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Hydrogeologic Features of the Alluvial Deposits in the Owl Creek Valley, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

Description: Introduction: The alluvial deposits form the principal aquifer in the Owl Creek Valley and the source of water to many stock and domestic wells and to a few irrigation wells. In 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer, began an investigation of the hydrology and geology, including the geomorphology, of Owl Creek Valley (fig. 1) to determine possible favorable areas for obtaining ground water of adequate chemical quality for irrigation and other uses. The part of Owl Creek basin investigated is downstream from Anchor Reservoir and includes North Fork, South Fork, and the mainstem of Owl Creek (pi. 1). However, the area downstream from Embar Ranch (pi. 1) was emphasized during the study.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Cooley, Maurice E. & Head, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data and results, nuclear chimney permeability: test 3

Description: Tests were conducted at a third nuclear chimney site in alluvium at the Nevada Test Site. The indicated value of pressure diffusivity is in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 m=/s. Previously described methods based on atmospheric pressure change were used to obtain an improved fit of calculated to measured pressure- time curves by superposition analysis. (auth)
Date: January 24, 1974
Creator: Snoeberger, D. F.; Morris, C. J. & Baker, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U1h Superstructure

Description: The U1H Shaft Project is a design build subcontract to supply the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) a 1,045 ft. deep, 20 ft. diameter, concrete lined shaft for unspecified purposes. The subcontract awarded to Atkinson Construction by Bechtel Nevada to design and construct the shaft for the DOE has been split into phases with portions of the work being released as dictated by available funding. The first portion released included the design for the shaft, permanent hoist, headframe, and collar arrangement. The second release consisted of constructing the shaft collar to a depth of 110 ft., the service entry, utility trenches, and installation of the temporary sinking plant. The temporary sinking plant included the installation of the sinking headframe, the sinking hoist, two deck winches, the shaft form, the sinking work deck, and temporary utilities required to sink the shaft. Both the design and collar construction were completed on schedule. The third release consisted of excavating and lining the shaft to the station depth of approximately 950 feet. Work is currently proceeding on this production sinking phase. At a depth of approximately 600 feet, Atkinson has surpassed production expectation and is more than 3 months ahead of schedule. Atkinson has employed the use of a Bobcat 331 excavator as the primary means of excavation. the shaft is being excavated entirely in an alluvial deposit with varying degrees of calcium carbonate cementation. Several more work packages are expected to be released in the near future. The remaining work packages include, construction of the shaft station a depth of 975 ft. and construction of the shaft sump to a depth of 1,045 ft., installation of the loading pocket and station steel and equipment, installation of the shaft steel and guides, installation of the shaft utilities, and installation of the permanent headframe, ...
Date: November 2000
Creator: Sykes, Glen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

Description: Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Tullis, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Colloid-Facilitated Plutonium Transport in Saturated Alluvium

Description: Natural groundwater colloids have been recognized as possible agents for enhancing the subsurface transport of strongly-sorbing radionuclides. To evaluate this mechanism, packed-bed column experiments were conducted comparing the simultaneous transport of dissolved plutonium (Pu), Pu sorbed onto natural colloids, 190-nm and 500-nm diameter fluorescent CML microspheres, and tritiated water in saturated alluvium. Experiments were conducted in two columns having slightly different porosities at two flow rates, resulting in average linear velocities (v{sub z}) of 0.6 to 3.65 cm/hr in one column and 0.57 to 2.85 cm/hr in the other. In all experiments, Pu associated with natural colloids transported through alluvium essentially unretarded, while dissolved Pu was entirely retained. These results were consistent with the strong sorption of Pu to alluvium and the negligible desorption from natural colloids, observed in separate batch experiments, over time scales exceeding those of the column experiments. Breakthroughs of natural colloids preceded tritiated water in all experiments, indicating a slightly smaller effective pore volume for the colloids. The enhancement of colloids transport over tritiated water decreased with v{sub z}, implying {approx} 40% enhancement at v{sub z} = 0. The 500-nm CML microspheres were significantly attenuated in the column experiments compared to the 190-nm microspheres, which exhibited slightly more attenuation than natural colloids.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Abdel-Fattah, A.; Reimus, P.; Ware, S. & Haga, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of Artificial Intelligence to Reservoir Characterization - An Interdisciplinary Approach

Description: The primary goal of this project is to develop a user-friendly computer program to integrate geological and engineering information using Artificial Intelligence (AI) methodology. The project is restricted to fluvially dominated deltaic environments. The static information used in constructing the reservoir description includes well core and log data. Using the well core and the log data, the program identifies the marker beds, and the type of sand facies, and in turn, develops correlation's between wells. Using the correlation's and sand facies, the program is able to generate multiple realizations of sand facies and petrophysical properties at interwell locations using geostatistical techniques. The generated petrophysical properties are used as input in the next step where the production data are honored. By adjusting the petrophysical properties, the match between the simulated and the observed production rates is obtained.
Date: January 12, 2000
Creator: Kelkar, B.G.; Gamble, R.F.; Kerr, D.R.; Thompson, L.G. & Shenoi, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of sediments in the Clinch River, Tennessee, using remote sensing and multi-dimensional GIS techniques

Description: Remotely-sensed hydro-acoustic data were used as input to spatial extrapolation tools in a GIS to develop two- and three-dimensional models of sediment densities in the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee. This work delineated sediment deposition zones to streamline sediment sampling and to provide a tool for estimating sediment volumes and extrapolating contaminant concentrations throughout the system. The Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir has been accumulating sediment-bound contaminants from three Department of Energy (DOE) facilities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. Public concern regarding human and ecological health resulted in Watts Bar Reservoir being placed on the National Priorities List for SUPERFUND. As a result, DOE initiated and is funding the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP) to perform a remedial investigation to determine the nature and extent of sediment contamination in the Watts Bar Reservoir and the Clinch River and to quantify any human or ecological health risks. The first step in characterizing Clinch River sediments was to determine the locations of deposition zones. It was also important to know the sediment type distribution within deposition zones because most sediment-bound contaminants are preferentially associated to fine particles. A dual-frequency hydro-acoustic survey was performed to determine: (1) depth to the sediment water interface, (2) depth of the sediment layer, and (3) sediment characteristics (density) with depth (approximately 0.5-foot intervals). An array of geophysical instruments was used to meet the objectives of this investigation.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W. & Hoffman, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas -- Near term. Quarterly report, June 30--September 30, 1995

Description: The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas and in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in the project. General topics to be addressed will be (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation; (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. The reservoir management portion of the project will involve performance evaluation and will include such work as (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) identification of operational problems, (3) identification of near wellbore problems, (4) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (5) identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. The waterflood optimization portion of the project involves only the Nelson Lease. It will be based on the performance evaluation and will involve (1) design and implementation of a water cleanup system for the waterflood, (2) application of well remedial work such as polymer gel treatments to improve vertical sweep efficiency, and (3) changes in waterflood patterns to increase sweep efficiency. Finally, it is planned to implement an improved recovery process on both field demonstration sites.
Date: October 15, 1995
Creator: Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Walton, A.; Schoeling, L.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Completion Report for Well ER-EC-7

Description: Well ER-EC-7 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 265.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 422.5 meters. The planned depth of 762 meters was not reached due to borehole stability problems. One completion string with two isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of 227.8 meters, 20 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings, supplemented by geophysical log data, and incorporating data from detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Beneath a thin alluvial deposit, the well penetrated 410 meters of lava and bedded tuff of the Volcanics of Fortymile Canyon Group, deposited in the Timber Mountain caldera moat after caldera collapse. The geologic interpretation of data from this well provides information on the thickness, lithologic composition, and hydrogeologic character of moat-filling rocks in the southern portion of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field.
Date: October 2004
Creator: Bechtel Nevada
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

Description: Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.
Date: November 6, 2008
Creator: Duberstein, Corey A. & Downs, Janelle L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An arid zone lysimeter facility for performance assessment and closure investigations at the Nevada Test Site

Description: Two precision weighing lysimeters were installed near the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site to provide support for investigations of water, solute, and heat fluxes in the near-surface of the soil. The lysimeters consist of soil tanks with a volume of 16 cubic meters mounted on a sensitive scale. One lysimeter was revegetated with native shrubs whereas the other was kept bare to stimulate a non-vegetated waste cover. Data consisting of physical and hydrological properties of the lysimeter soils, thermal and moisture conditions in the lysimeters, and atmospheric boundary conditions are being collected for calibrating and verifying computer models for simulating the flow of water and heat in the near surface alluvium at the Area 5 RWMS. This effort will provide site- specific models for demonstration of ``no migration`` of constituents to the water table. Moisture and thermal conditions in the lysimeters are monitored daily using time domain reflectometry probes and thermocouple psychrometers. Daily evaporation and evapotranspiration are calculated from the lysimeter scales. Meteorological variables are monitored by sensors mounted on a 3 meter tower adjacent to the lysimeters. An array of soil-solution samplers to be installed through the side of the soil tank will allow studies of waste mobility under natural conditions. Conceptual designs for closure at the RWMS are focused on using an upper layer of repacked native alluvium, which can be tested with the lysimeters. In addition, performance of other components such as a capillary barrier can be tested by installing a scaled version in one of the lysimeter tanks.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Levitt, D.G.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.; Sully, M.J. & Ginanni, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology of the Western Part of Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-3 to TA-16), Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

Description: We present data that elucidate the stratigraphy, geomorphology, and structure in the western part of Los Alamos National Laboratory between Technical Areas 3 and 16 (TA-3 and TA-16). Data include those gathered by geologic mapping of surficial, post-Bandelier Tuff strata, conventional and high-precision geologic mapping and geochemical analysis of cooling units within the Bandelier Tuff, logging of boreholes and a gas pipeline trench, and structural analysis using profiles, cross sections, structure contour maps, and stereographic projections. This work contributes to an improved understanding of the paleoseismic and geomorphic history of the area, which will aid in future seismic hazard evaluations and other investigations. The study area lies at the base of the main, 120-m (400-ft) high escarpment formed by the Pajarito fault, an active fault of the Rio Grande rift that bounds Los Alamos National Laboratory on the west. Subsidiary fracturing, faulting, and folding associated with the Pajarito fault zone extends at least 1,500 m (5,000 ft) to the east of the main Pajarito fault escarpment. Stratigraphic units in the study area include upper units of the Tshirege Member of the early Pleistocene Bandelier Tuff, early Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits that predate incision of canyons on this part of the Pajarito Plateau, and younger Pleistocene and Holocene alluvium and colluvium that postdate drainage incision. We discriminate four sets of structures in the area between TA-3 and TA-16: (a) north-striking faults and folds that mark the main zone of deformation, including a graben in the central part of the study area; (b) north-northwest-striking fractures and rare faults that bound the eastern side of the principal zone of deformation and may be the surface expression of deep-seated faulting; (c) rare northeast-striking structures near the northern limit of the area associated with the southern end of the Rendija Canyon fault; and (d) several ...
Date: December 1, 2002
Creator: C.J.Lewis; A.Lavine; S.L.Reneau; J.N.Gardner; R.Channell & C.W.Criswell
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surficial geology and performance assessment for a Radioactive Waste Management Facility at the Nevada Test Site

Description: At the Nevada Test Site, one potentially disruptive scenario being evaluated for the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) Facility Performance Assessment is deep post-closure erosion that would expose buried radioactive waste to the accessible environment. The GCD Facility located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) lies at the juncture of three alluvial fan systems. Geomorphic surface mapping in northern Frenchman Flat indicates that reaches of these fans where the RWMS is now located have been constructional since at least the middle Quaternary. Mapping indicates a regular sequence of prograding fans with entrenchment of the older fan surfaces near the mountain fronts and construction of progressively younger inset fans farther from the mountain fronts. At the facility, the oldest fan surfaces are of late Pleistocene and Holocene age. More recent geomorphic activity has been limited to erosion and deposition along small channels. Trench and pit wall mapping found maximum incision in the vicinity of the RWMS to be less than 1.5 m. Based on collected data, natural geomorphic processes are unlikely to result in erosion to a depth of more than approximately 2 m at the facility within the 10,000-year regulatory period.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Snyder, K.E.; Gustafson, D.L.; Huckins-Gang, H.E.; Miller, J.J. & Rawlinson, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear-waste isolation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions

Description: The vadose zone in arid regions is considered as a possible environment for geologic isolation of nuclear waste. There are several topographic and lithologic combinations in the vadose zone of arid regions that may lend themselves to waste isolation considerations. In some cases, topographic highs such as mesas and interbasin ranges - comprised of several rock types, may contain essentially dry or partially saturated conditions favorable for isolation. The adjacent basins, especially in the far western and southwestern US, may have no surface or subsurface hydrologic connections with systems ultimately leading to the ocean. Some rock types may have the favorable characteristics of very low permeability and contain appropriate minerals for the strong chemical retardation of radionuclides. Environments exhibiting these hydrologic and geochemical attributes are the areas underlain by tuffaceous rocks, relatively common in the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Adjacent valley areas, where tuffaceous debris makes up a significant component of valley fill alluvium, may also contain thick zones of unsaturated material, and as such also lend themselves to strong consideration as respository environments. This paper summarizes the aspects of nuclear waste isolation in unsaturated regimes in alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range province.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y. & Korbin, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Appraisal of nuclear waste isolation in the vadose zone in arid and semiarid regions (with emphasis on the Nevada Test Site)

Description: An appraisal was made of the concept of isolating high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone of alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Principal attributes of these terranes are: (1) low population density, (2) low moisture influx, (3) a deep water table, (4) the presence of sorptive rocks, and (5) relative ease of construction. Concerns about heat effects of waste on unsaturated rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity are considered. Calculations show that a standard 2000-acre repository with a thermal loading of 40 kW/acre in partially saturated alluvium or tuff would experience an average temperature rise of less than 100{sup 0}C above the initial temperature. The actual maximum temperature would depend strongly on the emplacement geometry. Concerns about seismicity, volcanism, and future climatic change are also mitigated. The conclusion reached in this appraisal is that unsaturated zones in alluvium and tuff of arid regions should be investigated as comprehensively as other geologic settings considered to be potential repository sites.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y. & Korbin, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of the radioactive waste isolation potential of the alluvium-filled valleys of the Great Basin

Description: The occurrences, geologic features, hydrology, and thermal, mechanical, and mineralogical properties of the alluvium-filled valleys are compared with those of other media within the Great Basin. Computer modeling of heat conduction indicates that heat generated by the radioactive waste can be dissipated through the alluvium in a manner that will not threaten the integrity of the repository, although waste emplacement densities will be lower than for other media available. This investigation has not revealed any failure mechanism by which one can rule out alluvium as a primary waste isolation medium. However, the alluvium appears to rank behind one or more other possible media in all properties examined except, perhaps, in sorption properties. It is therefore recommended that alluvium be considered as a secondary isolation medium unless primary sites in other rock types in the Great Basin are eliminated from consideration on grounds other than those considered here.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Smyth, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Halleck, P.M. & Reed, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring of heat and moisture migration from radioactive waste disposed in an augered shaft

Description: Soil temperature and moisture data have been collected for the past 4 years at the Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) being conducted at the Nevada Test Site. High-specific-activity radioactive waste with a thermal output of 3.4 kW was buried at a depth of 30 m in tuffaceous alluvium. Prior to waste emplacement the ambient subsurface temperature was about 17{sup 0}C and the volumetric soil moisture content was 10 to 12%. Two years after waste emplacement the soil temperature exceeded 100{sup 0}C and the soil moisture content dropped below 4% at a radius of approximately 3 m from the thermal waste. Drying of the soil has occurred as the high temperature radiating from the thermal sources propels water vapor from the waste zone to a zone where dew-point temperatures are reached. The temperature and moisture data will be used in combination with data from gaseous tracer release tests in predicting and appraising the long-term performance of the GCDT.
Date: February 1987
Creator: Williams, R. E.; McGrath, D. A. & Boland, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department