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Modeling of ICRH H-minority-driven n = 1 Resonant Modes in JET

Description: A nonperturbative code NOVA-KN (Kinetic Nonperturbative) has been developed to account for finite orbit width (FOW) effects in nonperturbative resonant modes such as the low-frequency MHD modes observed in the Joint European Torus (JET). The NOVA-KN code was used to show that the resonant modes with frequencies in the observed frequency range are ones having the characteristic toroidal precession frequency of H-minority ions. Results are similar to previous theoretical studies of fishbone instabilities, which were found to exist at characteristic precession frequencies of hot ions.
Date: August 21, 2003
Creator: Gorelenkov, N.N.; Mantsinen, M.J.; Sharapov, S.E.; Cheng, C.Z. & Contributors, the JET-EFDA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the Internal Magnetic Field of Plasmas using an Alpha Particle Source

Description: The internal magnetic fields of plasmas can be measured under certain conditions from the integrated v x B deflection of MeV alpha particles emitted by a small radioactive source. This alpha source and large-area alpha particle detector would be located inside the vacuum vessel but outside the plasma. Alphas with a typical energy of 5.5 MeV (241Am) can reach the center of almost all laboratory plasmas and magnetic fusion devices, so this method can potentially determine the q(r) profile of tokamaks or STs. Orbit calculations, background evaluations, and conceptual designs for such a vxB (or ''AVB'') detector are described.
Date: May 13, 2004
Creator: Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Ross, P.W.; Lowrance, J.L. & Renda, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Construction of a Fast Ion Loss Faraday Cup Array Diagnostic for JET

Description: A thin foil Faraday cup array is being built to measure the loss of 3.5 MeV alpha particles and MeV ion cyclotron heating (ICH) tail ions on JET. It will consist of nine detectors spread over five different poloidal locations and three radial positions. They will measure the poloidal distribution and radial scrape off of the losses. The detectors will be comprised of four layers of thin (2.5 micron) Ni foil, giving some resolution of the lost particle energy distribution as different ranges of energies will stop in different layers of the detector. One detector will utilize eight thinner (1.0 micron) foils to obtain a better resolved energy distribution. These detectors will accept particles incident up to 45{sup o} from the normal to the foils.
Date: April 26, 2004
Creator: Darrow, D.S.; Bauumel, S.; Cecil, F.E.; Kiptily, V.; Ellis, R.; Pedrick, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alpha Channeling in a Rotating Plasma

Description: The wave-particle α-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with α particles in a mirror machine with E × B rotation to diffuse the α particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the α-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the RF waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity.
Date: September 23, 2008
Creator: Fisch, Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lightest Isotope of Bh Produced Via the 209Bi(52Cr,n)260BhReaction

Description: The lightest isotope of Bh known was produced in the new {sup 209}Bi({sup 52}Cr,n){sup 260}Bh reaction at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. Positive identification was made by observation of eight correlated alpha particle decay chains in the focal plane detector of the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator. {sup 260}Bh decays with a 35{sub -9}{sup +19} ms half-life by alpha particle emission mainly by a group at 10.16 MeV. The measured cross section of 59{sub -20}{sup +29} pb is approximately a factor of four larger than compared to recent model predictions. The influences of the N = 152 and Z = 108 shells on alpha decay properties are discussed.
Date: May 7, 2007
Creator: Nelson, Sarah L.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Dragojevic, Irena; Garcia, Mitch A.; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Sudowe, Ralf et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes in TFTR Deuterium-Tritium Plasmas

Description: Purely alpha-particle-driven Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAEs) with toroidal mode numbers n=1-6 have been observed in Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)]. The appearance of mode activity following termination of neutral beam injection in plasmas with q(0)>1 is generally consistent with theoretical predictions of TAE stability [G.Y. Fu et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 4036 (1996]. Internal reflectometer measurements of TAE activity is compared with theoretical calculations of the radial mode structure. Core localization of the modes to the region of reduced central magnetic shear is confirmed, however the mode structure can deviate significantly from theoretical estimates. The peak measured TAE amplitude of delta n/n~10(superscript -4) at r/a~0.3-0.4 corresponds to delta B/B~10-5, while dB/B~10(superscript -8) is measured at the plasma edge. Enhanced alpha particle loss associated with TAE activity has not been observed.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Fu, G.Y.; Berk, H.; Nazikian, R.; Batha, S.H.; Chang, Z. & al, et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applying Alpha-Channeling to Mirror Machines

Description: The α-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic α- particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefi t open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of α- channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the α-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the α -channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly-damped modes are identifi ed. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the α -channeling effect can be signi cantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the α-channeling wave to the fuel ions.
Date: March 16, 2012
Creator: Zhmoginov, A. I. & Fisch, N. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flux Control in Networks of Diffusion Paths

Description: A class of optimization problems in networks of intersecting diffusion domains of a special form of thin paths has been considered. The system of equations describing stationary solutions is equivalent to an electrical circuit built of intersecting conductors. The solution of an optimization problem has been obtained and extended to the analogous electrical circuit. The interest in this network arises from, among other applications, an application to wave-particle diffusion through resonant interactions in plasma.
Date: July 8, 2009
Creator: Fisch, A. I. Zhmoginov and N. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulation of Alpha Particles in Rotating Plasma Interacting with a Stationary Ripple

Description: Superthermal ExB rotation can provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and enhanced confinement to axisymmetric mirrors. However, the rotation speed has been limited by phenomena at end electrodes. A new prediction is that rotation might instead be produced using a magnetic ripple and alpha particle kinetic energy, in an extension of the alpha channeling concept. The interaction of alpha particles with the ripple results in visually interesting and practically useful orbits.
Date: January 11, 2011
Creator: Fetterman, Abraham J. & Fisch, Nathaniel J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Targeted and Single Particle Subcellular Irradiation

Description: The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube.
Date: March 12, 2004
Creator: Yanch, Jacquelyn C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fast Ion Effects on Fishbones and n=1 Kinks in JET Simulated by a Non-perturbative NOVA-KN Code

Description: New global non-perturbative hybrid code, NOVA-KN, and simulations of resonant type modes in JET [Joint European Torus] plasmas driven by energetic H-minority ions are presented. The NOVA-KN code employs the ideal-MHD description for the background plasma and treats non-perturbatively the fast particle kinetic response, which includes the fast ion finite orbit width (FOW) effect. In particular, the n = 1 fishbone mode, which is in precession drift resonance with fast ions, is studied. The NOVA-KN code is applied to model an n = 1 (f = 50-80kHz) MHD activity observed recently in JET low density plasma discharges with high fast ion (H-minority) energy content generated during the ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). This n = 1 MHD activity is interpreted as the instability of the n = 1 precession drift frequency fishbone modes.
Date: October 28, 2004
Creator: Gorelenkov, N.N.; Cheng, C.Z.; Kiptily, V.G.; Mantsinen, M.J.; Sharapov, S.E. & Contributors, the JET-EFDA
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stimulation of the corneal blinking reflex by ionizing radiation

Description: Accelerated alpha particles from the Berkeley heavy-ion linear accelerator were used in a series of experiments designed to elucidate the conditions by which radiation can stimulate or modify nerve action in mammals. Single millisecond pulses in excess of 40,000 radsor pulse trains of less than 1 sec duration elicited the corneal blinking reflex when delivered to the cornea of unanesthetized rabbits. The lowest threshold dose was observed when the Bragg ionization peak was placed at 140 {mu} depth.
Date: May 4, 1961
Creator: Tobias, C.; Luce, J.; Yanni, N.; Brustad, T.; Lyman, J. & Kimura, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alpha contamination assessment for D&D activities: Monitoring concrete surfaces

Description: The process of decontaminating and decomissioning former nuclear facilities sometimes requires that large areas of concrete and other materials be scanned to verify they are not contaminated. A specially developed concrete surface monitor (CSM) can greatly expedite that process. The CSM is basically an aluminum box, open on the bottom, that uses an electrostatic field to transport ions created by alpha particles interacting with ambient air to a collection grid or plate. A sensitive electrometer measures the resulting current, which is essentially proportional to surface alpha activity. The initial prototype CSM surveys a surface area of some 300 cm{sup 2} at one time, while a second-generation prototype surveys 2500 cm{sup 2} and is designed to compensate automatically for radon, which can cause substantial errors in estimating surface contamination in some cases. These monitors have been successfully demonstrated on a number of concrete surfaces in situ as well as on concrete pieces cut from former facilities.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Conaway, J.G. & MacArthur, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion flooding to precharge insulating materials

Description: This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The collection of ions created by alpha particles in air is a powerful technique for detecting the presence of alpha-emitting radioactive contamination. These ions have a relatively long lifetime (greater than 5 seconds) in air so the ions can travel much longer distances than the alpha particles themselves. However, such ion detection is difficult when the object being surveyed is an insulating material. An insulating object does not release ions generated until the surface of the object has completely discharged. Thus, there are significant response-time problems with contamination on insulating objects. This project sought to investigate the technique of {open_quotes}flooding{close_quotes} the suspect object with ions prior to the actual contamination detection measurement. Our preliminary conclusion is that such flooding will enhance detection speed on insulating objects.
Date: October 1996
Creator: MacArthur, D.; Steadman, P.; Bounds, J.; Whitley, C. & Rawool-Sullivan, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of coherent lidar to ion measurements in plasma diagnostics

Description: A coherent lidar system has been constructed for the measurement of alpha particles in a burning plasma. The lidar system consists of a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser transmitter and a heterodyne receiver. The receiver local oscillator is a cw, sequence-band CO{sub 2} laser operating with a 63.23 GHz offset from the transmitter.
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A. & Simpson, M.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation of the {alpha}-particle ground state

Description: The Correlated Hyperspherical Harmonic expansion method is used to calculate alpha-particle properties with a realistic hamiltonian consisting of the Argonne V14 two nucleon and Urbana model VIII three nucleon potentials. The calculated binding energy, mass radius and wave percentages are close to the corresponding quantities obtained with Green's Function Monte Carlo and Faddeev-Yakubovsky techniques.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Viviani, M.; Kievsky, A. & Rosati, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

''Magic'' Energies for Detecting Light Elements with Resonant Alpha Particle Backscattering

Description: Resonant backscattering is widely used to improve the detection limit of the light elements such as B, C, N and O. One disadvantage, however, is that several incident energies are normally needed if the sample contains a number of the light elements. There are ''magic'' energies at which several light elements can be detected simultaneously with suitable sensitivities. When these energies are used along with the elastic recoil detection of hydrogen, multiple elements can be detected without changing the beam energy, and the analysis time is greatly reduced. These reactions along with examples will be discussed.
Date: November 4, 1998
Creator: Wetteland, C.J.; Maggiore, C.J.; Tesmer, J.R.; He, X-M. & Lee, D-H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AN IMPROVED NUCLEAR DENSITY GAUGE. Period covered: September 2 to October 1, 1959

Description: Progress in development of a nuclear density gage for use in thickness and density measurements is reported. A Ross filter system for energy discrimination in the alpha ray region was constructed. Soller slits for collimating the radiation entering and leaving the filters so that a constant absorber thickness is seen by the radiation beam is under construction. Comments by visiting Russian scientists on the density gage and a discussion of their work in this area are included. (J.R.D.)
Date: October 31, 1960
Creator: Burgwald, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PORTABLE ALPHA-SURVEY INSTRUMENT

Description: A transistcrized, portable alpha-survey instrument was developed. Features included are: time-proved air proportional probe (18 in./sup 2/ area); D- cell powered, built-in speaker and audio amplifier; circuit board modules; and sufficient sensitivity and high-voltage power to operate almost any similar type of detector without modification. (auth)
Date: April 17, 1961
Creator: Roach, W.J. & Walker, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COUNTING METHODS FOR THE ASSAY OF RADIOACTIVE SAMPLES

Description: A guide is presented for problems involved in counting methods and techniques used in avoiding or correcting . them. Beta, alpha, and gamma counting is treated. Among the items discussed are the geometry factor, absorption, scattering, and background. A bibliography of 164 references is included. (D.J.C.)
Date: May 1, 1961
Creator: Steinberg, E.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carrier-free Radioisotopes from Cyclotron Targets I. Preparation and Isolation of Sn113 and In114 from Cadmium

Description: The cyclotron is the only practical source of many carrier-free radioisotopes. The preparation and radiochemical isolation of a number of these activities, produced in the 60-inch cyclotron of Crocker Laboratory, will be presented in this paper and in subsequent papers of this series. In most cases the carrier-free radioisotopes were prepared for use in biological systems and the final preparations were in the form of isotonic saline solutions at a range of pH from 5 to 8. The present paper reports the radiochemical isolation of carrier-free Sn{sup 113} and In{sup 114} produced by bombarding cadmium with 38 Mev alpha-particles. At this energy, Sn{sup 113} and In{sup 114} are produced in a thick target by the nuclear reactions; Cd{sup 110}({alpha},n)Sn{sup 113}, Cd{sup 111}({alpha},2n)Sn{sup 113}, Cd{sup 112}({alpha},3n)Sn{sup 113}, Cd{sup 111}({alpha},p)In{sup 114}, Cd{sup 112}({alpha},pn) In{sup 114}. The shorter-lived tin and indium activities together with the possible radioisotopes of silver produced by (n,p) reactions, were allowed to decay out prior to the chemical separations.
Date: August 11, 1949
Creator: Maxwell, R.D.; Haymond, H.R.; Bobmberger, D.R.; Garrison, W.M. & Hamilton, J.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multiplicity of low-shear toroidal Alfven eigenmodes

Description: An enlarged spectrum of ideal toroidal Alfven eigenmodes is demonstrated to exist within a toroidicity-induced Alfven gap when the inverse aspect ratio is comparable to or larger than the value of the magnetic shear. This limit is appropriate for the low-shear region in most tokamaks, especially those with low aspect ratio. The new modes may be destabilized by fusion-product alpha particles more easily than the standard toroidal Alfven eigenmodes.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Candy, J.; Breizman, B.N.; Van Dam, J.W. & Ozeki, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department