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Selected Physiological and Biochemical Studies on Blue-Green Algae

Description: Twenty-two different unialgal clonal isolates have been obtained at random for experimental purposes over a period of about one year. Also, during this period, at least 12 other species or strains have been isolated into unialgal cultures which had not yet been identified and/or significantly cleared of heterotrophic contaminants.
Date: August 1969
Creator: Wyatt, Jimmy T. (Jimmy Trueman), 1922-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Developing New Alternative Energy in Virginia: Bio-Diesel from Algae

Description: The overall objective of this study was to select chemical processing equipment, install and operate that equipment to directly convert algae to biodiesel via a reaction patented by Old Dominion University (Pat. No. US 8,080,679B2). This reaction is a high temperature (250- 330{degrees}C) methylation reaction utilizing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to produce biodiesel. As originally envisioned, algal biomass could be treated with TMAH in methanol without the need to separately extract triacylglycerides (TAG). The reactor temperature allows volatilization and condensation of the methyl esters whereas the spent algae solids can be utilized as a high-value fertilizer because they are minimally charred. During the course of this work and immediately prior to commencing, we discovered that glycerol, a major by-product of the conventional transesterification reaction for biofuels, is not formed but rather three methoxylated glycerol derivatives are produced. These derivatives are high-value specialty green chemicals that strongly upgrade the economics of the process, rendering this approach as one that now values the biofuel only as a by-product, the main value products being the methoxylated glycerols. A horizontal agitated thin-film evaporator (one square foot heat transfer area) proved effective as the primary reactor facilitating the reaction and vaporization of the products, and subsequent discharge of the spent algae solids that are suitable for supplementing petrochemicalbased fertilizers for agriculture. Because of the size chosen for the reactor, we encountered problems with delivery of the algal feed to the reaction zone, but envision that this problem could easily disappear upon scale-up or can be replaced economically by incorporating an extraction process. The objective for production of biodiesel from algae in quantities that could be tested could not be met, but we implemented use of soybean oil as a surrogate TAG feed to overcome this limitation. The positive economics of this process are influenced by the ...
Date: March 29, 2012
Creator: Hatcher, Patrick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report, DE-SC0000581

Description: The focus of the CEHMM award was alternative energy research and education. The objective of the CEHMM algae to biodiesel project was to determine the viability and feasibility of using algae as a feedstock for commercial biodiesel production. The project investigated the propagation, harvesting and extraction of oil from a salt/brine water algae in open raceway ponds.
Date: December 28, 2010
Creator: Lynn, Douglas C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Southwestern Reservoirs

Description: This investigation has determined the presence of biological nitrogen fixation in two reservoirs in the southwestern United States: Lake Arlington and Lake Ray Hubbard. Subsequent tests have gathered baseline data on the effects of various biological, chemical, and physical parameters on in situ nitrogen fixation in these reservoirs. Of specific importance is the relationship between nitrogen fixation arid occasional blooms of blue-green algae which produce such problems as testes and odors in these water-supply impoundments.
Date: August 1973
Creator: Lawley, Gary G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Screening of Fungi for Metabolites Inhibitory to the Growth of Bloom-Forming Blue-Green Algae

Description: Since many approaches to dealing with algal blooms are inefficient, expensive, or harmful, it was concluded that a biologically-synthesized chemical agent, specifically inhibitory to pre-bloom algal cells, might prove helpful in controlling algal blooms. Fungi were chosen as the biological entities to investigate for such a chemical.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Hardcastle, Ronald V.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Final Technical Report, DE-SC0005319

Description: The CEHMM algae to biodiesel project is a research and development endeavor investigating renewable fuels and a host of high-value co-products from the propagation, harvesting, and extraction of oil from a salt/brine water algae in open raceway ponds. Use of algae as renewable fuel feedstock complementary to petroleum diesel has great potential to make fuels and a host of valuable co-products, thereby reducing American dependence on foreign oil, sequestering carbon, and providing attractive multi-market returns for potential investors. This project is a green energy project thereby supporting the national agenda of a clean and renewable source of energy and will not compete with traditional food crops.
Date: December 13, 2011
Creator: Douglas C. Lynn, Executive Director
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

When Good Algae Go Bad

Description: This is a pamphlet quickly discussing which algae are good and which algae produce toxins, what you can do to stay safe, and how to find more information.
Date: unknown
Creator: United States. Environmental Protection Agency.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Qualitative Survey of the Airborne Algae, Protozoa, and Bacteria at the Denton Sewage Treatment Plant

Description: This study had a three-fold purpose. First, it was decided to determine if algae and protozoa were emitted to the air at the Denton sewage treatment plant. The information obtained could be of future importance in the fields of algal and protozoan ecology and public health. Second, it was decided to make a survey of the airborne bacteria at this plant. Some researchers have described bacterial air contamination at similar sewage treatment plants, but the one in Denton has not been studied. Third, it was hoped that in this research some relationships could be found between the bacteria and the algae and protozoa in the air in the vicinity of the sewage aeration basin. It was hypothesized that pathogenic bacteria were carried in the air with these other organisms.
Date: May 1968
Creator: Mahoney, Joseph L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Passive Dispersal of Algae and Protozoa Internally and Externally by Selected Aquatic Insects

Description: This investigation was concerned with three aspects of the problem of passive dispersal of algae and protozoa by aquatic insects: the role of odonates in passive dispersal of viable small aquatic organisms, the passage of viable algae and protozoa through digestive tracts of field-collected herbivorous and carnivorous aquatic insects, and the viability duration of selected algae, during insect transport under monitored conditions.
Date: December 1970
Creator: Solon, Bernard M. (Bernard Michael), 1932-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Interaction of Legionella Pneumophila and selected algae and response to disinfectants

Description: Two species of cyanobacteria (Fischeralla sp. 29161 and Phormidium autumnale) and one species of green algae (Fritschiella tuberosa) were found to promote survival of Legionella pneumophila in mineral salts medium cocultures. During the early stage of incubation Fischerella sp. supported growth of Legionella pneumophila even though the bacteria would not grow in the algae-free basal medium.
Date: December 1985
Creator: Ko, Chi-mei
Partner: UNT Libraries

Effects of Methanol, Atrazine, and Copper on the Ultrastructure of Pseudokirchneriella Subcapitata (Selenastrum Capricornutum).

Description: The toxicity of methanol, atrazine, and copper to Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (Korshikov) Hindák historically referred to as Selenastrum capricornutum Printz were determined following 96 hrs growth in a modified Goram's growth media. Methanol and atrazine inhibited fluorescence readings in the cultures by 50% (IC50) at concentrations of 2% and 82 µg/l respectively. These toxicity values compared favorably to other published reports. The IC50 for copper was 160 µg/l which is substantially higher than reported values. This is understandable because of the high chelating capacity of Goram's media. The use of stereologically derived relative volume in the chloroplasts, mitochondria, lipid bodies, phosphate bodies, and nucleus was investigated to determine if it could be used as a sensitive endpoint in toxicity tests. The volume fractions for the chloroplasts and mitochondria were normally distributed in control cells while the nuclei, phosphate bodies, and lipid bodies were not. The chloroplasts were the most dominate organelle occupying a mean relative volume of 46% and mitochondria occupied a mean relative volume of 3%. The nucleus and phosphate bodies occupied a median relative volume of 7% and 2% respectively. The lipid bodies were rare in section profile and no meaningful median relative volume could be calculated. Up to the 82nd percentile of sectioned profiles contained no recognizable lipid bodies. The use of relative volume was not a sensitive endpoint for use in toxicity tests. No significant differences in relative volume could be detected in the nucleus or phosphate bodies following any treatment. Limited differences were detected in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, and lipid bodies. The only significant differences that appear to be biologically significant occurred in methanol treated cells where an increase in the lipid bodies' relative volume was apparently concentration dependent. Significant differences in the relative volume of mitochondria and chloroplasts do not appear to be biologically significant.
Date: May 2004
Creator: Garrett, David C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Performance Validation and Scaling of a Capillary Membrane Solid-Liquid Separation System

Description: Algaeventure Systems (AVS) has previously demonstrated an innovative technology for dewatering algae slurries that dramatically reduces energy consumption by utilizing surface physics and capillary action. Funded by a $6M ARPA-E award, transforming the original Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) prototype machine into a commercially viable technology has required significant attention to material performance, integration of sensors and control systems, and especially addressing scaling issues that would allow processing extreme volumes of algal cultivation media/slurry. Decoupling the harvesting, dewatering and drying processes, and addressing the rate limiting steps for each of the individual steps has allowed for the development individual technologies that may be tailored to the specific needs of various cultivation systems. The primary performance metric used by AVS to assess the economic viability of its Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) dewatering technology is algae mass production rate as a function of power consumption (cost), cake solids/moisture content, and solids capture efficiency. An associated secondary performance metric is algae mass loading rate which is dependent on hydraulic loading rate, area-specific hydraulic processing capacity (gpm/in2), filter:capillary belt contact area, and influent algae concentration. The system is capable of dewatering 4 g/L (0.4%) algae streams to solids concentrations up to 30% with capture efficiencies of 80+%, however mass production is highly dependent on average cell size (which determines filter mesh size and percent open area). This paper will present data detailing the scaling efforts to date. Characterization and performance data for novel membranes, as well as optimization of off-the-shelf filter materials will be examined. Third party validation from Ohio University on performance and operating cost, as well as design modification suggestions will be discussed. Extrapolation of current productivities will be used to suggest a design for integration into commercial-scale production.
Date: October 25, 2011
Creator: Rogers, S.; Cook, J.; Juratovac, J.; Goodwillie, J.; Burke, T. & Stuart, B., ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Investigation of Algae and Common Tastes and Odors in Fresh Water

Description: The purpose of this investigation was to isolate and grow algae common to the southwest in unialgal culture; to either sustain or grow one of the principal bloom-causing organisms, with emphasis on Microcystis aeruginosa; to isolate and culture actinomycetes from the same waters from which the algae were obtained; and to inoculate these algae with actinomycetes and determine their effects through development and deterioration.
Date: 1956
Creator: Harmon, John C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Design and implementation of an emergency environmental responsesystem to protect migrating salmon in the lower San Joaquin River,California

Description: In the past decade tens of millions of dollars have beenspent by water resource agencies in California to restore the nativesalmon fishery in the San Joaquin River and its major tributaries. Anexcavated deep water ship channel (DWSC), through which the river runs onits way to the Bay/Delta and Pacific Ocean, experiences episodes of lowdissolved oxygen which acts as a barrier to anadromous fish migration anda threat to the long-term survival of the salmon run. An emergencyresponse management system is under development to forecast theseepisodes of low dissolved oxygen and to deploy measures that will raisedissolved oxygen concentrations to prevent damage to the fisheryresource. The emergency response management system has been designed tointeract with a real-time water quality monitoring network and is servedby a comprehensive data management and forecasting model toolbox. TheBay/Delta and Tributaries (BDAT) Cooperative Data Management System is adistributed, web accessible database that contains terabytes ofinformation on all aspects of the ecology of the Bay/Delta and upperwatersheds. The complexity of the problem dictates data integration froma variety of monitoring programs. A unique data templating system hasbeen constructed to serve the needs of cooperating scientists who wish toshare their data and to simplify and streamline data uploading into themaster database. In this paper we demonstrate the utility of such asystem in providing decision support for management of the San JoaquinRiver fishery. We discuss how the system might be expanded to havefurther utility in coping with other emergencies and threats to watersupply system serving California's costal communities.
Date: January 30, 2006
Creator: Quinn, Nigel W.T. & Jacobs, Karl C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department