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Map Showing Altitude of the Top of the Fox Hills-Lower Hell Creek Aquifer, Montana

Description: Introduction: In 1978 the U.S. Geological Survey began a 4-year study of aquifers in the northern Great Plains. The purpose of this map, which is a product of that study, is to show the altitude of the top of the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer. Other maps show the total thickness (Feltis, 1982a). cumulative thickness of sandstone (Feltis, 1982b), and potentiometric surface of water (Levings, 1982) of the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer. These maps are part of a series that describes the geology and potentiometric surface of selected rock units of Jurassic or younger age in the plains area of Montana.
Date: 1982
Creator: Feltis, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The altitude effect on air speed indicators 2

Description: In an investigation described in NACA Technical Report 110, it was shown that under certain conditions, particularly for the relatively low-speed flight of airships, the data obtained were not sufficiently accurate. This report describes an investigation in which the data obtained were sufficiently accurate and complete to enable the viscosity correction to be deduced quantitatively for a number of the air-speed pressure nozzles in common use. The report opens with a discussion of the theory of the performance of air-speed nozzles and of the calibration of the indicators, from which the theory of the altitude correction is developed. Then follows the determination of the performance characteristics of the nozzles and calibration constants used for the indicators. In the latter half of the report, the viscosity correction is computed for the Zahm Pitot-venturi nozzles.
Date: 1923?~
Creator: Eaton, H. N. & MacNair, W. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude performance of J71-A-2(600-D1) turbojet engine

Description: From Introduction: "As part of a complete investigation of the J71-A-2(600-D1) turbojet engine conducted in an altitude test chamber at the NACA Lewis laboratory, the steady-state altitude performance, with afterburner inoperative and ejector shroud removed, was obtained and is presented herein. The component performance of the J71-A-2(600-D1) turbojet engine is presented in reference 1. The effects of compressor interstage bleed and adjustable inlet guide vanes on compressor-stall characteristics are described in reference 2."
Date: December 28, 1956
Creator: Smith, Ivan D. & Sivo, Joseph N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calibration and lag of a Friez type cup anemometer

Description: "Tests on a Friez type cup anemometer have been made in the variable density wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory to calibrate the instrument and to determine its suitability for velocity measurements of wind gusts. The instrument was calibrated against a Pitot-static tube placed directly above the anemometer at air densities corresponding to sea level, and to an altitude of approximately 6000 feet. Air-speed acceleration tests were made to determine the lag in the instrument reading. The calibration results indicate that there should be an altitude correction. It is concluded that the cup anemometer is too sluggish for velocity measurements of wind gusts" (p. 1).
Date: June 1930
Creator: Pinkerton, Robert M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure drop in tank and float vent tubes on diving airplanes

Description: Report presenting an experiment regarding tank and float venting conditions that exist on diving airplanes undergoing rapid changes in altitude. The results indicated that large pressure differences build up between the outside and inside of tanks and floats on diving airplanes unless the correct size of venting tube is used.
Date: January 1939
Creator: Waldron, C. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of altitude in blind flying

Description: In this note, instruments for measuring altitude and rate of change of altitude in blind flying and landing of aircraft and their performance are discussed. Of those indicating the altitude above ground level, the sonic altimeter is the most promising. Its present bulk, intermittent operation, and more or less unsatisfactory means of indication are serious drawbacks to its use. The sensitive type aneroid altimeter is also discussed and errors in flying at a pressure level and in landing are discussed in detail.
Date: August 1934
Creator: Brombacher, W. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude performance and operational characteristics of an XT38-A-2 turboprop engine

Description: From Introduction: "Reported herein are the over-all engine performance and the starting and windmilling characteristics. Data are presented in the form of performance maps at each flight condition to show the effects of altitude and flight Mach number on various engine-performance variables. The effect of engine deterioration with operating time on performance is also discussed."
Date: March 12, 1954
Creator: Essig, R. H. & Schulze, F. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude performance of compressor, turbine, and combustor components of 600-B9 turbojet engine

Description: From Introduction: "The purpose of this report is (1) to describe the performance of each component over a range of altitudes, (2) to show the effect of flight conditions on operating point of each component, and (3) to summarize briefly the effects of changes in component performance with flight condition on the over-all engine performance."
Date: March 15, 1954
Creator: Prince, William R. & Wile, Dorwin B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude performance evaluation of J71-A-11 turbojet engine

Description: From Summary: "Data were obtained with five exhaust-nozzle areas and with the variable-area exhaust nozzle interlinked with the control system at conditions simulating flight at a Mach number of 0.8 and altitudes of 35,00 and 45,000 feet. Data simulating operation at zero flight Mach number at an altitude of 15,000 feet are also included. Engine component performance data are presented in addition to the overall engine performance."
Date: March 30, 1956
Creator: Useller, James W. & Pappas, George E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude performance of pentaborane - JP-4 fuel blends in a modified J47 combustor

Description: From Introduction: "Experimental investigations of the combustion characteristics of diborane, pentaborane, and pentaborane-hydrocarbon blends in modified turbojet combustors have been conducted at this laboratory at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Department of the Navy, as part of Project Zip. Results of these single-combustor tests are presented in references 2 to 5."
Date: April 17, 1957
Creator: Branstetter, J. Robert & Kaufman, Warner B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-Pipe Burner With Converging Conical Burner Section on J47 Turbojet Engine

Description: From Introduction: "The effect of flame-holder and fuel-system design on the burner performance and the effect of altitude and flight Mach number on over-all performance with a fixed-area exhaust nozzle are reported in reference 1 to 4. Altitude performance characteristics of a tail-pipe burner having a converging conical burner section are presented in this report. Tail-pipe burner performance at several flight conditions is given in both tabular and graphical forms and compared with performance of the standard engine and of the tail-pipe burner reported in reference 2."
Date: December 19, 1950
Creator: Prince, William R. & McAulay, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Altitude Chamber for the Study and Calibration of Aeronautical Instruments

Description: "The design and construction of an altitude chamber, in which both pressure and temperature can be varied independently, was carried out by the NACA at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of studying the effects of temperature and pressure on aeronautical research instruments. Temperatures from +20c to -50c are obtained by the expansion of CO2from standard containers. The chamber can be used for the calibration of research instruments under altitude conditions simulating those up to 45,000 feet" (p. 1).
Date: November 1925
Creator: Reid, H. J. E. & Kirchner, Otto E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Altitude Performance Characteristics of the J73-GE-1A Turbojet Engine

Description: From Introduction: "The over-all altitude-performance characteristics of this engine are reported herein, and the component performance characteristics are given in reference 1. The data are presented in the form of engine pumping characteristics to allow accurate calculation of engine performance at any operating or flight condition within the range covered by the experimental data. A curve is also presented that will allow determination of thrust in flight by the measurement of ambient static pressure and total pressure in the exhaust nozzle."
Date: December 9, 1954
Creator: Campbell, Carl E. & Conrad, E. William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Altitude on Power of Aviation Engines

Description: "These notes are intended to furnish practical and general data on the effect of altitude on engine power. The effective horsepower of an engine is a function of the mean pressure of the fluid acting on the pistons, of the R.P.M. of the engine and of the mechanical efficiency" (p. 1).
Date: November 1924
Creator: Raffaelli, Italo
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Velocity gained and altitude lost in recoveries from inclined flight paths

Description: A series of charts is given showing the variation of the velocity gained and the altitude lost in dive pullouts with the initial indicated air speed and the dive angle. The effects of the maximum load factor, the drag parameter K, the initial altitude, and the type of recovery on the velocity gained and the altitude lost are also considered. The results were obtained from a step-by-step solution of the equations of motion in which mean values of the air density and the airplane drag coefficient were used. The load-factor variation with time is arbitrarily specified in various ways to simulate pull-out procedures, some of which might be encountered in flight.
Date: October 1941
Creator: Pearson, H. A. & Garvin, J. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Altitude Flying

Description: This note investigates the effect of high altitude or low atmospheric pressure upon the operation of an engine and the effect of the low pressure and lack of oxygen and of the very low temperatures upon the pilot and upon the performance of the airplane itself.
Date: May 1924
Creator: King, Paul B. & Carroll, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermo-Chemical Ablation During Reentrant and High Altitude Skipping Flight

Description: Thermo-chemical ablation during reentrant and high altitude skipping flights is treated using a variety of techniques. The solid material response is computed using heat-balance integrals, finite differences, and finite elements. The surface mass loss is computed using curve fits to the standard transport coefficient approach and by a surface kinetic model. Agreement between the approaches, when using the curve fits, is good. All approaches concur that for the skipping trajectory studied there is very little mass loss and surface temperatures remain in a range where the thermal protection system can be reused.
Date: March 28, 2000
Creator: Havstad, M. & Carter, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A simplified chart for determining Mach number and true airspeed from airspeed-indicator readings

Description: "The determination of flight Mach number from measurements of indicated airspeed and pressure altitude is shown to be relatively simple and leads to direct and accurate computation of true airspeed. A simplified chart is presented for determining flight Mach number and true airspeed for a range of values of indicated airspeed, pressure altitude, and air temperature. A table of standard atmospheric values is included" (p. 1).
Date: March 1943
Creator: Baals, Donald D. & Ritchie, Virgil S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Optical Altitude Indicator for Night Landing

Description: One of the most ingenious of the devices intended for use in night landing, especially emergency landing, is a very simple optical instrument known as the Jenkins night altitude indicator. The design and operation of this instrument, which allows a pilot to determine the altitude of the aircraft, is discussed. The author discusses various modifications and improvements that might be made to the instrument.
Date: January 1923
Creator: Warner, John A. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An analysis of airspeeds and Mach numbers attained by Lockheed Constellation airplanes in transcontinental operations during the early summer of 1946

Description: Report presenting airspeed and altitude data obtained from Lockheed Constellation airplanes flying between New York and San Francisco during May and June of 1946 in order to determine the probability of reaching or exceeding given values of airspeed and Mach number. Analysis indicated that the total probability of exceeding the placard "never extend" speed depends primarily on the probability of exceeding this speed in descent. The probability of exceeding the critical Mach number is very negligible.
Date: October 10, 1947
Creator: Steiner, Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Test Models and Numerical Experiments for the Simulation of the Global Distribution of Weather Data Transponders II. Vertical Transponder Motion Considerations

Description: The vertical motion of constant density atmospheric balloons has been considered via an equation of motion for the vertical displacement of a balloon, due to vertical air motion, which can be numerically solved for balloon positions. Initial calculations are made for a constant density atmosphere. Various vertical wind models with relatively large amplitudes are applied to the model to determine how tightly the balloons are coupled to the reference level and the time scale for the balloons to change to the wind driven reference altitude. A surface launch of a balloon to a 6 km reference altitude is modeled using a detailed atmospheric pressure-density-temperature profile in the equation of motion. The results show the balloons to be relatively tightly coupled ({approx} 50-100 m) to the reference altitude.
Date: November 29, 1999
Creator: Grossman, A. & Errico, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department