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A Descriptive Study of Offended Responses to Nudity in Print Advertising Targeted to Women

Description: A discussion of offensiveness in advertising is the initial focus of this research. A review of the offensiveness, irritation, nudity, and sexual suggestiveness in advertising literature suggested that females report somewhat high arousal scores when viewing nudity but that the arousal may not necessarily be positive. The measure of contributing variables to offendedness responses was proposed using various degrees of nudity in existing advertising as the primary stimuli.
Date: August 1992
Creator: Dishman, Paul Lake III
Partner: UNT Libraries

Comparative Advertising as Corporate Strategy: An Investigation of Key United States Industries

Description: This study is designed to examine comparative advertising as a viable advertising strategy in today's competitive business environment. Frequency and use of comparisons by the selected key industries and advertising agencies are investigated. Analysis is conducted to determine similarities and differences between firms who elect or avoid comparative advertising. Based on an analysis of the findings, certain conclusions are presented. The industry leader is not likely to use comparative advertising in most industries. Firms that are fourth or smaller in market share are most likely to use comparisons. However, the smallest firms, in terms of dollar sales volume, are least likely to use comparative advertising.
Date: August 1978
Creator: Swayne, Linda E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Evaluation of Outdoor Advertising Art from 1920 to 1950

Description: For several years the author has viewed with interest the various kinds of outdoor signs. College courses in advertising art and advertising procedure, as well as practical experience in the advertising field, have increased his interest in this fascinating business and prodded him on to further investigation. With the desire to extend his knowledge of outdoor advertising and to pass on the body of his research to others who find it useful, the author has undertaken this study.
Date: 1951
Creator: Dyer, Rex
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Changing Face of Ralph Lauren's Advertising: A New Lifestyle Image and Increased Nudity

Description: Advertising, which is an important sales tool for brands to the masses, may produce lasting impressions of a company and its products. These impressions rely on a consistent message over time to maintain a brand's image. This study examines how Ralph Lauren's advertising images have changed from a country club lifestyle image to urban/hip. In addition, the study examines the increased use of nudity and sexual imagery in Lauren's advertising. The findings were obtained by content analyzing all Ralph Lauren advertisements appearing in Gentlemen's Quarterly magazine from 1980 to 2000 (N=283). The study finds that Ralph Lauren lifestyle images have become more urban/hip, and that Lauren's advertising is utilizing more nudity, sexual interaction, and homoerotic imagery. By examining Ralph Lauren's shifting brand image via its advertising, this study contributes to a greater understanding of the connection between advertising and a company's brand image.
Date: August 2001
Creator: LaCaze, Tray
Partner: UNT Libraries

Generation Y consumers' value perceptions toward apparel mobile advertising: functions of modality and culture

Description: This article investigates Generation Y consumers' different value perceptions toward apprel mobile advertising according to cultures (i.e. The United States vs. South Korean) and modalities (short message service vs. multimedia messaging service).
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Koo, Wanmo; Knight, Dee K.; Yang, Kiseol & Zheng, Xiang
Partner: UNT College of Merchandising, Hospitality and Tourism

Federal Advertising Law: An Overview

Description: This report provides a brief overview of federal law with respect to six selected advertising issues: alcohol advertising, tobacco advertising, the federal trade commission act, advertising by mail, advertising by telephone, and commercial e-mail.
Date: October 5, 2005
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Advertising Law: An Overview

Description: This report provides a brief overview of federal law with respect to six selected advertising issues: alcohol advertising, tobacco advertising, the federal trade commission act, advertising by mail, advertising by telephone, and commercial e-mail.
Date: December 5, 2007
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Federal Advertising Law: An Overview

Description: This report provides a brief overview of federal law with respect to six selected advertising issues: alcohol advertising, tobacco advertising, the federal trade commission act, advertising by mail, advertising by telephone, and commercial e-mail.
Date: April 10, 2008
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analysis of the Relationship of Comparative Advertising and Culture in Japanese Natives in the Dallas, Texas Area

Description: This study was designed to test whether Japanese natives who retained traditional Japanese value orientations and who resided in the Dallas, Texas area would have unfavorable attitude toward the concept of comparative television advertising. Data were collected from 104 respondents of varying sex, age, education, occupation, length of stay in the United Sates, intention of settling in the United States, and television viewing horse. All null hypotheses were accepted, indicting that cultural influence among Japanese natives in the Dallas area did not result fin unfavorable attitude toward comparative advertising despite the fact that in Japan, the name of names in advertising is counter to basic Japanese culture and tradition.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Fukawa, Kazuhisa
Partner: UNT Libraries

An Analysis of the Dallas Morning News Used Car Advertisements of Twenty Automobile Dealers for the Month of April

Description: "It is the purpose of this study to determine the type of appeal, the size and cost, the plan of insertions, and the extent superlatives are used in The Dallas Morning News used car advertisements of twenty automobile dealers during the month of April. Fourteen advertising appeals were used by the twenty automobile dealers advertising in The Dallas Morning News in the month of April. The fourteen appeals used were: efficiency, friendliness, style, curiosity, safety, convenience-comfort, economy reliability-reputation, durability-dependability, social distinction, fear-caution, ambition, pleasure, and family affection. The economy was the one most used appeal by the dealer. As shown in Table 12, the number of advertising appeals used corresponds or exceeds very little the total number of advertising insertions. Excepting one case, the dealers place the largest advertisements in the Sunday paper. The general procedure was that of placing large advertisements in the Sunday paper and smaller ones throughout the week. The total cost for the twenty automobile dealers was $6,452.08. The total advertising cost per dealer ranged from $38.20 to $1613.81. Only nine of the twenty dealers used superlatives in advertising during the month of April. The nine dealers used nine different superlatives for a total of 281 times."--leaves 1 and 35.
Date: August 1940
Creator: Evans, Ralph L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Teenage Girls' Attitudes Toward Fashion Advertising

Description: The purpose of the study was to investigate teenage girls' attitudes toward fashion advertising and media. The study also sought to determine the influence of class enrollment and employment on attitudes toward fashion advertising. The data were collected by questionnaires administered to 121 high school girls enrolled in child development and fashion design major study classes. Descriptive statistics were computed along with a t-test for the difference between means for independent samples. Teenagers were found to possess many positive attitudes toward fashion advertising and to view print advertising less negatively than broadcast advertising. A highly significant difference was found between attitudes toward fashion advertising and class enrollment. In addition, a significant difference was found between attitudes toward fashion advertising and employment.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Ruiz, Joyce
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Development of Commercial Advertising in Saudi Television from 1986-1988

Description: The story of Saudi television began in 1962 when King Faisal, who was then the crown prince, pointed out that the government intended to utilize the medium of television as a tool for information, guidance, culture, and recreation (Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Information, 1985). From July 17, 1965, when the first transmission signal went out simultaneously from stations in Riyadh and Jeddah until the transfer to the new Riyadh Television Complex in 1982. Saudi television has gone through many phases of development. The most recent development was the introduction of commercial advertising in 1986. Saudi television commercials have taken the form of 10 to 20 minute blocks which are taped and then aired many times during the broadcasting hours. Because Saudi television is a governmental operation, all of the funds required to maintain its expenditures are provided by the Saudi government, and commercial advertising is a new development. Thus, there was a need for a study which told the story of commercial advertising's development in Saudi television.
Date: August 1989
Creator: AlFardi, Abdullah A. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Privacy Law and Online Advertising: Legal Analysis of Data Gathering By Online Advertisers Such As Double Click and NebuAd

Description: This report discusses a number of privacy concerns raised by "behavioral" or "e-havioral" advertising, which enables online advertisements to be targeted directly at individual users based on their web surfing activity.
Date: October 2, 2008
Creator: Ruane, Kathleen Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International advertising: a content analysis of cross-cultural differences

Description: This study addresses the question of cross-country standardization of advertising by identifying existing cross-national differences in magazine advertisements. A content analysis of 1,983 advertisements in business, women's and general interest magazines was performed. The sample included 1989 and 1990 magazine issues from the United States, United Kingdom, France, India and South Korea.
Date: May 1991
Creator: Cutler, Bob D. (Bob Dean)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Content and Layout Variation in Newspaper Advertising for Legal Services

Description: The focus of this investigation is on the effects that content and layout forms of newspaper advertising have on consumer attitudes toward the legal profession. A second major purpose of the study was to determine the differences which exist between certain socio-demographic categories with respect to attitude towards the advertised lawyer and the legal advertisements. Thirteen variations of a legal advertisement for the newspaper medium were developed and shown to consumers and then tested by measuring consumers' attitudes toward twelve lawyer-related attributes and ten advertisement-related attributes.
Date: August 1984
Creator: Webster, Cynthia
Partner: UNT Libraries

Stereotypes in Retail Print Advertising: The Effects of Gender and Physical Appearance on Consumer Perceptions

Description: The retail sector spends millions of dollars each year advertising to consumers. This is a considerable investment for companies seeking effective ways to inform and persuade the consumer. Consequently, retailers need to develop creative message strategies and tactics that will positively affect consumer attitudes. One particular tactic available to retailers is the use of a spokesperson in the advertisement. Salespersons are used in numerous advertisements and can provide key benefits to an advertiser. However, to maximize these benefits, retailers need to carefully select the spokesperson that will be most effective for their store and product. This purpose of this research is to examine the characteristics that influence consumers' perceptions of print advertisements that include a spokesperson in the advertisement. Most of the past literature concerning spokespersons has concentrated on the consumer perspective of meeting and interacting with a living, breathing person. This research seeks to use the past research on salespeople to examine the spokesperson as a cue in a print advertisement. In this perspective, the consumer views the spokesperson from a visual-only perspective. The proposed experiment will utilize print advertisements from two retail businesses. More specifically the study will investigate how consumers react if the individual viewed in the advertisement is typical (matches with their preconceived stereotype) or if the salesperson is atypical (does not match with their preconceived stereotype). This research also examines how men and women are viewed differently in the spokesperson role and how changes in physical appearance may impact consumers' perceptions. The research also studies the influence of spokesperson stereotypes on consumers' cognitive responses.
Date: December 2001
Creator: Allen, Charlotte
Partner: UNT Libraries

Transgender Representation in Mainstream Advertising

Description: This study focuses on the transgender community's presence and portrayal in advertisements that reach a broad, mainstream audience base. Through a mixed-methods use of focus groups and qualitative content analysis, the content, context, and framings of ads between the years 2015 and 2018 are explored to illustrate current portrayals of the trans community and how the industry is approaching this subcultural group. Its findings contribute to advertising research by exploring current trends in trans portrayals in the cultural context they exist. Because trans advertising in both LGBTQ+ publications and to mainstream audience is largely unexplored, this study seeks to begin a conversation among advertising professionals. The main objective is to ultimately improve the number of genuine, positive portrayals of trans people in advertising and hold the industry accountable for the role they play in serving this community.
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Date: May 2019
Creator: Maxwell, Bailey
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Content Analysis of the Depiction of Women in Television Presidential Advertising from 1952 to 1976

Description: From the television advertisements made by presidential candidates from 1952 to 1976, this study analyzed the 131 advertisements that contained women. The analysis used the following descriptors: Number of Women's Roles, Age, Occupation, Marital Status, Locale, Concerns, and Status Relative to the Candidate. The results indicate that women are most likely to be shown as physically present although not speaking, in the 18 to 30 age group, belonging to a non-business atmosphere yet outside the home, and of an unknown marital status, and will not be shown in the same frame as the candidate. Womens' images in these advertisements were most commonly associated with issues involving the cost of living, taxes, pro-Nixon, and social security.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Payne, Beth A. (Beth Ann)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Symbolic visuals in advertising: The role of relevance.

Description: Relevance has been applied to various conditions in the marketing literature but no single definition has been developed. A single clear definition will be helpful to researchers investigating relevance in the marketing and consumer behavior fields. Confusion also exists in the literature regarding to what extent a symbolic visual in an advertisement is relevant. Many researchers are also calling for empirical evidence of a linkage between relevance and response through a theoretical measure of relevance. The central theory used in this dissertation is Sperber and Wilson's (1995) theory of relevance (TOR). TOR can help researchers and marketing managers by explaining how consumers may interpret visuals in advertising. TOR explains why some visuals thought to be unconnected with the product become relevant in advertising. This study makes the assertion that TOR has been underutilized and even ignored by some researchers in past marketing literature. Thus, TOR is used to provide greater explanatory power of consumers' interpretation and response to advertising visuals than what is currently realized by researchers and marketing managers. A reliable measure of relevance was developed using TOR as a foundation. Experiments were conducted to empirically test TOR and support was found for most aspects of the theory. This dissertation makes several contributions to the consumer behavior literature. These contributions include: 1) clarifying the definition of relevance in advertising, 2) developing a tentative measure of relevance, 3) providing an explanation of how non-relevant visuals produce effects expected for relevant visuals as occurred in experiments conducted by Mitchell and Olson (1981) and Miniard, Bhatla, Lord, Dickson and Unnava (1991), 4) showing how relevance of symbolic visuals in advertisements relates to specific consumer responses, and 5) offering suggestions for how the theory of relevance can be used by researchers and marketing managers to gain a better understanding of consumers' interpretation of …
Date: August 2008
Creator: Holmes, Gary R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Corporate Propaganda Analysis: a Case Study of Nike, Inc.

Description: This study seeks to show how Nike, Inc. has effectively followed a strategy to increase the sale of its products that can be characterized as propaganda. Regarding method, this is a qualitative study which applied the propaganda analysis plan developed by Jowett & O'Donnell (1992) to examine and describe (1) Nike's ideology, (2) corporate structure and culture, (3) purpose, (4) targeted audiences, (5) the dissemination of the propaganda, (6) techniques for increasing its effectiveness, (7) existing counterpropaganda and contradictions, and (8) the effectiveness of the campaign. The study provides evidence that Nike engages in propaganda through an organized, systematic, and deliberate attempt to influence the beliefs, attitudes, perceptions, and actions of specific audiences for the purpose of accomplishing fixed objectives.
Date: December 1998
Creator: Anderson, Christian S. (Christian Spencer)
Partner: UNT Libraries

Advertising and Promotional Procedure as Practiced by Five Dallas Department Stores

Description: The problem with which this paper is concerned is to observe and appraise the retail advertising and promotional procedure of five of the Dallas department stores. After observing their advertising methods, an attempt will be made to conclude whether their efficiency might be increased through use of different advertising and promotional policies.
Date: 1949
Creator: Drake, Jerry E.
Partner: UNT Libraries
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