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Predicting detection probabilities for gas mixtures over HSI backgrounds

Description: Detecting and identifying weak gaseous plumes using thermal image data acquired by airborne detectors is an area of ongoing research. This contribution investigates the relative detectability of gas mixtures over different backgrounds and a range of plume temperatures that are warmer and cooler than the ground. The focus of this analysis to support mission planning. When the mission is intended to collect evidence of particular chemicals, the analysis presented is this report can be used to determine conditions under which useful data can be acquired. Initial analyses can be used to determine whether LWIR is useful for the anticipated gas, temperature, and background combination.
Date: December 29, 2009
Creator: Tardiff, Mark F.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Anderson, Kevin K. & Chilton, Lawrence
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Footprint Reduction Process: Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies to Identify Non-Contaminated Land Parcels on the Oak Ridge Reservation National Priorities List Site

Description: In 1989, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry evaluated the entire 35,000-acre U. S: Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR, located in Oak Ridge, TN) and placed it on the National Priorities List (NPL), making the ORR subject to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) regulations. Although much of the ORR has not been impacted by previous federal activities, without investigation it is difficult to discern which parcels of land are free of surface contamination. In 1996, the DOE Oak Ridge Environmental Management Program (EM) funded the Footprint Reduction Project to: 1) develop a process to study the large areas of the ORR that are believed to be free of surface contamination and 2) initiate the delisting of the "clean" areas from the NPL. Although this project's goals do not include the transfer of federal property to non-federal entities, the process development team aimed to provide a final product with multiple uses. Therefore, the process was developed to meet the requirements of NPL delisting and the transfer of non- contaminated federal lands to future land users. Section 120 (h) of the CERCLA law identifies the requirements for the transfer of federal property that is currently part of an NPL site. Reviews of historical information (including aerial photography), field inspections, and the recorded chain of title documents for the property are required for the delisting of property prior to transfer from the federal government. Despite the widespread availability of remote sensing and other digital geographic data and geographic information systems (GIS) for the analysis of such data, historical aerial photography is the only geographic data source required for review under the CERCLA 120 (h) process. However, since the ORR Environmental Management Program had an established Remote Sensing Program, the Footprint Reduction Project included the development ...
Date: December 9, 1998
Creator: Halsey, P.A.; Kendall, D.T.; King, A.L. & Storms, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground measurements to refine interpretations of AEM data; and (3) Improve the calibration and correlation ...
Date: December 2, 2010
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imagery from Infrared Scanning of the East and Southwest Rift Zones of Kilauea and the Lower Portion of the Southwest Rift Zone of Mauna Loa, Island of Hawaii

Description: From July 31 through August 4, 1973 night time flights for obtaining infrared imagery along the east and southwest rift zones of Kilauea and the southwest rift zone of Mauna Loa were undertaken on the island of Hawaii. Flights were also made on Hualalai and Kohala volcanoes but because of inconclusive results, they are not included in this report. Ground control stations had been established during daylight hours several days prior to starting the flight program. Students stationed at the ground central points guided the aircraft on predetermined flight paths by the use of directional lights which were visible to the plane's navigator. Results of the infrared scanning program are considered to be very successful. Events leading up to the final imagery on 8 x 10 color prints are discussed. The sum of $23,900 was designated by the NSF to be expended on aerial photogeologic work on the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Infrared scanning was the only aerial technique employed in this phase.
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Abbott, A. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerial Measuring System Technical Integration Annual Report 2002

Description: Fiscal Year 2002 is the second year of a five-year commitment by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to invest in development of new and state-of-the-art technologies for the Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) project. In 2000, NNSA committed to two million dollars for AMS Technical Integration (TI) for each of five years. The tragedy of September 11, 2001, profoundly influenced the program. NNSA redirected people and funding resources at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) to more immediate needs. Funds intended for AMS TI were redirected to NNSA's new posture of leaning further forward throughout. AMS TI was brought to a complete halt on December 10, 2001. Then on April 30, 2002, NNSA Headquarters allowed the restart of AMS TI at the reduced level of $840,000. The year's events resulted in a slow beginning of several projects, some of which were resumed only a few weeks before the AMS TI Symposium held at RSL on July 30.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Laboratory, Bechtel Nevada Remote Sensing
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerial and ground-based inspections of mine sites in the Western U.S.-implications for on-site inspection overflights, under the CTBT

Description: The verification regime of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides for the possibility of On-Site Inspections (OSI`s) to resolve questions concerning suspicious events which may have been clandestine nuclear tests. Overflights by fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft, as part of an OSI, are permitted by the Treaty. These flights are intended to facilitate the narrowing of the inspection area, from an initial permissible 1000 km{sup 2}, and to help select the locations to deploy observers and ground-based sensors (seismic, radionuclides, . . .) Because of the substantial amount of seismicity generated by mining operations worldwide, it is expected that mine sites and mine districts would be prime candidates for OSI`S. To gain experience in this context, a number of aerial and ground-based mine site inspections have been performed in the Western U.S. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1994. These inspections are part of a broad range of CTBT mining-related projects conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Laboratories. The various sites are described next, and inferences are made concerning CTBT OSI`S. All the mines are legitimate operations, with no implication whatsoever of any clandestine tests.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Heuze, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York

Description: Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Proctor, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capabilities of the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory`s aerial measuring system

Description: This report describes the capabilities of the Remote Sensing Laboratory`s aircraft for use in environmental radiation surveys, multispectral (visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared) surveys of vegetation and buildings, and photographic documentation of the areas covered by the two other surveys. The report discusses the technical capabilities of the various systems and presents examples of the data from a recent demonstration survey. To provide a view of the types of surveys the Remote Sensing Laboratory has conducted in the past, the appendices describe several of the previous area surveys and emergency search surveys.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Riedhauser, S.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of remotely-sensed geobotanical and structural methods for hydrocarbon exploration in west-central West Virginia. Quarterly report, August--October 1995

Description: Accomplishments are presented for the following tasks: satellite image acquisition and rectification; spectral reflectance measurements; Equitrans storage reservoir data synthesis; and equipment purchase. Under the first task, two USGS EROS Data Center images have been purchased. The new scenes were not cloud-free, but were still very useful. The April 10 image was collected just prior to leaf-out in the spring, and the September 20 image just prior to fall leaf change. This was a bit disappointing, as it was hoped that the fall image might show some early sign of senescence that would be useful for vegetation discrimination. However, unexpectedly, there appears to ba spectral anomaly that is found both over the Volcano field and Equitrans Lewis County Storage Reservoir. The anomaly which is not present in the visible bands, is a significant increase in TM band 4 (0.76-0.90 {mu}m, near infrared), and to a lesser extent in TM band 5 (1.55-1.75 {mu}m, min infrared) over the reservoirs. Although it is too early to confirm that this is a geobotanical anomaly, this is a very encouraging sign. Furthermore, it points to the value of a multi-temporal collection of imagery. The Landsat Thematic Mapper overflew West Virginia on October 18 1995. Unfortunately there is apparently some cloud in this image. EOSAT had some problem in recovering this scene, but it has been corrected, and the scene is being purchased. Coincident with October 18 overpass, spectral reflectance data were collected in the field. Spectra were measure of leaves of selected trees. In addition, spectra were collected of spectrally flat objects such as asphalt parking lot and gravel parking lot, for use in normalization of the images.
Date: October 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ASAP progress and expenditure report for the month of December 1--31, 1995. Joint UK/US radar program

Description: The RAR/SAR is a high-priority radar system for the joint US/UK Program. Based on previous experiment results and coordination with the UK, specifications needed for future radar experiments were identified as follows: dual polarimetric (HH and VV) with medium to high resolution in SAR mode. Secondary airborne installation requirements included; high power (circa 10kw) and SLIER capability to emulate Tupelev-134 type system; initially x-band but easily extendible to other frequencies. In FY96 we intended to enhance the radar system`s capabilities by providing a second polarization (VV), spotlight imaging mode, extended frequency of operation to include S- band, increase power, and interface to an existing infrared sensor. Short term objectives are: continue to evaluate and characterize the radar system; upgrade navigation and real-time processing capability to refine motion compensation; upgrade to dual polarimetry (add VV); and develop a ``spotlight`` mode capability. Accomplishments this reporting period: design specifications for the SAR system polarimetric upgrade are complete. The upgrade is ready to begin the procurement cycle when funds become available. System characterization is one of the highest priority tasks for the SAR. Although the radar is dedicated for our use, Hughes is waiting for contract funding before allowing us access to the hardware
Date: January 19, 1996
Creator: Twogood, R.E.; Brase, J.M.; Chambers, D.H.; Mantrom, D.D.; Miller, M.G.; Newman, M.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

Description: The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I. & LaGory, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of UAVs at the Savannah River Site

Description: Small, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with sensors for physical, chemical, and radiochemical measurements of remote environments have been tested at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A miniature helicopter was used as an aerial platform for testing a variety of sensors with outputs integrated with the flight control system for real-time data acquisition and evaluation. The sensors included a precision magnetometer, two broad band infra-red radiometers, a 1-inch by 1-inch Nal(TI) scintillation detector, and an on-board color video camera. Included in the avionics package was an ultrasonic altimeter, a precision barometer, and a portable Global Positioning System. Two separate demonstration locations at SRS were flown that had been previously characterized by careful sampling and analyses and by aerial surveys at high altitudes. The Steed Pond demonstration site contains elevated levels of uranium in the soil and pond silt due to runoff from one of the site`s uranium fuel and target production areas. The soil at the other site is contaminated with oil bearing materials and contains some buried objects. The results and limitations of the UAV surveys are presented and improvements for future measurements are discussed.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Hofstetter, K.J. & Pendergast, M.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Crack detection on HU-25 Guardian aircraft

Description: An ultrasonic inspection method was developed at FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to easily and rapidly detect hidden fatigue cracks in the copilot vertical windshield post on USCG (Coast Guard) HU-25 `Guardian` aircraft. The inspection procedure locates hidden cracks as small as 3.2 mm emanating from internal fastener holes and determines their length. A test procedure was developed and a baseline assessment of the USCG fleet conducted. Inspection results on 41 aircraft revealed good correlation with results made during subsequent structural disassembly and visual inspection of selected aircraft.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Moore, D.G.; Jones, C.R.; Mihelic, J.E.; Dassler, E. & Walizer, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of new high resolution image collection and processing techniques for estimating shrub cover and detecting landscape changes associated with military training in arid lands

Description: Research funded by the US Department of Defense, US Department of Energy, and the US Environmental Protection Agency as part of Project CS-1131 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program evaluated novel techniques for collecting high-resolution images in the Mojave Desert using helicopters, helium-filled blimps, kites, and hand-held telescoping poles at heights from 1 to 150 meters. Several camera types, lens, films, and digital techniques were evaluated on the basis of their ability to correctly estimate canopy cover of shrubs. A high degree of accuracy was obtained with photo scales of 1:4,000 or larger and flatbed scanning rates from films or prints of 300 lines per inch or larger. Smaller scale images were of value in detecting retrospective changes in cover of large shrubs, but failed to detect smaller shrubs. Excellent results were obtained using inexpensive 35-millimeter cameras and new super-fine grain film such as Kodak's Royal Gold{trademark} (ASA 100) film or megapixel digital cameras. New image-processing software, such as SigmaScan Pro{trademark}, makes it possible to accurately measure areas up to 1 hectare in size for total cover and density in 10 minutes compared to several hours or days of field work. In photographs with scales of 1:1,000 and 1:2,000, it was possible to detect cover and density of up to four dominant shrub species. Canopy cover and other parameters such as width, length, feet diameter, and shape factors can be nearly instantaneously measured for each individual shrub yielding size distribution histograms and other statistical data on plant community structure. Use of the technique is being evaluated in a four-year study of military training impacts at Fort Irwin, California, and results compared with image processing using conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery, including the new 1-meter pixel IKONOS images. The technique is a valuable new emerging tool to accurately ...
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Hansen, D.J. & Ostler, W.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clean enough for industry? An airborne geophysical case study

Description: Data from two airborne geophysical surveys of the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were extremely valuable in deciding whether a 1000-acre (400 hectare) parcel of the ORR should be released to the City of Oak Ridge for industrial development. Our findings, based on electromagnetic and magnetic data, were incorporated in the federally mandated Environmental Assessment Statement (EAS), and in general supported claims that this land was never used as a hazardous waste disposal site. We estimated the amount of iron required to produce each anomaly using a simple dipole model. All anomalies with equivalent sources greater than approximately 1000 kg of iron were checked in the field, and the source of all but one identified as either a bridge, reinforced concrete debris, or a similarly benign object. Additionally, some smaller anomalies (equivalent sources of roughly 500 kg) have been checked; thus far, these also have innocuous sources. Airborne video proved invaluable in identifying logging equipment as the source of some of these anomalies. Geologic noise may account for some of the remaining anomalies. Naturally occurring accumulations of magnetic minerals in the soil on the ORR have been shown to produce anomalies which, at a sensor height of 30 m, are comparable to the anomaly produced by about 500 kg of iron. By comparison, the electronic noise of the magnetic gradiometer, 0.01--0.02 nT/m, is equivalent to only about 50--100 kg of iron at a 30 m sensor height. The electromagnetic data, combined with field mapping of karst structures, provided evidence of a northeast-southwest striking conduit spanning the parcel. The possible existence of a karst conduit led the EAS authors to conclude that this is a ``sensitive hydrologic setting.`` We conclude that aerial geophysics is an extremely cost-effective, and efficient technique for screening large tracts of land for environmental characterization.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Nyquist, J.E. & Beard, L.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of remote sensing technologies to discover and characterize waste sites

Description: This report presents details about waste management practices that are being developed using remote sensing techniques to characterize DOE waste sites. Once sites and problems have been located and an achievable restoration and remediation program have been established, efforts to reclaim the environment will begin. Special problems to be considered are: concentrated wastes in tanks and pits; soil and ground water contamination; ground safety hazards for workers; and requirements for long-term monitoring.
Date: March 11, 1992
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of Deep Tunneling Activity through Remote-Sensing Techniques

Description: This work is a case study demonstrating the uses of multispectral and multi-temporal imagery to characterize deep tunneling activity. A drainage tunnel excavation in Quincy, MA is the case locality. Data used are aerial photographs (digitized) and Daedalus 3600 MSS image data that were collected in July and October of 1994. Analysis of the data includes thermal characterization, spectral characterization, multi-temporal analysis, and volume estimation using digital DEM generation. The results demonstrate the type of information that could be generated by multispectral, multi-temporal data if the study locality were a clandestine excavation site with restricted surface access.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: R. G. Best, P. J. Etzler, and J. D. Bloom
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An aerial radiological survey of Project Rulison and surrounding area, Battlement Creek Valley, Colorado

Description: An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Project Rulison site, 40 miles (64 kilometers) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado, from July 6 through July 12, 1993. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 250 feet (76 meters) over a 6.5-square-mile (17-square-kilometer) area at a 200-foot (61-meter) altitude surrounding Battlement Creek Valley. The gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a high altitude aerial photograph of the area. The terrestrial exposure rate varied from 3.5 to 12.5 {mu}R/h (excluding cosmic) at 1 meter above ground level. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were found.
Date: August 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multidisciplinary modeling and GIS for landscape management

Description: Ecological dynamics in human-influenced landscapes are strongly affected by the socioeconomic factors that influence land-use decisions. Incorporating these factors into a spatially-explicit landscape-change model requires the integration of multidisciplinary data. We developed a model that simulates the effects of land use on landscape structure in the Little Tennessee River Basin in western North Carolina. This model uses a variety of data, including interpreted remotely-sensed imagery, census and ownership maps, topography, and results from econometric models. Data are integrated by using a geographic information system and translated into a common format, maps. Simulations generate new maps of land cover representing the amount of land-cover change that occurs. With spatially-explicit projections of landscape change, issues such as biodiversity conservation, the importance of specific landscape elements to conservation goals, and long-term landscape integrity can be addressed. In order for management to use the model to address these issues, a computer-based landscape-management decision aid is being developed. This tool integrates the models, associated data bases, and a geographic information system to facilitate the evaluation of land-use decisions and management plans. This system will estimate landscape-level consequences of alternative actions and will serve to focus coordination among different land-owners and land-use interests in managing the regional landscape.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Flamm, R.O. & Turner, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using the global positioning system in support of environmental characterization at the Hanford Site in Washington State

Description: The US Department of Energy`s 1,450 km{sup 2} Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State accumulated hazardous wastes for more than 50 years. To support the Site`s mission of environmental restoration and cleanup, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is being used to verify waste site locations and provide location information for field samples. Collected GPS data are stored for use in the Hanford Geographic Information System (HGIS). The NAVSTAR GPS is a space-based electronic navigation and positioning system designed and operated by the US Department of Defense (DOD). The system consists of three major components: (1) the space segment, comprising 24 earth-orbiting satellites; (2) the control segment, made up of 5 control and monitoring stations placed around the globe; and (3) the user segment, which includes users worldwide. When declared fully operational by the DOD, the NAVSTAR GPS will allow users to identify their geographical position anywhere on earth at any time. There are no user fees for the service and anyone with a GPS receiver may use the system worldwide. The one major hindrance to the system is the DOD policy concerning a security option called Selective Availability (SA). Selective Availability affects the usability of the system by intentional manipulation of the GPS signals to degrade the accuracy of the user`s positions. The period and magnitude of degradation is solely a DOD privilege. The DOD policy on SA is to vary the error in position calculated from the Standard Positioning Service code to approximately 100 m root-mean squared (RMS). With SA on and other possible errors included, users may know their location to within a few hundred meters. While this accuracy is good for many applications, it is too inaccurate for others.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Peterson, L. B.; Tzemos, S. & Dietz, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Architecture flow diagrams under teamwork{reg_sign}

Description: The Teamwork CASE tool allows Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) to be maintained for structured analysis. Fermilab has extended teamwork under UNIX{trademark} to permit Hatley and Pirbhai Architecture Flow Diagrams (AFDs) to be associated with DFDs and subsequently maintained. This extension, called TWKAFD, allows a user to open an AFD, graphically edit it, and replace it into a TWKAFD maintained library. Other aspects of Hatley and Pirbhai`s methodology are supported. This paper presents a quick tutorial on Architecture Diagrams. It then describes the user`s view of TWKAFD, the experience incorporating it into teamwork, and the successes with using the Architecture Diagram methodology along with the shortcomings of using the teamwork/TWKAFD tool. 8 refs.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Nicinski, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerial radiological surveys of Steed Pond, Savannah River Site: Dates of surveys, 1984--1989

Description: From June 1984 to August 1985, three aerial radiological surveys were conducted over Steed Pond at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In addition, Steed Pond was included in larger-area surveys of the Savannah River Site in subsequent years. The surveys were conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, Nevada, for the US Department of Energy. Airborne measurements were obtained for both natural and man-made gamma radiation over Steed Pond and surrounding areas. The first survey was conducted when the pond was filled to normal capacity for the time of the year. On September 1, 1984, the Steed Pond dam spillway failed causing the pond to drain. The four subsequent surveys were conducted with the pond drained. The second survey and the third were conducted to study silt deposits exposed by the drop in water level after the spillway`s opening. Steed Pond data from the February 1987 and April 1989 Savannah River Site surveys have been included to bring this study up to date.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Fritzsche, A. E. & Jobst, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department