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THE ISOTOPES OF AMERICIUM

Description: Three new americium activities (Am{sup 238}?, Am{sup 243}, and Am{sup 244?}, the latter two formed by n,{gamma} reactions) are described and some additional information is given on previously reported americium isotopes.
Date: April 11, 1950
Creator: Street, K.; Ghiroso, A. & Seaborg, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of delayed neutron emission from Np-237, Am-241, and Am-243

Description: Isotopes of transuranic elements are produced as a result of successive radiative capture reactions in the fuel of a nuclear reactor. Typically, these transuranic isotopes decay through long chains, have long half lives and dominate the long term toxicity of the spent reactor fuel. One of the options for waste management is to remove the transuranic from spent fuel by chemical processing, to load them into new special fuel elements, and to transmute them by neutron induced fission into shorter-lived fission fragments. Previous studies have shown the feasibility of actinide transmutation in either Light Water Reactors or Liquid Metal Fast Reactors. Due to the anticipated high transuranic loadings in the fuel of actinide burner reactors, the neutronic properties of the transuranic isotopes will have a significant effect on the operational and safety characteristics of such reactors. Experiments to determine delayed neutron group yields and decay constants for Np-237, Am-241, and Am-243 have been designed and carried out. The experiments were conducted at Texas A&M University TRIGA reactor using a very fast pneumatic transfer system.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Saleh, H. H.; Parish, T. A. & Raman, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report on 241,242Am(n,x) surrogate cross section measurement

Description: The main goal of this measurement is to determine the {sup 242}Am(n,f) and {sup 241}Am(n,f) cross sections via the surrogate {sup 243}Am. Gamma-ray data was also collected for the purpose of measuring the (n,2n) cross-sections. The experiment was conducted using the STARS/LIBERACE experimental facility located at the 88 Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory the first week of February 2011. A description of the experiment and status of the data analysis follow.
Date: February 16, 2011
Creator: Burke, J. T.; Ressler, J. J.; Gostic, J.; Henderson, R. A.; Bernstein, L. A.; Escher, J. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Pulsing Experiments to Measure Delayed Neutron Emission Parameters

Description: Recent interest in delayed neutron parameters including comparisons between macroscopic (experimental) and microscopic (calculated) results have prompted a set of experiments using the 1MW Triga Reactor at the Texas A and M University (TAMU) Nuclear Science Center (NSC) designed to measure the complete set of seven-group delayed neutron parameters for several higher actinides. Operating the Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) in a pulsed mode, a complete set of delayed neutron parameters were measured for Np-237 and Am-243. The total delayed neutron yield per 100 fissions for Np-237 and Am-243 was found to be 1.14 {+-} 0.07 and 0.85 {+-} 0.05, respectively. Comparisons to previous measurements are made where such measurements are available.
Date: October 5, 1998
Creator: Charlton, W.S.; Parish, T.A. & Raman, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal stress analysis of an Am/Cm stabilization bushing melter

Description: Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am{sup 243} and Cm{sup 244}. Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. The vitrification process in the Platinum-Rhodium alloy vessel generates a wide spectrum of temperature distributions. The melter is partially supported by a suspension system and confined by the flexible insulation. The combination of the fluctuation of temperature distribution and variable boundary conditions, induces stresses and strains in the melter. The thermal stress analysis is carried out with the finite element code ABAQUS. This analysis is closely associated with the design, manufacture and testing of the melter. The results were compared with the test data.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Gong, C. & Hardy, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power distribution for an Am/Cm bushing melter

Description: Decades of nuclear material production at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has resulted in the generation of large quantities of the isotopes Am{sup 243} and Cm{sup 244}. Currently, the Am and Cm isotopes are stored as a nitric acid solution in a tank. The Am and Cm isotopes have great commercial value but must be transferred to ORNL for processing. The nitric acid solution contains other isotopes and is intensely radioactive, which makes storage a problem and precludes shipment in the liquid form. In order to stabilize the material for onsite storage and to permit transport the material from SRS to ORNL, it has been proposed that the Am and Cm be separated from other isotopes in the solution and vitrified. Vitrification will be effected by depositing a liquid feed stream containing the isotopes in solution, together with a stream of glass frit, onto the top of a molten glass pool in a melter. The glass is non-conducting and the melter is a Platinum/Rhodium alloy vessel which is heated by passing an electric current through it. Because most of the power is required to evaporate the liquid feed at the top of the glass pool, power demands differ for the upper and lower parts of the melter. In addition, the melter is batch fed so that the local power requirements vary with time. In order to design a unique split power supply, which ensures adequate local power delivery, an analysis of the melter power distribution was performed with the ABAQUS finite element code. ABAQUS was used to calculate the electric potential and current density distributions in the melter for a variety of current and potential boundary conditions. The results of the calculation were compared with test data and will be used to compute power densities for input to a computational ...
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Gong, C. & Hardy, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of 243Am in 244Cm by Gamma Spectroscopy

Description: Gamma spectroscopy with a high resolution Ge(Li) detector is used to determine 243Am by its 74.7-keV gamma transition in solutions containing much higher specific activities of other actinides and fission products. The method is well suited for analytical control of curium process steps because of its simplicity, speed and reliability. This paper discusses the study results.
Date: August 29, 2001
Creator: Wakat, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UNDERWATER ANALYSIS OF IRRADIATED REACTOR SLUGS FOR Co-60 AND OTHER RADIONUCLIDES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

Description: Co-60 was produced in the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors in the 1970s, and the irradiated cobalt reactor slugs were stored in a reactor basin at SRS. Since the activity rates of these slugs were not accurately known, assaying was required. A sodium iodide gamma detector was placed above a specially designed air collimator assembly, so that the slug was eight to nine feet from the detector and was shielded by the basin water. Also, 18 curium sampler slugs, used to produce Cm-244 from Pu-239, were to be disposed of with the cobalt slugs. The curium slugs were also analyzed with a High Purity Germanium (HPGE) detector in an attempt to identify any additional radionuclides produced from the irradiation. Co-60 concentrations were determined for reactor disassembly basin cobalt slugs and the 18 curium sampler slugs. The total Co-60 activity of all of the assayed slugs in this work summed to 31,783 curies on 9/15/03. From the Co-60 concentrations of the curium sampler slugs, the irradiation flux was determined for the known irradiation time. The amounts of Pu-238,-239,-240,-241,-242; Am-241,-243; and Cm-242,-244 produced were then obtained based on the original amount of Pu-239 irradiated.
Date: May 10, 2004
Creator: CASELLA, VITO
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ALPHA-GAMMA ANGULAR CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS WITH LIQUID SOURCES

Description: Alpha-gamma angular correlation measurements were made with solid sources of Am/sup 243/ and with liquid sources containing either Am/sup 243/ or an even-even alpha emitter in dilute perchloric acid solutions. Even-even alpha emitters studied are U/sup 232/, Th/sup 230/, and Ra/sup 226/ . Thicknesses of the soli d sources were controlled so that the neptunium recoils from one source were stopped in Am/sub 2/O/sub 3/, while recoils from the other sources were stopped in the aluminum, gold, or mica backing on which the sources were vaporized. The liquid sources were films consisting of 3 microliters of solution placed between a rubber hydrochloride membrane and a microscope cover glass, 1 cm/sup 2/ in circular cross section. The perchloric acid concentration of the liquid sources ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 molar. All of the angular correlations obtained with solid Am/sup 243/ sources were attenuated, the average attenuation coefficients being 0.29 450 deg C in a 0.01 for sources in which recoils were stopped in Am/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0.20 450 deg C in a 0.01 for sources in which recoils were stopped in mica, 0.52 450 deg C in a 0.02 for sources in which recoils were stopped in gold, and 0.67 450 deg C in a 0.01 for sources in which recoils were stopped in aluminum. Unattenuated angular correlations were obtained with liquid sources containing Am/sup 243/ in 0.5 M and 1.0 M HClO/sub 4/ . For liquid sources containing Am/sup 243/ in 3.0 M HClO/sub 4/, the correlation was attenuated, with an average attenuation coefficient of 0.86 450 deg C in a 0.01. Attenuated angular correlations were also found with liquid sources containing an even-even nuclide in dilute aqueous solutions The average attenuation coefficients for the even-even nuclide liquid sources were G/sub 2/ = 0.75 450 deg C in a 0.05 ...
Date: February 1, 1963
Creator: Murphy, E.S. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production and measurement of minor actinides in the commercial fuel cycle

Description: The minor actinide elements, particularly neptunium and americium, are produced as a normal byproduct of the operation of thermal power reactors. Because of the existence of long-lived isotopes of these elements, they constitute the major sources of the residual radiation in spent fuel or in wastes resulting from reprocessing. This has led to examinations by some countries of the possibility of separating the minor actinides from waste products. The papers found in this report address the production of minor actinides in common thermal power reactors as well as approaches to measure these materials in various media. The first paper in this volume, {open_quotes}Production of Minor Actinides in the Commercial Fuel Cycle,{close_quotes} uses calculations with the ORIGEN2 reactor and decay code to estimate the amounts of minor actinides in spent fuel and separated plutonium as a function of reactor irradiation and the time after discharge. The second paper, {open_quotes}Destructive Assay of Minor Actinides,{close_quotes} describes a number of promising approaches for the chemical analysis of minor actinides in the various forms in which they are found at reprocessing plants. The next paper, {open_quotes}Hybrid KED/XRF Measurement of Minor Actinides in Reprocessing Plants,{close_quotes} uses the results of a simulation model to examine the possible applications of the hybrid KED/XRF instrument to the determination of minor actinides in some of the solutions found in reprocessing plants. In {open_quotes}Calorimetric Assay of Minor Actinides,{close_quotes} the authors show some possible extensions of this powerful technique beyond the normal plutonium assays to include the minor actinides. Finally, the last paper in this volume, {open_quotes}Environment Measurements of Transuranic Nuclides,{close_quotes} discusses what is known about the levels of the minor actinides in the environment and ways to analyze for these materials in environmental matrices.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Stanbro, W.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enumeration of microbial populations in radioactive environments by epifluorescence microscopy

Description: Epifluorescence microscopy was utilized to enumerate halophilic bacterial populations in two studies involving inoculated, actual waste/brine mixtures and pure brine solutions. The studies include an initial set of experiments designed to elucidate potential transformations of actinide-containing wastes under salt-repository conditions, including microbially mediated changes. The first study included periodic enumeration of bacterial populations of a mixed inoculum initially added to a collection of test containers. The contents of the test containers are the different types of actual radioactive waste that could potentially be stored in nuclear waste repositories in a salt environment. The transuranic waste was generated from materials used in actinide laboratory research. The results show that cell numbers decreased with time. Sorption of the bacteria to solid surfaces in the test system is discussed as a possible mechanism for the decrease in cell numbers. The second study was designed to determine radiological and/or chemical effects of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 237}Np, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U on the growth of pure and mixed anaerobic, denitrifying bacterial cultures in brine media. Pu, Am, and Np isotopes at concentrations of {le}1x10{sup -6} M , {le}5x10{sup -6} M and {le}5x10{sup -4}M respectively, and Th and U isotopes {le}4x10{sup -3}M were tested in these media. The results indicate that high concentrations of certain actinides affected both the bacterial growth rate and morphology. However, relatively minor effects from Am were observed at all tested concentrations with the pure culture.
Date: January 1997
Creator: Pansoy-Hjelvik, M. E.; Strietelmeier, B. A. & Paffett, M. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Savannah River Site radionuclide air emissions annual report for national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants

Description: The radiological air emission sources at the SRS have been divided into three categories, Point, Grouped and Non-Point, for this report. Point sources, analyzed individually, are listed with a listing of the control devices, and the control device efficiency. The sources listed have been grouped together either for security reasons or where individual samples are composited for analytical purposes. For grouped sources the listed control devices may not be on all sources within a group. Point sources that did not have continuous effluent monitoring/sampling in 1993 are noted. The emissions from these sources was determined from Health Protection smear data, facility radionuclide content or other calculational methods, including process knowledge, utilizing existing analytical data. This report also contain sections on facility descriptions, dose assessment, and supplemental information.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Sullivan, I.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of optical model activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: An update will be given of activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory aimed at developing optical model potentials for applied calculations. Recent work on a coupled-channels potential for neutron reactions on {sup 241,243}Am and spherical neutron potential updates for {sup 56}Fe and {sup 59}Co will be presented, together with examples of their application in nuclear reaction calculations with the GNASH code system. New potentials utilized in evaluations at Livermore for {sup 12}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 16}O are described and additional potentials from earlier analyses at Los Alamos of Ti, V, and Ni data are made available for possible inclusion in the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL) for nuclear model calculations of nuclear data. Specific activities directed at development of the optical potential segment of the RIPL will be summarized.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Young, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission cross section calculations of actinides with EMPIRE code

Description: The cross sections of the neutron induced reactions on {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,242}Pu, {sup 241,243}Am, {sup 242,246}Cm carried out in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV with EMPIRE code are presented, emphasizing the fission channel. Beside a consistent, accurate set of evaluations, the paper contains arguments supporting the choice of the reaction models and input parameters. A special attention is paid to the fission parameters and their uncertainties.
Date: April 30, 2010
Creator: Sin, M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman,M. & Capote,R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department