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Assessment of research and development (R and D) needs in ammonia safety and environmental control

Description: This report characterizes the ammonia industry operations, reviews current knowledge of ammonia release and subsequent impacts, summarizes the status of release prevention and control methods and identify research and development needs for safety and environmental control. Appendices include: accidental spills and human exposure; adiabatic mixing of liquid nitrogen and air; fire and explosion hazards; and environmental impact rating tables. (PSB)
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Brenchley, D.L.; Athey, G.F. & Bomelburg, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Resource, technology, and environment at the geysers

Description: A general review, description, and history of geothermal development at the Geysers is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on environmental impacts of development of the area. The discussion is presented under the following chapter titles: introduction; energy, enthalpy and the First Law; vapor-producing geothermal reservoirs--review and models; geothermal; entropy and the Second Law; power plants--basics; H/sub 2/S emissions; hydrogen sulfide--possible health effects and odor; other emiss… more
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Weres, O.; Tsao, K. & Wood, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

OTEC-1 Power System Test Program: test plan for first deployment

Description: This report describes in detail all tests planned for the first eight-month deployment of OTEC-1, a test facility constructed by the US Department of Energy in order to test heat exchangers for closed-cycle power plants using ocean thermal energy. Tests to be performed during the first-deployment period are aimed primarily at determining (1) the effectiveness of countermeasures in preventing biofouling of the heat exchanters, (2) the extent of environmental impacts associated with operation of … more
Date: March 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO sub x /NO sub x control

Description: The objectives of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the tem… more
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. (Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States). Environmental Services and Technologies Div.) & Beittel, R. (Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Conversion rates in power plant plumes based on filter pack data. Part I. Coal-fired Cumberland plume

Description: The TVA Cumberland Steam Plant plume was monitored during the August 1978 Tennessee Plume Study of Project STATE. Samples were obtained by employing a triple screen high-volume assembly which contained: (1) a quartz filter for collecting particulate SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and NH/sub 4//sup +/, (2) two NaCl-impregnated cellulose filters for collecting gaseous nitrate, and (3) two K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-impregnated cellulose filters for collecting SO/sub 2/. Formation rates of sulfate an… more
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Forrest, J; Garber, R W & Newman, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

Description: The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the soun… more
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Somorjai, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Emission computed tomography of /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose and /sup 13/N-ammonia in stroke and epilepsy

Description: The ECAT Positron Tomograph was used to scan normal control subjects, stroke patients at various times during recovery, and patients with partial epilepsy during EEG monitoring. /sup 18/F-fluorodeoxyglucose (/sup 18/FDG) and /sup 13/N-Ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 3/) were used as indicators of abnormalities in local cerebral glucose utilization (LCMR/sub glc/) and relative perfusion, respectively. Hypometabolism, due to deactivation or minimal damage, was demonstrated with the /sup 18/FDG scan in de… more
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Kuhl, D. E.; Phelps, M. E. & Engel Jr., J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Structure of NH/sub 3/ on Ni(111)

Description: In a recent study of the adsorption of NH/sub 3/ on NI(111) at T approx. 190 K using angle resolved UPS, it was concluded that NH/sub 3/ is molecularly adsorbed, and is bonded to the surface via the N atom with the H atoms oriented away from the surface. To study the bonding configuration using a direct and independent technique, we have examined NH/sub 3/ on Ni(111) using the electron stimulated desorption ion angular distribution (ESDIAD) method, coupled with temperature programmed desorption… more
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Madey, T. E.; Houston, J. E.; Seabury, C. W. & Rhodin, T. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Atomic structure of clusters through chemical reactions

Description: Techniques for the probing of isolated metal cluster structure through adsorbate binding patterns will be described. The saturation of clusters with reagents such as ammonia and nitrogen provides information on the number of preferred binding sites for these reagents. The dependence of this number on cluster size can suggest particular structural themes. The equilibrium reaction with water can be used to identify cluster sizes having especially enhanced binding for the water molecule. Again, th… more
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Riley, S.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Diagnosing vegetation injury caused by air pollution

Description: The structure and function of plants in relation to air pollution injury is discussed. The sources, atmospheric chemistry, monitoring data, symptomatology, factors affecting plant response, injury threshold doses, air quality standards, relative sensitivity of plants, and leaf tissue analysis are discussed for major air pollutants. Among the pollutants discussed are: the photochemical oxidants (ozone, PAN, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fluorides). Minor pollutants discussed in the same f… more
Date: February 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biological Production of Ethanol From Coal

Description: A batch kinetic study involving Clostridium lungdahlii in a mineral medium was carried out in order to provide baseline data for the effects of nutrients on product ratio and kinetics. The use of this minimal medium containing vitamins, minerals, select amino acids and salts showed both a lower maximum specific growth rate and a lower maximum specific uptake rate than found when using a complex medium supplemented with 0.01% yeast extract. At the same time, the product ratio was improved slight… more
Date: January 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup

Description: The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of achieved carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The … more
Date: April 1, 1992
Creator: Gangwal, S.K. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)) & Silveston, P.L. (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO sub x /NO sub x control

Description: The objective of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temp… more
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. (Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States). Environmental Services and Technologies Div.) & Beittel, R. (Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Control of catalytic hydrotreating selectivity with ammonia. [Hydrodeoxygenation]

Description: The hydrogenation of naphthalene in the presence of 0, 24, or 48 kPa of ammonia derived from propyl amine was studied during the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of dibenzofuran (DBF). A new sample of sulfided NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at 360{degrees}C, 6.9 MPa total H{sub 2} pressure in a vapor phase tubular reactor was used. As a base-line the HDO of DBF was also studied in the absence of both naphthalene and ammonia. Ammonia inhibited both the HDO of dibenzofuran and the hydrogenation of napht… more
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Satterfield, C. N. & Lee, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development. Preliminary design report, Appendices, Part 1 (Final)

Description: The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary… more
Date: December 4, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biological Production of Ethanol From Coal

Description: The effects of temperature on the growth and uptake of CO by C. ljundahlii were studied in batch culture. A maximum specific growth rate of 0.095h{sup {minus}1} was found at 37{degrees}C, a normal optimum temperature for the growth of anaerobic bacteria. A maximum specific uptake rate of 0.0095 mmol/mg{center dot}h was found at a slightly higher temperature of 40{degrees}C. CSTR studies were carried out measuring the effects of agitation rate on culture performance. As expected, growth was best… more
Date: January 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation (OTEC) power system development (PDS) II. Preliminary design report

Description: This report documents the results and conclusions of the PDS II, Phase I, preliminary design of a 10 MWe OTEC power system, using enhanced plate type heat exchangers, and of representative 0.2 MWe test articles. It further provides the documentation (specifications, drawings, trade studies, etc.) resulting from the design activities. The data and discussions of the technical concepts are organized to respond to the PDS II, Phase II proposal evaluation criteria. This volume, which specifically a… more
Date: August 10, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Semiclassical methods for nonseparable systems

Description: Semiclassical techniques have been widely used for describing the dynamics of molecular collisions. The calculation of discrete energy eigenvalue spectra in bound systems has also employed semiclassical methods. Work has been done toward developing semiclassical theories for rate constants in reactive systems and semiclassical eigenvalues in bound systems. Application of these theories have been made to nonseparable multidimensional systems. Transition-state theory has played an important role … more
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Garrett, B.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Survey of absorption cooling technology in solar applications

Description: A comprehensive survey of the current state of the absorption cooling technology has been conducted. This survey discusses the basic and applied absorption cooling/heating technology, analyses the current state of the art including the discussion of limitations and possible solutions, identifies areas where promising developments are indicated, lists the current products and activities of the absorption industry, and presents the current RD and D efforts of the U.S. government. The main subject… more
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Auh, P C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Ammonia as a hydrogen energy-storage medium. [LH/sub 2/, MeOH, and NH/sub 3/]

Description: Liquid Hydrogen (LH/sub 2/), Methanol (MeOH), and Ammonia (NH/sub 3/) are compared as hydrogen energy-storage media on the basis of reforming the MeOH to produce H/sub 2/ and dissociating (cracking) the NH/sub 3/ to release H/sub 2/. The factors important in this storage concept are briefly discussed. Results of the comparison show that, in terms of energy input for media manufacture from natural gas, hydrogen energy content of the medium, and energy cost ($/10/sup 6/ Btu), NH/sub 3/ has a wide… more
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Strickland, G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Studies of the surface structures of molecular crystals and of adsorbed molecular monolayers on the (111) crystal faces of platinum and silver by low-energy electron diffraction

Description: The structures of molecular crystal surfaces were investigated for the first time by the use of low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The experimental results from a variety of molecular crystals were examined and compared as a first step towards understanding the properties of these surfaces on a microscopic level. The method of sample preparation employed, vapor deposition onto metal single-crystal substrates at low temperatures in ultrahigh vacuum, allowed concurrent study of the structure… more
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Firment, L.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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