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The fission cross section ratios and error analysis for ten thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium isotopes at 14. 74 MeV neutron energy

Description: The error information from the recent measurements of the fission cross section ratios of nine isotopes, /sup 230/Th, /sup 232/Th, /sup 233/U, /sup 234/U, /sup 236/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu, relative to /sup 235/U at 14.74 MeV neutron energy was used to calculate their correlations. The remaining 36 non-trivial and non-reciprocal cross section ratios and their errors were determined and compared to evaluated (ENDF/B-V) values. There are serious differences but it was concluded that the reduction of three of the evaluated cross sections would remove most of them. The cross sections to be reduced are /sup 230/Th - 13%, /sup 237/Np - 9.6% and /sup 239/Pu - 7.6%. 5 refs., 6 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1987
Creator: Meadows, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental monitoring report for Pantex Plant covering 1977

Description: During 1977 Pantex Plant conducted a monitoring program to determine the concentration of specific radioactive and non-radioactive species in the local environment. Although the plant activities involve the handling of significant quantities of uranium, plutonium, and tritium, only small releases of uranium (depleted in the isotope /sup 235/U) and tritium occurred which could have affected the local environment. Monitoring data indicate that concentrations of these nuclides in the environment are below established criteria for air and water and therefore should not present a health hazard either to employees or to the public. Nonradioactive emissions were also well below prescribed standards and constituted no health hazard.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Alexander, R.E. & Horton, C.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast Breeder Blanket Facility. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1978--March 31, 1978

Description: The work performed in the reporting period was primarily concerned with the continued preanalysis of the first experimental sequence (Task B) and the loading of the first blanket (Task C). Progress on testing experimental equipment and performing checkout tests is also summarized. A comparison of calculated spectra for the original FBBF design, the ''as-built'' facility, and a large LMFBR is reported. A description of the one- and two-dimensional models used for reaction rate and spectrum calculations are summarized together with a comparison of the results.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Clikeman, F.M. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron formation temperature gauge and neutron activation analysis brine flow meter. Final report, October 1, 1976--March 31, 1978

Description: Feasibility studies of nuclear techniques applicable to the determination of geothermal formation temperature and two-phase brine flow downhole have been performed. The formation temperature gauging technique involves injection of fast neutrons into the formation and analysis of the moderated slow neutron energy distribution by appropriately filtered neutron detectors. The scientific feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by analytical computational and experimental evaluation of the system response. A data analysis method has been developed to determine unambiguously the temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power of an arbitrary medium. The initial phase of a program to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of the technique has been performed. A sonde mockup was fabricated and measurements have been performed in a test stand designed to simulate a geothermal well. The results indicate that the formation temperature determined by this method is independent of differences between the temperature in the borehole fluid and the formation, borehole fluid density, and borehole fluid salinity. Estimates of performance specifications for a formation temperature sonde have been made on the basis of information obtained in this study and a conceptual design of a logging system has been developed. The technique for the determination of fluid flow in a well is based on neutron activation analysis of elements present in the brine. An analytical evaluation of the method has been performed. The results warrant further, experimental evaluation.
Date: March 31, 1978
Creator: Vagelatos, N.; Steinman, D.K. & John, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The early solar system abundance of /sup 244/Pu as inferred from the St. Severin chondrite

Description: We describe the analysis of Xe released in stepwise heating of neutron-irradiated samples of the St. Severin chondrite. This analysis indicates that at the time of formation of most chondritic meteorites, approximately 4.56 x 10/sup 9/ years ago, the atomic ratio of /sup 244/Pu//sup 238/U was 0.0068 +- 0.0010 in chondritic meteorites. We believe that this value is more reliable than that inferred from earlier analyses of St. Severin. We feel that this value is currently the best available estimate for the early solar system abundance of /sup 244/Pu. 42 refs., 2 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1987
Creator: Hudson, G.B.; Kennedy, B.M.; Podosek, F.A. & Hohenberg, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

Description: Two important environmental problems at the USDOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) facility in Fernald, Ohio were studied in this human health risk assessment. The problems studied were radon emissions from the K-65 waste silos, and offsite contamination of ground water with uranium. Waste from the processing of pitchblende ore is stored in the K-65 silos at the FEMP. Radium-226 in the waste decays to radon gas which escapes to the outside atmosphere. The concern is for an increase in lung cancer risk for nearby residents associated with radon exposure. Monitoring data and a gaussian plume transport model were used to develop a source term and predict exposure and risk to fenceline residents, residents within 1 and 5 miles of the silos, and residents of Hamilton and Cincinnati, Ohio. Two release scenarios were studied: the routine release of radon from the silos and an accidental loss of one silo dome integrity. Exposure parameters and risk factors were described as distributions. Risks associated with natural background radon concentrations were also estimated.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Baxter, S.L.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Pardi, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report, June 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

Description: Research in nuclear spectroscopy at University of Tennessee from June 1980 through May 1981 is summarized. Topics covered include: radioactive decay studies; high spin states; inelastic scattering and reactions of heavy ions from deformed nuclei; and nuclear structure theory. (GHT)
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L. & Guidry, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological characterization of the Kellex site. Publication No. 45020. [Metal fabrication; pilot plant to demonstrate units for gaseous diffusion]

Description: A radiological characterization has been conducted at the former Kellex Corporation site in Jersey City, New Jersey. Although several prior surveys and a remedial action were conducted, there was still a need for more information about the radiological condition of the site. A grid was established on the site and the surface was surveyed by a mobile in situ detection system. Trenches were systematically dug in an attempt to find subsurface areas of contamination. Material from the trenches was surveyed by the in situ measurement system and trench sidewalls were soil sampled and surveyed using portable dose rate and count rate instrumentation. Results of the survey indicated that radioactivity levels on the site were at or near background. Small amounts of contaminated material were found but not enough to exceed the guideline specified.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Hutchinson, S.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume V. Safety, quality assurance and reliability

Description: The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Included in this volume are: launch and flight safety considerations; quality assurance techniques and procedures to be followed through system fabrication, assembly and inspection; and the reliability program made up of reliability prediction analysis, failure mode analysis and criticality analysis. (LCL)
Date: March 15, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume I. Phase II program plan

Description: The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Phase II of the overall 3-phase KIPS program is described. This volume presents a program plan for qualifying the organic Rankine power system for flight test in 1982. The program plan calls for the design and fabrication of the proposed flight power system; conducting a development and a qualification program including both environmental and endurance testing, using an electrical and a radioisotope heat source; planning for flight test and spacecraft integration; and continuing ground demonstration system testing to act as a flight system breadboard and to accumulate life data. (LCL)
Date: March 15, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions

Description: A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O. & Young, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pu-238 fuel form activities, January 1-31, 1982

Description: This monthly report for /sup 238/Pu fuel form activities has two main sections: SRP-PuFF facility and SRL fuel form activities. The program status, budget information, and milestone schedules are discussed in each main section. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for this program is shown. Only one monthly report per year is processed for EDB.
Date: March 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Welding iridium heat-source capsules for space missions

Description: A remote computer-controlled welding station was developed to encapsulate radioactive PuO/sub 2/ in iridium. Weld quench cracking caused an interruption in production of capsules for upcoming space missions. Hot crack sensitivity of the DOP-26 iridium alloy was associated with low melting constituents in the grain boundaries. The extent of cracking was reduced but could not be eliminated by changes to the welding operation. An ultrasonic test was developed to detect underbead cracks exceeding a threshold size. Production was continued using the ultrasonic test to reject capsules with detectable cracks.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Kanne, W.R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung:

Description: This report summarizes an inhalation exposure experiment that concerns early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung of rats. Both morbidity at 18 months and mortality within 18 months after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter /sup 147/Pm, the alpha-emitter /sup 238/Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1)for pulmonary functional morbidity at 18 months and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis within 18 months. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations after combined chronic alpha and beta irradiation of the lung. A relative biological effectiveness of approximately 7 was obtained for /sup 238/Pu alpha radiation compared to /sup 147/Pm beta radiation for both pulmonary functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. 12 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1988
Creator: Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Newton, G.J.; Eidson, A.F.; Mauderly, J.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclides in US coals

Description: The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.
Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Bisselle, C. A. & Brown, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-life power sources for continuous and repetitive loads

Description: Long life electrical power sources compatible with continuous and repetitive pulse loads are of increasing interest for Sandia systems. Both primary chemical batteries and radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG) are capable of supplying power for long periods of time. However, each has its particular advantages and disadvantages and neither alone may represent a good match to the system constraints. The purpose of this report is to provide some insight into the power, volume, and cost trade-offs between either of these sources alone and between hybrids consisting of RTGs with primary batteries, secondary batteries, or capacitors. These trade-offs suggest that the hybrid power sources may have significant volume and cost advantages for many applications.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Young, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nondestructive fissile isotopic measurement technique for /sup 233/U--/sup 235/U fuels using prompt and delayed fission--neutron counting

Description: Assay and analysis procedures were developed for nondestructive fissile isotopic measurement of mixed /sup 233/U--/sup 235/U fuel samples. For /sup 233/U much fewer delayed neutrons are released per fission than for /sup 235/U, although the number of prompt neutrons is approximately the same. By separately counting prompt and delayed neutrons released by a sample exposed to neutron irradiation, the amounts of /sup 233/U and /sup 235/U present in the sample can be estimated. Equations of delayed- and prompt-neutron counts versus /sup 233/U and /sup 235/U contents are solved simultaneously for the /sup 233/U and /sup 235/U contents of a sample. Eleven samples containing mixtures of /sup 233/U and /sup 235/U from no /sup 233/U to nearly 100% were prepared and assayed in prompt- and delayed-neutron assay devices. Constants for calibration equations, which are derived in this report, were fitted to data from nine of the samples. The maximum differences between counts calculated by the calibration equations and measured counts were 2.3% for delayed neutrons and 1.2% for prompt neutrons, indicating a good selection of the form for the calibration equations. The two remaining samples were treated as unknowns, and the uranium contents of these samples were estimated by simultaneously solving the two calibration equations. The maximum difference between estimated /sup 233/U or /sup 235/U content and actual content for either sample was 1.5%.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Allen, E.J. & McNeany, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Savannah River Plant californium-252 Shuffler electronics manual

Description: Detailed information is presented in this report, an electronics manual for the Savannah River Plant Shuffler, about the electronics associated with the various control and data acquisition functions of the Shuffler subsystems. Circuit diagrams, interconnection information, and details about computer control and programming are included.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Bourret, S.C.; Crane, T.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Gallegos, E.A. & Garcia, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formation temperature gauge feasibility study. Volume II. [Neutron radiometric gauge]

Description: The present status of the formation temperature gauge feasibility study is reported. It also demonstrates the feasibility of the technique in the simplified situations examined to date both analytically and experimentally. The first section deals with the theory underlying the technique. The next three sections describe the temperature gauge, the simplified model calculations of the gauge response, and the preliminary experimental measurements performed to verify the results of the computational study. The final section describes the formation temperature test stand designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique in the geothermal well geometry. This test stand has been assembled and measurements of the gauge response will begin shortly. These are outlined at the end of this report.
Date: March 9, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Excess /sup 129/Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

Description: Excesses of /sup 129/Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these /sup 129/Xe excesses have been thought to be related to /sup 129/I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial /sup 129/Xe excesses based on the production of /sup 129/I from the spontaneous fission of /sup 238/U.
Date: March 1, 1987
Creator: Caffee, M.W. & Hudson, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of predictive models for geologic disposal of radioactive waste via natural analogs

Description: The incorporation of toxic or hazardous material in the earth's crust is a phenomenon not unique to radioactive waste burial. Useful insights on the environmental transport and effects of underground toxic or radioactive material can be derived from comparative analysis against natural (mineral) analogs. This paper includes a discussion of the background and rationale for the analog approach, a descripton of several variations of the approach, and some sample applications to illustrate the concept, focusing on Radium-226 and Iodine-129 as specific case studies.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Cohen, J.J. & Smith, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder. Volume 5. Neutronic issues and optimization

Description: More rigorous nuclear analysis, including the treatment of resonance self-shielding effects coupled with an optimization procedure, has resulted in improved performance of the Be/Li/Th blanket. Net U-233 breeding ratio has increased 36% (to 0.84) while at a U/Th ratio of 0.25 a/o energy multiplication has increased 12% (to 2.1) compared with earlier results.
Date: March 29, 1985
Creator: Lee, J.D. & Bandini, B.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nucleonics of a Be-Li-Th blanket for the fusion breeder

Description: The nuclear performance of a candidate fission-suppressed, U233-producing blanket is assessed. It is predicted to have a breeding ratio (fusile + fissile) of 1.68 and produce U233 at a rate of 8030 kg/year from 3140 MW of DT fusion and a blanket coverage of 96%. Blanket energy multiplication is estimated to vary between 1.3 and 2.0 as the U233/Th232 ratio varies between 0 and 0.5%. Heterogeneous effects in the blanket's pebble-bed configuration were found to be important and more detailed analysis is needed to more accurately predict Li6 content required and U233 fission power versus U233 content.
Date: March 28, 1983
Creator: Lee, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department