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Senate Executive Business and the Executive Calendar

Description: The Senate has responsibilities under both Article I (outlining legislative prerogatives) and Article II of the Constitution. As a result, the upper body handles legislative and executive business differently. This report discusses the Senate’s lawmaking responsibilities under Article I; executive business, which consists of treaties and nominations.
Date: May 19, 2008
Creator: Oleszek, Walter J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Constitutionality of a Senate Filibuster of a Judicial Nomination

Description: This report provides an overview of the major issues which have been raised recently in the Senate regarding the Judicial Nominations, Filibusters, and the Constitution: When a Majority Is Denied Its Right to Consent and in the press concerning the constitutionality of a Senate filibuster (i.e., extended debate) of a judicial nomination.
Date: June 14, 2005
Creator: Shampansky, Jay R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temporarily Filling Presidentially Appointed, Senate-Confirmed Positions

Description: This report discusses methods of temporarily filling presidentially appointed positions which require the advice and consent of the Senate through the use of special hiring rules for vacancies under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, recess appointments, consultants, or interim appointments of personnel who were the next level down from the vacant position.
Date: April 18, 2017
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 - 2005: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President

Description: The process of appointing Supreme Court Justices has undergone changes over two centuries, but its most basic feature -- the sharing of power between the President and Senate -- has remained unchanged. To receive a lifetime appointment to the Court, a candidate must first be nominated by the President and then confirmed by the Senate. Table 1 of this report lists and describes actions taken by the Senate, the Senate Judiciary Committee, and the President on all Supreme Court nominations, from 1789 to the present. The table provides the name of each person nominated to the Court and the name of the President making the nomination. It also tracks the dates of formal actions taken, and time elapsing between these actions, by the Senate or Senate Judiciary Committee on each nomination, starting with the date that the Senate received the nomination from the President.
Date: January 5, 2006
Creator: Rutkus, Denis Steven & Bearden, Maureen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations: Comparative Statistics of Two-Term Presidencies Since 1945

Description: This report provides comparative statistics related to the nomination and confirmation of U.S. circuit and district court judges during the eighth year of two-term presidencies since 1945 (i.e., the Truman, Eisenhower, Reagan, Clinton, George W. Bush, and Obama presidencies). It also provides cumulative comparative statistics for the entire terms of these same six presidencies. Previous CRS research has analyzed final Senate action on judicial nominations during the eighth year of the Reagan, Clinton, and George W. Bush presidencies.
Date: April 24, 2017
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Senate's "Executive Calendar"

Description: This report explains what the Senate's "executive calendar" is and how it is laid out. The "executive calendar" includes all treaties and confirmations that the Senate is planning to consider.
Date: April 21, 2017
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recess Appointments Made by President Barack Obama

Description: This report identifies recess appointments made by President Obama. The report discusses these recess appointments in the context of recess appointment authorities and practices generally, and it provides related statistics. Congressional actions to prevent recess appointments prior to and during the Obama presidency, the President's unconstitutional appointments, and the judiciary's response are discussed in more detail in an appendix to the report. Additional information concerning recess appointments by President George W. Bush, general recess appointment practices, and legal issues pertaining to judicial recess appointments in particular may be found in other CRS reports.
Date: September 7, 2017
Creator: Hogue, Henry B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 114th Congress

Description: This report identifies all nominations during the 114th Congress that were submitted to the Senate for full-time positions in 40 organizations in the executive branch (27 independent agencies, 6 agencies in the Executive Office of the President [EOP], and 7 multilateral organizations) and 4 agencies in the legislative branch. The tables include full-time positions confirmed by the Senate, pay levels for these positions, and appointment action within each agency, with additional summary information across all agencies in an appendix.
Date: November 28, 2017
Creator: Nagel, Jared C. & Greene, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Executive Departments During the 114th Congress

Description: This report identifies all nominations submitted to the Senate during the 114th Congress for full-time positions in 15 executive departments. Information for each department is presented in tables. The tables include full-time positions confirmed by the Senate, pay levels for these positions, and appointment action within each executive department. Additional summary information across all 15 executive departments appears in the Appendix. During the 114th Congress, the President submitted 102 nominations to the Senate for full-time positions in executive departments. Of these 102 nominations, 64 were confirmed, 8 were withdrawn, and 30 were returned to him in accordance with Senate rules. For those nominations that were confirmed, a mean (average) of 156.1 days elapsed between nomination and confirmation. The median number of days elapsed was 125.5.
Date: October 31, 2017
Creator: Greene, Michael & Nagel, Jared C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

9/11 Commission Recommendations: The Senate Confirmation Process for Presidential Nominees

Description: On July 22, 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, known as the 9/11 Commission, issued its final report, detailing the events up to and including the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks upon the United States. The 9/11 Commission recommended that the Senate adopt rules requiring hearings and votes to confirm or reject national security nominees within 30 days of their submission at the start of each new presidential administration. Implementing the commission's proposal would involve imposing new restrictions on both the power of committee chairs to control the agenda of their committees and the rights of Senators to delay or block nominations through holds and extended debate. This report discusses in detail this proposal, how it could be implemented, and the potential effects of its implementation.
Date: November 22, 2004
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Executive Departments During the 112th Congress

Description: The President is responsible for appointing individuals to positions throughout the federal government. In some instances, the President makes these appointments using authorities granted to the President alone. Other appointments, generally referred to with the abbreviation PAS, are made by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate via the nomination and confirmation process. This report identifies, for the 112th Congress, all nominations submitted to the Senate for executive-level full-time positions in the 15 executive departments for which the Senate provides advice and consent. It excludes appointments to regulatory boards and commissions as well as to independent and other agencies.
Date: January 8, 2015
Creator: Greene, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointments to Full-Time Positions in Independent and Other Agencies During the 111th Congress

Description: This report explains the process for filling positions to which the President makes appointments with the advice and consent of the Senate (also referred to as PAS positions). It also identifies, for the 111th Congress, all nominations to full-time positions requiring Senate confirmation in 40 organizations in the executive branch (27 independent agencies, 6 agencies in the Executive Office of the President (EOP), and 7 multilateral organizations) and 4 agencies in the legislative branch. It excludes appointments to executive departments and to regulatory and other boards and commissions, which are covered in other reports.
Date: January 22, 2013
Creator: Carey, Maeve P.; Greene, Michael W. & Bearden, Maureen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointments, the Senate's Confirmation Process, and Proposals for Change, 112th Congress

Description: The responsibility for populating top positions in the executive and judicial branches of government is shared, with the President having the power of appointment and the Senate having the power of advice and consent. This report provides a brief background on advice and consent issues, an overview of the appointment process in both the executive and legislative branches, and a brief discussion of recent concerns about the system. Next, the report explores the events in the 112th Congress leading up to the introduction and Senate action on S. 679 and S.Res. 116, and concludes with an analysis of the two measures.
Date: July 8, 2011
Creator: Carey, Maeve P. & Palmer, Betsy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointments, the Senate's Confirmation Process, and Proposals for Change, 112th Congress

Description: The responsibility for populating top positions in the executive and judicial branches of government is shared, with the President having the power of appointment and the Senate having the power of advice and consent. This report provides a brief background on advice and consent issues, an overview of the appointment process in both the executive and legislative branches, and a brief discussion of recent concerns about the system. Next, the report explores the events in the 112th Congress leading up to the introduction and Senate action on S. 679 and S.Res. 116, and concludes with an analysis of the two measures.
Date: July 17, 2011
Creator: Carey, Maeve P. & Palmer, Betsy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Senate Action on U.S. Circuit and District Court Nominations During the Eighth Year of a Presidency

Description: This report discusses the process by which lower federal court judges are nominated by the President and approved by the Senate during the final year of a presidency. The eighth year of a presidency is significant, in part, because it is the final opportunity for a President to appoint individuals as U.S. circuit and district court judges.
Date: June 30, 2016
Creator: McMillion, Barry J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Discharging a Senate Committee from Consideration of a Nomination

Description: Some press reports have suggested that the full Senate could vote in relation to the nomination of Merrick B. Garland to be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, even if the Senate Judiciary Committee does not act on the nomination. This report addresses questions concerning the exact nature of such a vote; it also explains the procedural steps that could be necessary to bring the nomination to a direct vote on the floor.
Date: April 5, 2016
Creator: Rybicki, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Particulate Matter (PM2.5): Implementation of the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

Description: Particulate matter (PM), including fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and larger, but still inhalable particles (PM10), is one of the six principal pollutants for which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This report outlines the implementation process for the 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS and describes issues raised as EPA and states develop implementation strategies.
Date: September 11, 2008
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presidential Appointee Positions Requiring Senate Confirmation and Committees Handling Nominations

Description: Report that identifies, by Senate committee, presidentially appointed positions requiring Senate confirmation based on referrals as of the date of passage of S. 679, which became P.L. 112-166 on August 10, 2012. It begins with a brief description of the referral process and identify, for each committee to which referrals have been made, the positions that fall within the committee's jurisdiction.
Date: November 15, 2012
Creator: Davis, Christopher M. & Mansfield, Jerry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolution of the Senate's Role in the Nomination and Confirmation Process: A Brief History

Description: Over time, the Senate has developed a series of procedures to deal with the concerns of its Members on nominations. First is the custom of senatorial courtesy, whereby Senators from the same party as the President might influence a nomination or kill it by objecting to it. This tradition has not always been absolute, but it has allowed Senators to play a fairly large role, particularly in the selection of nominees within a Senator’s home state, such as for district court judgeships.
Date: March 29, 2005
Creator: Palmer, Betsy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department