systems for these applications requires the development of technologies that meet the requirements of the applications. These application requirements form a general set of rules that applicable technologies and approaches need to adhere to, but in and of themselves are generally insufficient for the design of a specific automation system. For the design of an appropriate system, the associated task specifications and relationships need to be defined. These task specifications also provide a means by which appropriate technology demonstrations can be defined. Based on the requirements and specifications of the operations of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) pilot line at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), which are considered to be representative ...
Date: December 1, 2000
Creator: TURNER, C.; PEHL, J. & AL, ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Assessment of Technology for Local Development

Description: A study by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) that "addresses the question of local development and the opportunities for-and appropriateness of-various technologies that can help local people to take advantage of local resources in meeting the needs of their own communities" (p. iii).
Date: January 1981
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.
Date: October 31, 2011
Creator: Schmidt, Darren D.; Smith, Steven A.; Sorensen, James A.; Knudsen, Damion J.; Harju, John A. & Steadman, Edward N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Clean Energy Coalition

Description: In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.
Date: September 28, 2010
Creator: Skootsky, Erin; Gardner, Matt & Flansburgh, Bevan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PACFEST : enabling technologies in the war on terrorism in the Pacific region.

Description: On October 22-24, 2003, about 40 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the United States and four other Pacific region countries meet in Kihei, Hawaii to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorm (a 'fest') of the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result of this exercise is a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrators of advanced technological solutions to these issues. In this approach, the participants were asked to view the problem and their potential solutions from multiple perspectives, and then to identify barriers (especially social and policy barriers) to any proposed technological solution. The final step was to create a roadmap for further action. This roadmap includes plans to: (1) create a conceptual monitoring and tracking system for people and things moving around the region that would be 'scale free', and develop a simple concept demonstrator; (2) pursue the development of a system to improve local terrorism context information, perhaps through the creation of an information clearinghouse for Pacific law enforcement; (3) explore the implementation of a Hawaii based pilot system to explore hypothetical terrorist scenarios and the development of fusion and analysis tools to work with this data (Sandia); and (4) share information concerning the numerous activities ongoing at various organizations around the understanding and modeling of terrorist behavior.
Date: December 1, 2003
Creator: Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Sugimura, Tak (Maui High Performance Computing Center, Maui, HI) & Chellis, Craig (Pacific Disaster Center, Maui, HI)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A review of the available technologies for sealing a potential underground nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

Description: The purpose of this report is to assess the availability of technologies to seal underground openings. The technologies are needed to seal the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Technologies are evaluated for three basic categories of seal components: backfill (general fill and graded fill), bulkheads, and grout curtains. Not only is placement of seal components assessed, but also preconditioning of the placement area and seal component durability. The approach taken was: First, review selected sealing case histories (literature searches and site visits) from the mining, civil, and defense industries; second, determine whether reasonably available technologies to seal the potential repository exist; and finally, identify deficiencies in existing technologies. It is concluded that reasonably available technologies do exist to place backfill, bulkheads, and grout curtains. Technologies also exist to precondition areas where seal components are to be placed. However, if final performance requirements are stringent for these engineered structures, some existing technologies may need to be developed. Deficiencies currently do exist in technologies that demonstrate the long-term durability and performance of seal components. Case histories do not currently exist that demonstrate the placement of seal components in greatly elevated thermal and high-radiation environments and in areas where ground support (rock bolts and concrete liners) has been removed. The as-placed, in situ material properties for sealing materials appropriate to Yucca Mountain are not available.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Fernandez, J. A. & Richardson, A. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In-tank pretreatment of high-level tank wastes: The SIPS system

Description: A new approach, termed SIPS (Small In-Tank Processing System), that enables the in-tank processing and separation of high-level tank wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) streams that are suitable for vitrification, is described. Presently proposed pretreatment systems, such as enhanced sludge washing (ESW) and TRUEX, require that the high-level tank wastes be retrieved and pumped to a large, centralized processing facility, where the various waste components are separated into a relatively small, radioactively concentrated stream (HLW), and a relatively large, predominantly non-radioactive stream (LLW). In SIPS, a small process module, typically on the order of 1 meter in diameter and 4 meters in length, is inserted into a tank. During a period of approximately six months, it processes the solid/liquid materials in the tank, separating them into liquid HLW and liquid LLW output streams that are pumped away in two small diameter (typically 3 cm o.d.) pipes. The SIPS concept appears attractive for pretreating high level wastes, since it would: (1) process waste in-situ in the tanks, (2) be cheaper and more reliable than a larger centralized facility, (3) be quickly demonstrable at full scale, (4) have less technical risk, (5) avoid having to transfer unstable slurries for long distances, and (6) be simple to decommission and dispose of. Further investigation of the SIPS concept appears desirable, including experimental testing and development of subscale demonstration units.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Reich, M.; Powell, J. & Barletta, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Phase II glass formulations for vitrification of Hanford Site low-level waste

Description: A vendor glass formulation study was carried out at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), supporting the Phase I and Phase II melter vendor testing activities for Westinghouse Hanford Company. This study is built upon the LLW glass optimization effort that will be described in a separate report. For Phase I vendor melter testing, six glass formulations were developed at PNL and additional were developed by Phase I vendors. All the doses were characterized in terms of viscosity and chemical durability by the 7-day Product Consistency Test. Twelve Phase II glass formulations (see Tables 3.5 and 3.6) were developed to accommodate 2.5 wt% P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 1.0 wt% S0{sub 3} without significant processing problems. These levels of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and SO{sub 3} are expected to be the highest possible concentrations from Hanford Site LLW streams at 25 wt% waste loading in glass. The Phase H compositions formulated were 6 to 23 times more durable than the environmental assessment (EA) glass. They melt within the temperature range of 1160{degrees} to 1410{degrees}C to suit different melting technologies. The composition types include boron-free for volatilization sensitive melters; boron-containing glasses for coId-cap melters; Zr-containing, glasses for enhanced Iong-term durability; and Fe-containing glasses for reducing melting temperature and melt volatility while maintaining chemical durability.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Feng, X.; Hrma, P.R. & Schweiger, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial experience with facility deactivation to safe storage

Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) has shutdown many production reactors; the Department has begun a major effort to also shutdown a wide variety of other nuclear facilities. Because so many facilities are being closed, it is necessary to place many of them into a safe- storage status, i.e., deactivation, before conducting decommissioning- for perhaps as long as 20 years. The challenge is to achieve this safe-storage condition in a cost-effective manner while remaining in compliance with applicable regulations. The DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Transition and Management, commissioned a lessons-learned study of commercial experience with safe storage and decommissioning. Although the majority of the commercial experience has been with reactors, many of the lessons learned presented in this document can provide insight into transitioning challenges that Will be faced by the DOE weapons complex.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Sype, T.T.; Fischer, S.R.; Lee, J.H. Jr.; Sanchez, L.C.; Ottinger, C.A. & Pirtle, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technological innovation in community housing development: Barriers to energy efficiency

Description: Community housing developers produce affordable housing and jobs for many residents of low-income neighborhoods through the rehabilitation of existing single and multi-family buildings. Typically operating as small, not-for-profits or community-based organizations, the vast numbers of community housing developers creates high coordinating costs of operating jointly to acquire the shared learning needed to implement new techniques, such as those involving energy efficiency. This paper presents a model of technology adoption that suggests that new profitable technologies will be adopted only with low probability and that strategic interaction between potential adopters further reduces the likelihood of adoption. These features result from the ability of potential adopters to postpone the bearing the costs of adoption of new technologies and their ability to share the knowledge of others who have adopted new technologies. These features are particularly characteristic of community housing developers.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Cavallo, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing US EPA`s environmental technology cooperation center: A new approach to Foster technology transfer partnerships

Description: This paper presents a conceptual framework and approach for establishing the US Environmental Protections Agency`s (EPA) environmental technology cooperation center. The topic is introduced with background information on events leading to the development and implementation of the center and brief overviews of the domestic and global environmental industries. The paper assesses several US environmental technology transfer programs and identifies significant, innovative, and instructive technology transfer methods which offer constructive models for the center. This examination focuses on several modes of public-private interaction required to facilitate the transfer of US environmental technologies into the international marketplace. Specific case studies of environmental technology cooperation initiatives include: the US-Asian Environmental Partnership (AEP), the US Environmental Training Institute (US ETI) and the recent International Environmental Technology Business Action Conference, which took place in Moscow last month. This information forms a basis for defining the needs, gaps and opportunities for the technology cooperation center. Technology transfer and cooperation programs must respond to a range of changing needs and requirements in the increasingly competitive and sophisticated global economy of the 1990`s. The environmental technology cooperation center concept developed by the US EPA offers an approach for enhancing public-private sector partnerships to improve domestic industry collaborations and enhance trans-national team-building. An innovative approach by EPA, in collaboration with other agencies and the private sector, can lead to the rapid introduction of a global network of national and regional centers to foster international environmental cooperation and team-building in the years ahead.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Burke, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management, visualization, and analysis of environmental and geotechnical data. Topical report

Description: This document is a topical report evaluating current technology on the management, visualization, and analysis of engineering and environmental data. This report gives an overview and assessment of the Integrated Computer Assisted Site Evaluation /Graphical Remedial Assessment and Cost Evaluation (ISACE/GRACE) system and includes brief descriptions of the Environmental Technology `94: Computing and Information Conference and the National Conference on Environmental Problem Solving with GIS.
Date: September 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liability: the complicated task of licensing law enforcement technologies

Description: This paper discusses a situation where a company (licensor) requires a liability policy as a condition of a license agreement, when licensing law enforcement technologies. The purpose of this discussion is to evaluate the reasons behind the need for extensive liability policies to protect licensors when marketing their law enforcement technologies to private industry. Finding a solution to the problem, therefore reducing the potential for high liability insurance costs, would be desirable. Since the risks associated with most technologies are virtually unknown, and because such technologies are used in very unpredictable legal environments, alternative ways of guaranteeing research and development enterprises that they will be covered against product liability are needed. Without such protection, licensors may require licensees to indemnify them beyond the usual guarantees provided in a licensing agreement, which may make the license too costly for smaller businesses. When the share of the market is limited to larger corporations, competition suffers and ultimately the cost to law enforcement agencies increases.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Hops, L.W. & Overlin, T.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department