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Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

Description: This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.
Date: February 1, 2009
Creator: Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza & Rice, C Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aluminum: Reflective Aluminum Chips

Description: This fact sheet reveals how the use of reflective aluminum chips on rooftops cuts down significantly on heat absorption, thus decreasing the need for air conditioning. The benefits, including energy savings that could reach the equivalent of 1.3 million barrels of oil annually for approximately 100,000 warehouses, are substantial.
Date: January 29, 1999
Creator: Recca, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling Plan for Incoming Material Inspection at Sanden

Description: Sanden international, an automobile air conditioning compressor manufacturer, was facing a problem in its incoming material inspection procedures. Although the company had designed and was using its own sampling plan, some managers and supervisors where not confident of its reliability. Sanden recently established a goal for its total number of defects per supplier as one part per million. Achievement of this target required reviews of the existing sampling plan. The purpose of this project was to help Sandra identify the best alternatives for its incoming material inspection procedures. To do that considerations were made about the usefulness of sampling inspections, theoretical aspects of inspection sampling plans were examined, current sampling plans were analyzed and recommendations were made.
Date: December 1995
Creator: Puntel, Luis
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

Description: Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.
Date: October 1, 2013
Creator: Kung, F.; Deru, M. & Bonnema, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

Description: The performance of air-handling systems in buildings needs to be improved. Many of the deficiencies result from myths and lore and a lack of understanding about the non-linear physical principles embedded in the associated technologies. By incorporating these principles, a few important efforts related to diagnostics and controls have already begun to solve some of the problems. This paper illustrates three novel solutions: one rapidly assesses duct leakage, the second configures ad hoc duct-static-pressure reset strategies, and the third identifies useful intermittent ventilation strategies. By highlighting these efforts, this paper seeks to stimulate new research and technology developments that could further improve air-handling systems.
Date: February 1, 2008
Creator: Wray, Craig; Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, I.S.; Dickerhoff, D.J. & Federspiel, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

Description: The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.
Date: September 30, 2009
Creator: Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill & Patterson, Michael K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Manganese Dioxide as an Improved Solid Desiccant

Description: This report describes the preparation of a series of manganese oxides and an analysis of their sorptive, structural, and surface characteristics as low-energetic desiccants for passive dehumidification and active desiccant cooling systems. A cusped Type III isotherm for the adsorption of water is reported for the first time. The data are interpreted as evidence of a first-order phase change from a two-dimensional gas to a liquid film in the first reversibly adsorbed layer. It appears that the water adsorption characteristics of MnO2 compared to standard desiccants which exhibit Type II isotherms are due at least in part to differences in the physical topography and electronic properties of the desiccant substrates: MnO2 is a p-type semiconductor with essentially-flat, monoenergetic surface structures, while standard desiccants like silica gel are electronic insulators with irregular, heteroenergetic surfaces.
Date: March 1983
Creator: Fraioli, Anthony V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent Developments of the Modelica"Buildings" Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

Description: At the Modelica 2009 conference, we introduced the Buildings library, a freely available Modelica library for building energy and control systems. This paper reports the updates of the library and presents example applications for a range of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Over the past two years, the library has been further developed. The number of HVAC components models has been doubled and various components have been revised to increase numerical robustness.The paper starts with an overview of the library architecture and a description of the main packages. To demonstrate the features of the Buildings library, applications that include multizone airflow simulation as well as supervisory and local loop control of a variable air volume (VAV) system are briefly described. The paper closes with a discussion of the current development.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Wetter, Michael; Zuo, Wangda & Nouidui, Thierry Stephane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

Description: This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.
Date: May 1, 2007
Creator: Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P. & Anderson, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View

Description: An important milestone was passed this year when the fraction of the world's population living in cities exceeded 50%. This shift from the countryside to urban areas is certain to continue and, for many, the destination will be large cities. Already there are over 400 cities with populations greater than one million inhabitants and twenty cities with populations greater than ten million inhabitants. With a growing fraction of the population living in an urban environment, the unique aspects of an urban climate also rise in importance. These include features like air pollution and increased humidity. Another unique feature of the urban climate is the phenomenon of the urban heat island. The urban heat island phenomenon was first observed over one hundred years ago in northern latitude cities, where the city centers were slightly warmer than the suburbs. (Instantaneous communications probably played a role in its identification, much as it did for other weather-related events.) For these cities, a heat island was generally a positive effect because it resulted in reduced heating requirements during the winters. It was only in the 1960s, as air conditioning and heavy reliance on automobiles grew, that the negative impacts of heat islands became apparent. The heat islands made summer conditions much less comfortable and increased air conditioning energy use. Since then the summer heat island has become the dominant environmental concern. Measurements in thousands of sites, plus the development of sophisticated dynamic simulations of urban air basins, has enabled us to better understand the relationships between urban temperatures, sunlight, and rates of formation of air pollutants. These models have also given us insights into the roles of vegetation and other characteristics of the land surface. More recently-roughly the last fifteen years-it has become possible to quantify the roles of the major features influencing the formation ...
Date: July 17, 2006
Creator: Meier, Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measured energy savings and demand reduction from a reflective roof membrane on a large retail store in Austin

Description: In this study, we measured and documented summertime air-conditioning (a/c) daily energy savings and demand reduction from a reflective roof membrane retrofit on a large retail store in Austin, Texas. The original black rubber membrane was replaced with white thermoplastic resulting in a decrease in the average maximum roof surface temperature from 168 degrees F (76 degrees C) to 126 degrees F (52 degrees C). This building, with 100,000ft2 (9300m2) of roof area, yielded 3.6Wh/ft2 (39Wh/m2) in a/c average daily energy savings and 0.35W/ft2 (3.8W/m2) in average reduced demand. Total a/c annual abated energy and demand expenditures were estimated to be $7200 or $0.072/ft2 ($0.77/m2). Based on cost data provided by the building manager, the payback is instantaneous with negligible incremental combined labor and material costs. The estimated present value of future abated expenditures ranged from $62,000 to $71,000 over the baseline 13-year service life of the roof membrane.
Date: June 25, 2001
Creator: Konopacki, Steven J. & Akbari, Hashem
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response andits Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

Description: Demand response (DR) is an effective tool which resolves inconsistencies between electric power supply and demand. It further provides a reliable and credible resource that ensures stable and economical operation of the power grid. This paper introduces systematic definitions for DR and demand side management, along with operational differences between these two methods. A classification is provided for DR programs, and various DR strategies are provided for application in air conditioning and refrigerating systems. The reliability of DR is demonstrated through discussion of successful overseas examples. Finally, suggestions as to the implementation of demand response in China are provided.
Date: November 30, 2007
Creator: Han, Junqiao & Piette, Mary Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning that would reduce system corrosion and be more efficient as part of the "Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: United Technologies Research Center
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the 15 projects that are a part of the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including project goals, innovation needs, and potential impacts.
Date: February 16, 2012
Creator: United States. Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning that uses new refrigerants as part of the "Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: University of Notre Dame
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning that has increased electrical efficiency as part of the "Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle" project.
Date: February 22, 2012
Creator: Batelle Memorial Institute
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Efficient Building Ventilation Systems

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning that uses moisture and heat exchange technology as part of the "Innovative Building-Integrated Enthalpy Recovery" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Architectural Application
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Helium-Based Soundwave Chiller

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning with thermoacoustic freezers as part of the "Trillium: A Helium-Based Sonic Chiller- Tons of Freezing with 0 GWP Refrigerants" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Pennsylvania State University
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Efficiency Adsorption Chillers

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning that would be smaller, more efficient, and cheaper as part of the "High Efficiency Adsorption Cooling Using Metal Organic Heat Carriers" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (U.S.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Efficiency Stirling Air Conditioning

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning that would use no polluting refrigerants as part of the "Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: Infinia Corporation
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants

Description: Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy project sheet summarizing general information about the Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices (BEETIT) program including critical needs, innovation and advantages, impacts, and contact information. This sheet discusses air conditioning with more efficient cooling systems as part of the "Thermoelastic Cooling" project.
Date: February 15, 2012
Creator: University of Maryland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.
Date: December 31, 2011
Creator: Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi & Brambley, Michael R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department