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Implications for the Cryogenic Fielding of Leaking Beryllium Capsules

Description: In this paper we show that the ambient temperature measured leakage time constant, {tau}{sub RT}, is related to the leakage at cryogenic temperature, R{sub C}, by R{sub C}= 0.23{rho}{sub DT}V{sub sh}/ {tau}{sub RT} where {rho}{sub DT} is the density of cryogenic DT vapor, and V{sub sh} is the internal volume of the shell. We then calculate the size of voids that may result from leakage at the Be/DT interface, depending upon the number of leakage sites and {tau}{sub RT}. Even for the slowest leakers the potential void growth is excessive. Reasons that voids have not been seen in DT layering experiments to date include the lack of a technique to see isolated micronish bubbles, however possible mechanisms preventing void formation are also discussed.
Date: February 20, 2007
Creator: Cook, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using Independent Component Analysis to Separate Signals in Climate Data

Description: Global temperature series have contributions from different sources, such as volcanic eruptions and El Nino Southern Oscillation variations. We investigate independent component analysis as a technique to separate unrelated sources present in such series. We first use artificial data, with known independent components, to study the conditions under which ICA can separate the individual sources. We then illustrate the method with climate data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction.
Date: January 28, 2003
Creator: Fodor, I K & Kamath, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of Anthropogenic Climate Change Using a Second-Generation Reanalysis

Description: Changes in the height of the tropopause provide a sensitive indicator of human effects on climate. A previous attempt to identify human effects on tropopause height relied on information from 'first-generation' reanalyses of past weather observations. Climate data from these initial model-based reanalyses have well-documented deficiencies, raising concerns regarding the robustness of earlier detection work that employed these data. Here, we address these concerns using information from the new second-generation ERA-40 reanalysis. Over 1979 to 2001, tropopause height increases by nearly 200 meters in ERA-40, partly due to tropospheric warming. The spatial pattern of height increase is consistent with climate model predictions of the expected response to anthropogenic influences alone, significantly strengthening earlier detection results. Atmospheric temperature changes in two different satellite datasets are more highly correlated with changes in ERA-40 than with those in a first-generation reanalysis, thus illustrating the improved quality of temperature information in ERA-40. Our results provide support for claims that human activities have warmed the troposphere and cooled the lower stratosphere over the last several decades of the 20th century, and that both of these changes in atmospheric temperature have contributed to an overall increase in tropopause height.
Date: June 2, 2004
Creator: Santer, Ben; Wiglet, Tom; Simmons, Adrian; Kallberg, Per; Kelly, Graeme; Uppala, Sakari et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-Term Predictions of Global Climate Using the Ocean Conveyor

Description: Many have attributed the Great Ocean Conveyor as a major driver of global climate change over millennia as well as a possible explanation for shorter (multidecadal) oscillations. The conveyor is thought to have a cycle time on the order of 1000 years, however recent research has suggested that it is much faster than previously believed (about 100 years). A faster conveyor leads to the possibility of the conveyor's role in even shorter oscillations such as the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The conveyor is primarily density driven. In this study the salty outflow of the Red Sea is used to predict its behavior ten years into the future. A successful model could lead to a long-term prediction (ten years) of El Ninos, Atlantic hurricane season intensity, as well as global temperature and precipitation patterns.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Ray, P. & Wilson, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

Description: In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.
Date: May 22, 2007
Creator: Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi & Rosenfeld, Arthur
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Samples of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and the polyimide Vespel{reg_sign} were exposed to tritium gas in closed containers initially at 101 kPa (1 atmosphere) pressure and ambient temperature for various times up to 2.3 years. Tritium exposure effects on the samples were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and radiolysis products were characterized by measuring the total final pressure and composition in the exposure containers at the end of exposure period.
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: Clark, E & Kirk Shanahan, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: About 730 BPMs are mounted on the RHIC CQS and Triplet super-conducting magnets. Semi-rigid coaxial cables are used to bring the electrical signal from the BPM feedthroughs to the outside flanges. at the ambient temperature. Every year around 10 cables will lose their signals during the operation. The connection usually failed at the warm end of the cable. The problems were either the solder joint failed or the center conductor retracted out of the SMA connector. Finite element analyses were performed to understand the failure mechanism of the solder joint. The results showed that (1) The SMA center conductor can separate from the mating connector due to the thermal retraction. (2) The maximum thermal stress at the warm end solder joint can exceed the material strength of the Pb37/Sn63 solder material and (3) The magnet ramping frequency (-10 Hz), during the machine startup, can possibly resonant the coaxial cable and damage the solder joints, especially when a fracture is initiated. Test results confirmed that by using the silver bearing solder material (a higher strength material) and by crimping the cable at the locations close to the SMA connector (to prevent the center conductor from retracting) can effectively resolve the connector failure problem.
Date: June 25, 2007
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining Camera Gain in Room Temperature Cameras

Description: James R. Janesick provides a method for determining the amplification of a CCD or CMOS camera when only access to the raw images is provided. However, the equation that is provided ignores the contribution of dark current. For CCD or CMOS cameras that are cooled well below room temperature, this is not a problem, however, the technique needs adjustment for use with room temperature cameras. This article describes the adjustment made to the equation, and a test of this method.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Cogliati, Joshua
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using the Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Eruption to Determine Climate Sensitivity: Comments on "Climate Forcing by the Volcanic Eruption of Mount Pinatubo" by David H. Douglass and Robert S. Knox

Description: [1] Douglass and Knox [2005], hereafter referred to as DK, present an analysis of the observed cooling following the 1991 Mt. Pinatubo eruption and claim that these data imply a very low value for the climate sensitivity (equivalent to 0.6 C equilibrium warming for a CO{sub 2} doubling). We show here that their analysis is flawed and their results are incorrect.
Date: April 22, 2005
Creator: Wigley, T L; Ammann, C M; Santer, B D & Taylor, K E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

14C/C measurements support Andreev's internode method to determine lichen growth rates in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti

Description: Growth rates and the ability to date an organism can greatly contribute to understanding its population biology and community dynamics. 1n 1954, Andreev proposed a method to date Cladina, a fruticose lichen, using total thallus length and number of internodes. No research, however, has demonstrated the reliability of this technique or compared its estimates to those derived by other means. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of {sup 14}C/C ratios to determine lichen age and growth rate in Cladina stygia (Fr.) Ahti collected from northwestern Alaska, USA. The average growth rate using {sup 14}C/C ratios was 6.5 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}, which was not significantly different from growth rates derived by Andreev's internode method (average = 6.2 mm {center_dot} yr{sup -1}); thus, suggesting the reliability of Andreev's simple field method for dating lichens. In addition, we found lichen growth rates appeared to differ with geographic location, yet did not seem related to ambient temperature and total precipitation.
Date: December 5, 2007
Creator: Holt, E. & Bench, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ambient-temperature Conditioning as a Probe of Double-C Transformation Mechanisms in Pu-2.0 at. % Ga

Description: The gallium-stabilized Pu-2.0 at. % Ga alloy undergoes a partial or incomplete low-temperature martensitic transformation from the metastable {delta} phase to the gallium-containing, monoclinic {alpha}{prime} phase near -100 C. This transformation has been shown to occur isothermally and it displays anomalous double-C kinetics in a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram, where two nose temperatures anchoring an upper- and lower-C describe minima in the time for the initiation of transformation. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the double-C behavior are currently unresolved, although recent experiments suggest that a conditioning treatment--wherein, following an anneal at 375 C, the sample is held at a sub-anneal temperature for a period of time--significantly influences the upper-C of the TTT diagram. As such, elucidating the effects of the conditioning treatment upon the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation can provide valuable insights into the fundamental mechanisms governing the double-C kinetics of the transition. Following a high-temperature anneal, a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to establish an optimal conditioning curve that depicts the amount of {alpha}{prime} formed during the transformation as a function of conditioning temperature for a specified time. With the optimal conditioning curve as a baseline, the DSC was used to explore the circumstances under which the effects of the conditioning treatment were destroyed, resulting in little or no transformation.
Date: April 2, 2008
Creator: Jeffries, J R; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A & Schwartz, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Burst Martensitic Transformations in a Steel and in a Pu-Ga Alloy

Description: Upon cooling a Pu-2.0 at% Ga alloy from the ambient temperature, the metastable delta phase partially transforms martensitically to the alpha-prime phase. Because this transformation involves a 25% volume contraction, plastic accommodation by the delta matrix must occur. When the material is isochronally heated or isothermally annealed above ambient temperatures, the reversion of alpha-prime to delta is likely to occur by the alpha-prime/delta interface moving to consume the alpha-prime particles. This reversion exhibits a burst martensitic mode and is observed as sharp spikes in differential scanning calorimetry data and as steps in resistometry data. These large bursts appear to be the result of an interplay between the autocatalytically driven transformation of individual alpha-prime particles and self-quenching caused by small changes in temperature and/or stress accompanying each burst. The behavior of this Pu-Ga alloy is compared to that of a steel referred to as a ''burst martensite'' in the literature, which also exhibits bursts during both thermal cycling and isothermal holds.
Date: June 14, 2005
Creator: Blobaum, K; Krenn, C; Wall, M & Schwartz, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report. IUT No. B560420 with UC Berkeley. Organic Chemistry at High Pressures &Temperatures

Description: We have successfully completed the research outlined in our proposal: Organic Chemistry at High Pressures and Temperatures. We have experimentally determined a phase diagram which documents the phases and reaction regimes of cyanuric acid , H{sub 3}C{sub 3}N{sub 3}O{sub 3} (1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-trione), from 300 - 750 K and 0 - 8.1 GPa. We utilized a comparatively new technique to study thin samples of cyanuric acid in the diamond anvil cell in order to collect ambient temperature, high pressure FTIR and Raman data as well as the high-pressure, high-temperature data used in the phase diagram. These experiments made use of the CMLS High-pressure lab's diamond anvil facilities as well as the FTIR and Raman systems.
Date: March 20, 2007
Creator: Montgomery, W; Crowhurst, J C; Zaug, J M & Jeanloz, R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE STI Product/Final Report Number 3 Electrochemical Investigation of Novel Electrolytes for Ambient Temperature Sodium Batteries

Description: The need for low-cost, high-energy density, durable, secondary batteries continues to rise with the demands of the electronics and automobile industries. A room-temperature version of the (high-temperature) ''Zebra Cell'' may provide an interesting technology for portable electronics and transportation. Sodium-based batteries have received attention as an alternative to the lithium-based batteries due to several factors including the absence of dendrite formation during sodium deposition and the abundance of sodium. This work focused on (1) the development of room-temperature ionic liquids (IL) for use in electrochemical devices, including batteries, (2) development and evaluation of secondary sodium batteries using room-temperature ILs, and (3) advancing the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes involving ILs and battery technology. Several objectives were accomplished during this program.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Kim, Ketack; Lang, Christopher M.; Doyle, Kevin & Kohl, Paul A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reversible expansion of gallium-stabilized (delta)-plutonium

Description: It is shown that the transient expansion of plutonium-gallium alloys observed both in the lattice parameter as well as in the dimension of a sample held at ambient temperature can be explained by assuming incipient precipitation of Pu{sub 3}Ga. However, this ordered {zeta}-phase is also subject to radiation-induced disordering. As a result, the gallium-stabilized {delta}-phase, being metastable at ambient temperature, is driven towards thermodynamic equilibrium by radiation-enhanced diffusion of gallium and at the same time reverted back to its metastable state by radiation-induced disordering. A steady state is reached in which only a modest fraction of the gallium present is arranged in ordered {zeta}-phase regions.
Date: February 27, 2006
Creator: Wolfer, W G; Oudot, B & Baclet, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reversible expansion of gallium-stabilized delta-plutonium

Description: The transient expansion of plutonium-gallium alloys observed both in the lattice parameter as well as in the dimension of a sample held at ambient temperature is explained by assuming incipient precipitation of Pu{sub 3}Ga. However, this ordered {zeta}{prime}-phase is also subject to radiation-induced disordering. As a result, the gallium-stabilized {delta}-phase, being metastable at ambient temperature, is both driven towards thermodynamic equilibrium by radiation-enhanced diffusion of gallium and at the same time pushed back to its metastable state by radiation-induced disordering. A steady state is reached in which only a modest fraction of the gallium present is tied up in the {zeta}{prime}-phase.
Date: January 26, 2006
Creator: Wolfer, W; Oudot, B & Baclet, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently storing plutonium materials in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility. The materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and transported and stored in KAMS in Model 9975 shipping packages, which include double containment vessels sealed with dual O-rings made of Parker Seals compound V0835-75 (based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT). The outer O-ring of each containment vessel is credited for leaktight containment per ANSI N14.5. O-ring service life depends on many factors, including the failure criterion, environmental conditions, overall design, fabrication quality and assembly practices. A preliminary life prediction model has been developed for the V0835-75 O-rings in KAMS. The conservative model is based primarily on long-term compression stress relaxation (CSR) experiments and Arrhenius accelerated-aging methodology. For model development purposes, seal lifetime is defined as a 90% loss of measurable sealing force. Thus far, CSR experiments have only reached this target level of degradation at temperatures {ge} 300 F. At lower temperatures, relaxation values are more tolerable. Using time-temperature superposition principles, the conservative model predicts a service life of approximately 20-25 years at a constant seal temperature of 175 F. This represents a maximum payload package at a constant ambient temperature of 104 F, the highest recorded in KAMS to date. This is considered a highly conservative value as such ambient temperatures are only reached on occasion and for short durations. The presence of fiberboard in the package minimizes the impact of such temperature swings, with many hours to several days required for seal temperatures to respond proportionately. At 85 F ambient, a more realistic but still conservative value, bounding seal temperatures are reduced to {approx}158 F, with an estimated seal lifetime of {approx}35-45 years. The actual service life for O-rings in a maximum wattage package likely lies higher than the estimates due to ...
Date: November 24, 2009
Creator: Hoffman, E. & Skidmore, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Diameter effect curve and detonation front curvature measurements for ANFO

Description: Diameter effect and front curvature measurements are reported for rate stick experiments on commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium-nitrate/fuel-oil) at ambient temperature. The shots were fired in paper tubes so as to provide minimal confinement. Diameters ranged from 77 mm ({approx} failure diameter) to 205 mm, with the tube length being ten diameters in all cases. Each detonation wave shape was fit with an analytic form, from which the local normal velocity Dn, and local total curvature {kappa}, were generated as a function of radius R, then plotted parametrically to generate a Dn({kappa}) function. The observed behavior deviates substantially from that of previous explosives, for which curves for different diameters overlay well for small {kappa} but diverge for large {kappa}, and for which {kappa} increases monotonically with R. For ANFO, we find that Dn({kappa}) curves for individual sticks (1) show little or no overlap--with smaller sticks lying to the right of larger ones, (2) exhibit a large velocity deficit with little {kappa} variation, and (3) reach a peak {kappa} at an intermediate R.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Catanach, R. A. (Richard A.) & Hill, L. G. (Larry G.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Experiments and calculations were conducted with a 0.13 mm fine wire thermocouple within a naturally-aspirated Gill radiation shield to assess and improve the accuracy of air temperature measurements without the use of mechanical aspiration, wind speed or radiation measurements. It was found that this thermocouple measured the air temperature with root-mean-square errors of 0.35 K within the Gill shield without correction. A linear temperature correction was evaluated based on the difference between the interior plate and thermocouple temperatures. This correction was found to be relatively insensitive to shield design and yielded an error of 0.16 K for combined day and night observations. The correction was reliable in the daytime when the wind speed usually exceeds 1 m s{sup -1} but occasionally performed poorly at night during very light winds. Inspection of the standard deviation in the thermocouple wire temperature identified these periods but did not unambiguously locate the most serious events. However, estimates of sensor accuracy during these periods is complicated by the much larger sampling volume of the mechanically-aspirated sensor compared with the naturally-aspirated sensor and the presence of significant near surface temperature gradients. The root-mean-square errors therefore are upper limits to the aspiration error since they include intrinsic sensor differences and intermittent volume sampling differences.
Date: September 9, 2009
Creator: Kurzeja, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of Cavitation-Erosion Resistance of Potential Pump Impeller Materials for Mercury Service at the Spallation Neutron Source

Description: Using a standard vibratory horn apparatus, the relative cavitation-erosion resistance of a number of cast alloys in mercury was evaluated to facilitate material selection decisions for Hg pumps. The performance of nine different alloys - in the as-cast condition as well as following a case-hardening treatment intended to increase surface hardness - was compared in terms of weight loss and surface profile development as a function of sonication time in Hg at ambient temperature. The results indicated that among several potentially suitable alloys, CD3MWCuN perhaps exhibited the best overall resistance to cavitation in both the as-cast and surface treated conditions while the cast irons examined were found unsuitable for service of this type. However, other factors, including cost, availability, and vendor schedules may influence a material selection among the suitable alloys for Hg pumps.
Date: March 1, 2007
Creator: Pawel, Steven J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Cavitation-Erosion Resistance of Carburized and Carburized-Plus-Nitrided 316LN Stainless Steel in Mercury

Description: Annealed type 316LN stainless steel in the (1) carburized and the (2) carburized plus nitrided conditions was evaluated for cavitation-erosion resistance in ambient temperature mercury using a vibratory horn method. The results indicated that, relative to the specimens receiving only the carburizing treatment, the specimens that received both surface treatments exhibited substantially greater weight loss, general thinning, and profile development as a function of sonication time - with all observed degradation limited to the nitrided layer. Further, the nitride layer was observed to be susceptible to extensive cracking (occasionally leading to spallation), but the cracking was never observed to penetrate into the carburized layer. These screening test results suggest there is no improvement in cavitation-erosion resistance associated with augmentation of the carburizing treatment with plasma nitriding.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Pawel, Steven J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revisiting the Recommended Geometry for the Diametrally Compressed Ceramic C-Ring Specimen

Description: A study conducted several years ago found that a stated allowable width/thickness (b/t) ratio in ASTM C1323 (Standard Test Method for Ultimate Strength of Advanced Ceramics with Diametrally Compressed C-Ring Specimens at Ambient Temperature) could ultimately cause the prediction of a non-conservative probability of survival when the measured C-ring strength was scaled to a different size. Because of that problem, this study sought to reevaluate the stress state and geometry of the C-ring specimen and suggest changes to ASTM C1323 that would resolve that issue. Elasticity, mechanics of materials, and finite element solutions were revisited with the C ring geometry. To avoid the introduction of more than 2% error, it was determined that the C ring width/thickness (b/t) ratio should range between 1-3 and that its inner radius/outer radius (ri/ro) ratio should range between 0.50-0.95. ASTM C1323 presently allows for b/t to be as large as 4 so that ratio should be reduced to 3.
Date: April 1, 2009
Creator: Jadaan, Osama M. & Wereszczak, Andrew A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cryogenic infrastructure for Fermilab's ILC vertical cavity test facility

Description: Fermilab is building a Vertical Cavity Test Facility (VCTF) to provide for R&D and pre-production testing of bare 9-cell, 1.3-GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities for the International Linear Collider (ILC) program. This facility is located in the existing Industrial Building 1 (IB1) where the Magnet Test Facility (MTF) also resides. Helium and nitrogen cryogenics are shared between the VCTF and MTF including the existing 1500-W at 4.5-K helium refrigerator with vacuum pumping for super-fluid operation (125-W capacity at 2-K). The VCTF is being constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is scheduled for completion in mid 2007, and includes modifications to the IB1 cryogenic infrastructure to allow helium cooling to be directed to either the VCTF or MTF as scheduling demands require. At this stage, the VCTF consists of one Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostat for the testing of one cavity in a 2-K helium bath. Planning is underway to provide a total of three Vertical Test Stands at VCTF, each capable of accommodating two cavities. Cryogenic infrastructure improvements necessary to support these additional VCTF test stands include a dedicated ambient temperature vacuum pump, a new helium purification skid, and the addition of helium gas storage. This paper describes the system design and initial cryogenic operation results for the first VCTF phase, and outlines future cryogenic infrastructure upgrade plans for expanding to three Vertical Test Stands.
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Carcagno, R.; Ginsburg, C.; Huang, Y.; Norris, B.; Ozelis, J.; Peterson, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department