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The Role of Emerging Technologies in Improving Energy Efficiency:Examples from the Food Processing Industry

Description: For over 25 years, the U.S. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has championed the application of emerging technologies in industrial plants and monitored these technologies impacts on industrial energy consumption. The cumulative energy savings of more than 160 completed and tracked projects is estimated at approximately 3.99 quadrillion Btu (quad), representing a production cost savings of $20.4 billion. Properly documenting the impacts of such technologies is essential for assessing their effectiveness and for delivering insights about the optimal direction of future technology research. This paper analyzes the impacts that several emerging technologies have had in the food processing industry. The analysis documents energy savings, carbon emissions reductions and production improvements and assesses the market penetration and sector-wide savings potential. Case study data is presented demonstrating the successful implementation of these technologies. The paper's conclusion discusses the effects of these technologies and offers some projections of sector-wide impacts.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Lung, Robert Bruce; Masanet, Eric & McKane, Aimee
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heavy Truck Clean Diesel Cooperative Research Program

Description: This report is the final report for the Department of Energy on the Heavy Truck Engine Program (Contract No. DE-FC05-00OR22806) also known as Heavy Truck Clean Diesel (HTCD) Program. Originally, this was scoped to be a $38M project over 5 years, to be 50/50 co-funded by DOE and Caterpillar. The program started in June 2000. During the program the timeline was extended to a sixth year. The program completed in December 2006. The program goal was to develop and demonstrate the technologies required to enable compliance with the 2007 and 2010 (0.2g/bhph NOx, 0.01g/bhph PM) on-highway emission standards for Heavy Duty Trucks in the US with improvements in fuel efficiency compared to today's engines. Thermal efficiency improvement from a baseline of 43% to 50% was targeted.
Date: December 31, 2006
Creator: Milam, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rotary Burner Demonstration

Description: The subject technology, the Calcpos Rotary Burner (CRB), is a burner that is proposed to reduce energy consumption and emission levels in comparison to currently available technology. burners are used throughout industry to produce the heat that is required during the refining process. Refineries seek to minimize the use of energy in refining while still meeting EPA regulations for emissions.
Date: April 30, 2003
Creator: Flanagan, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of trace metal emissions during coal combustion. Technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold end of the process by air-pollution control devices such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions at the hot end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and capture volatized metal vapors. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The following progress has been made during the performance period from Oct. 1, 1995 through Dec. 31, 1995: (1) Additional combustion experiments involving both coal and wood pellets were carried out in the constructed quartz fluidized bed combustor. (2) A new Buck Scientific Model 210VGP Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a continuous flow hydride generator especially for arsenic and selenium was installed for the project. (3) A paper, entitled ``Capture of Toxic Metals by Various Sorbents during Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion,`` was presented at the 1995 AIChE Annual Meeting held in Miami, November 13--17, 1995. (4) A manuscript, entitled ``Trace Metal Capture by Various Sorbents during Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion,`` was submitted to the 26th International Symposium on Combustion for presentation and for publication in the symposium proceedings. 1 ref., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Ho, Thomas C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paving materials for heat island mitigation

Description: This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.
Date: November 1997
Creator: Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. & Rosenfeld, A. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimating the environmental and economic effects of widespread residential PV adoption using GIS and NEMS

Description: This paper describes a study of the national effects of widespread adoption of grid-connected residential rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. A Geographic Information System (GIS) model is used to estimate potential PV system adoption and PV electricity generation and the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is used to estimate the national effects of PV electricity generation. Adoption is assumed to occur if levelized PV system cost is less than the local average retail electricity rate at the country level. An estimate of the current {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} scenario (defined by a 6.5% real interest rate, 30-year loan life, $6{sub 1994}/W system cost, and $4{sub 1994}/month voluntary premium) results in no adoption. Several scenarios designed to stimulate PV adoption are modeled. As an example, if PV system costs are instead assumed to be $3{sub 1994}/W, rooftop systems are found to be cost effective in 16% of detached single-family households in the U.S. by 2015 (assuming full adoption of 4-kW systems), this results in 82.1 TWh of annual PV electricity generation, 170 TWh of avoided electricity transmission, distribution, and generation losses, 6 Mt/a of avoided carbon emissions, 50 kt/a of avoided NOx emissions, and 27.3 GW of avoided electricity generating capacity in place.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C. & Mahler, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

Description: The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

Description: In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Livengood, C.D. & Mendelsohn, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of oxygen-enriched combustion system on a light-duty vehicle to reduce cold-start emissions

Description: The oxygen content in the ambient air drawn by combustion engines can be increased by polymer membranes. The authors have previously demonstrated that 23 to 25% (concentration by volume) oxygen-enriched intake air can reduce hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), air toxics, and ozone-forming potential (OFP) from flexible-fueled vehicles (FFVs) that use gasoline or M85. When oxygen-enriched air was used only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods, the emission levels of all three regulated pollutants [CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and NO{sub x}] were lower than the U.S. EPA Tier II (year 2004) standards (without adjusting for catalyst deterioration factors). In the present work, an air separation membrane module was installed on the intake of a 2.5-L FFV and tested at idle and free acceleration to demonstrate the oxygen-enrichment concept for initial start-up and warm-up periods. A bench-scale, test set-up was developed to evaluate the air separation membrane characteristics for engine applications. On the basis of prototype bench tests and from vehicle tests, the additional power requirements and module size for operation of the membrane during the initial period of the cold-phase, FTP-75 cycle were evaluated. A prototype membrane module (27 in. long, 3 in. in diameter) supplying about 23% oxygen-enriched air in the engine intake only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods of a 2.5-L FFV requires additional power (blower) of less than one horsepower. With advances in air separation membranes to develop compact modules, oxygen enrichment of combustion air has the potential of becoming a more practical technique for controlling exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Sekar, R. & Poola, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status report on survey of alternative heat pumping technologies

Description: The Department of Energy is studying alternative heat pumping technologies to identify possible cost effective alternatives to electric driven vapor compression heat pumps, air conditioners, and chillers that could help reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Over thirty different technologies are being considered including: engine driven systems, fuel cell powered systems, and alternative cycles. Results presented include theoretical efficiencies for all systems as well as measured performance of some commercial, prototype, or experimental systems. Theoretical efficiencies show that the alternative electric-driven technologies would have HSPFs between 4 and 8 Btu/Wh (1.2 to 2.3 W/W) and SEERs between 3 and 9.5 Btu/Wh (0.9 and 2.8 W/W). Gas-fired heat pump technologies have theoretical seasonal heating gCOPs from 1.1 to 1.7 and cooling gCOPs from 0.95 to 1.6 (a SEER 12 Btu/Wh electric air conditioner has a primary energy efficiency of approximately 1.4 W/W).
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Fischer, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CRACOW CLEAN FOSSIL FUELS AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM. PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1998

Description: Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: PIERCE,B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

Description: Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density ...
Date: July 1, 2000
Creator: Bool, Lawrence E.; Chen, Jack C. & Thompson, David R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

Description: This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.
Date: October 1, 2000
Creator: Bool, Lawrence E.; Chen, Jack C. & Thompson, David R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GRI methane chemistry program review meeting

Description: Methane is an important greenhouse gas which affects the atmosphere directly by the absorption and re-emission of infrared radiation as well as indirectly, through chemical interactions. Emissions of several important greenhouse gases (GHGS) including methane are increasing, mainly due to human activity. Higher concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere are projected to cause a decrease in the amount of infrared radiation escaping to space, and a subsequent warming of global climate. It is therefore vital to understand not only the causes of increased production of methane and other GHGS, but the effect of higher GHG concentrations on climate, and the possibilities for reductions of these emissions. In GRI-UIUC methane project, the role of methane in climate change and greenhouse gas abatement strategies is being studied using several distinct approaches. First, a detailed treatment of the mechanisms controlling each important methane source and sink, and hence the atmospheric concentration of methane, is being developed for use with the UIUC Integrated Science Assessment Model. The focus of this study is to resolve the factors which determine methane emissions and removal, including human population, land use, energy demand, global temperature, and regional concentrations of the hydroxyl radical, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxides, non-methane hydrocarbons, water vapor, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Dignon, J.; Grant, K.; Grossman, A.; Wuebles, D.; Brasseur, G.; Madronich, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEPA filter jointer

Description: A HEPA filter jointer system was created to remove nitrate contaminated wood from the wooden frames of HEPA filters that are stored at the Rocky Flats Plant. A commercial jointer was chosen to remove the nitrated wood. The chips from the wood removal process are in the right form for caustic washing. The jointer was automated for safety and ease of operation. The HEPA filters are prepared for jointing by countersinking the nails with a modified air hammer. The equipment, computer program, and tests are described in this report.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Hill, D. & Martinez, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a dedicated ethanol ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV): Final report

Description: The objective of this project was to develop a commercially competitive vehicle powered by ethanol (or an ethanol blend) that can meet California`s ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards and equivalent corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency for a light-duty passenger car application. The definition of commercially competitive is independent of fuel cost, but does include technical requirements for competitive power, performance, refueling times, vehicle range, driveability, fuel handling safety, and overall emissions performance. This report summarizes the fourth and final phase of this project, and also the overall project. The focus of this report is the technology used to develop a dedicated ethanol-fueled ULEV, and the emissions results documenting ULV performance. Some of the details for the control system and hardware changes are presented in two appendices that are SAE papers. The demonstrator vehicle has a number of advanced technological features, but it is currently configured with standard original equipment manufacturer (OEM) under-engine catalysts. Close-coupled catalysts would improve emissions results further, but no close-coupled catalysts were available for this testing. Recently, close-coupled catalysts were obtained, but installation and testing will be performed in the future. This report also briefly summarizes work in several other related areas that supported the demonstrator vehicle work.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Dodge, L.; Bourn, G.; Callahan, T.; Grogan, J.; Leone, D.; Naegeli, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removal of chlorinated and non-chlorinated alkanes in a trickle-bed biofilter

Description: Increasing restrictions in emissions from a variety of industrial settings demand low cost removal of dilute contaminants in air. Many of these contaminants such as volatile organic components (VOCs) and sulfur compounds are biodegradable and can be removed from air streams via biofiltration. The simplest form of biofiltration consists of compost-based systems. More advanced systems designed for unique contaminants are biofilters with bioactive structured packing operating in trickle-bed mode. These advanced systems rely on a microbial consortium capable of degrading the contaminants of concern and the consortium usually is isolated or enriched from a more complex microbial mixture. This paper describes the use of a trickle-bed reactor seeded with a microbial consortium enriched from a methanotrophic culture. The microbial consortium has been found to degrade chlorinated alkanes as the sole carbon source. Degradation rates of alkane mixtures are presented for the trickle-bed as well as results from batch cultures experiments designed to study degradation of various chlorinated and non-chlorinated VOCs.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Klasson, K.T.; Davison, B.H.; Barton, J.W. & Jacobs, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spray dryer/baghouse system testing - CRADA 92-001. Final report

Description: A series of seven tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of scrubbing both NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in a spray dryer/baghouse system. The operating conditions specified were a high spray dryer inlet temperature (500{degrees}F), and a high spray dryer outlet temperature (250 to 300 {degrees}F). The data required to adequately evaluate the effectiveness of this technology is enclosed. Discussion of some of the variables as well as an itemized list of the testing information is part of the report.
Date: April 28, 1992
Creator: Pennline, H.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department