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Reactivity estimation for source-driven systems using first-order perturbation theory.

Description: Applicability of the first-order perturbation (FOP) theory method to reactivity estimation for source-driven systems is examined in this paper. First, the formally exact point kinetics equations have been derived from the space-dependent kinetics equations and the kinetics parameters including the dynamic reactivity have been defined. For the dynamic reactivity, exact and first-order perturbation theory expressions for the reactivity change have been formulated for source-driven systems. It has been also shown that the external source perturbation itself does not change the reactivity if the initial {lambda}-mode adjoint flux is used as the weight function. Using two source-driven benchmark problems, the reactivity change has been estimated with the FOP theory method for various perturbations. By comparing the resulting reactivity changes with the exact dynamic reactivity changes determined from the space-dependent kinetics solutions, it has been shown that the accuracy of the FOP theory method for the accelerator-driven system (ADS) is reasonably good and comparable to that for the critical reactors. The adiabatic assumption has also been shown to be a good approximation for the ADS kinetics analyses.
Date: July 2, 2002
Creator: Kim, Y.; Yang, W. S.; Taiwo, T. A. & Hill, R. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MUSE-4 experiment measurements and analysis.

Description: This report presents a review of the activities performed by the five teams involved in the MUSE-4 experimental program. More details are provided on the contribution by ANL during the year 9/02 to 9/03. The ANL activity consisted both in direct participation in the experimental measurements and in the physics analysis of the experimental data, mainly for the reactivity level, adjoint flux and fission rate distributions and the analysis of dynamic measurements for reactivity determination techniques in subcritical systems. The results provided to complete the Benchmark organized by the OECD and the CEA on the experiment MUSE-4 are also presented. Deterministic calculations have been performed via the ERANOS code system in connection with JEF2.2, ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI data files.
Date: January 13, 2004
Creator: Aliberti, G.; Imel, G. & Palmiotti, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prompt Neutron Lifetime for the NBSR Reactor

Description: In preparation for the proposed conversion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, certain point kinetics parameters must be calculated. We report here values of the prompt neutron lifetime that have been calculated using three independent methods. All three sets of calculations demonstrate that the prompt neutron lifetime is shorter for the LEU fuel when compared to the HEU fuel and longer for the equilibrium end-of-cycle (EOC) condition when compared to the equilibrium startup (SU) condition for both the HEU and LEU fuels.
Date: June 24, 2012
Creator: Hanson, A.L. & Diamond, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variational nodal perturbation theory with anisotropic scattering

Description: The variational nodal perturbation method previously developed in two- and three-dimensional Cartesian and hexagonal geometries using the diffusion and full or simplified spherical harmonics transport approximations, is extended to treat problems with anisotropic scattering. The requisite solution to the adjoint transport equation with anisotropic scattering in formulated and incorporated into the VARIANT (VARIational Anisotropic Nodal Transport) option of the Argonne National Laboratory DIF3D production code. The method, which calculates changes in the critical eigenvalue due to perturbations arising from changes in the material cross sections, is demonstrated by applying perturbations to an anisotropic hexagonal benchmark. Exact and first order perturbation theory are used to calculate changes in the critical eigenvalue and compared to the change obtained by direct calculation in VARIANT. The time savings obtained by using perturbation theory is substantial; times for base forward and adjoint calculations are much greater than the times for perturbation calculations.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Laurin-Kovitz, K.F.; Palmiotti, G. & Lewis, E.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inversion based on computational simulations

Description: A standard approach to solving inversion problems that involve many parameters uses gradient-based optimization to find the parameters that best match the data. The authors discuss enabling techniques that facilitate application of this approach to large-scale computational simulations, which are the only way to investigate many complex physical phenomena. Such simulations may not seem to lend themselves to calculation of the gradient with respect to numerous parameters. However, adjoint differentiation allows one to efficiently compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to all the variables of a simulation. When combined with advanced gradient-based optimization algorithms, adjoint differentiation permits one to solve very large problems of optimization or parameter estimation. These techniques will be illustrated through the simulation of the time-dependent diffusion of infrared light through tissue, which has been used to perform optical tomography. The techniques discussed have a wide range of applicability to modeling including the optimization of models to achieve a desired design goal.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S. & Saquib, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coupling of Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences

Description: A computer code, DRC3, has been developed for coupling Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences in order to solve a special category of geometrically-complex deep penetration shielding problems. The code extends the capabilities of earlier methods that coupled Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with two-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences. The problems involve the calculation of fluences and responses in a perturbation to an otherwise simple two- or three-dimensional radiation field. In general, the perturbation complicates the geometry such that it cannot be modeled exactly using any of the discrete ordinates geometry options and thus a direct discrete ordinates solution is not possible. Also, the calculation of radiation transport from the source to the perturbation involves deep penetration. One approach to solving such problems is to perform the calculations in three steps: (1) a forward discrete ordinates calculation, (2) a localized adjoint Monte Carlo calculation, and (3) a coupling of forward fluences from the first calculation with adjoint leakages from the second calculation to obtain the response of interest (fluence, dose, etc.). A description of this approach is presented along with results from test problems used to verify the method. The test problems that were selected could also be solved directly by the discrete ordinates method. The good agreement between the DRC3 results and the direct-solution results verify the correctness of DRC3.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Slater, C.O.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O. & Simpson, D.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A transport based one-dimensional perturbation code for reactivity calculations in metal systems

Description: A one-dimensional reactivity calculation code is developed using first order perturbation theory. The reactivity equation is based on the multi-group transport equation using the discrete ordinates method for angular dependence. In addition to the first order perturbation approximations, the reactivity code uses only the isotropic scattering data, but cross section libraries with higher order scattering data can still be used with this code. The reactivity code obtains all the flux, cross section, and geometry data from the standard interface files created by ONEDANT, a discrete ordinates transport code. Comparisons between calculated and experimental reactivities were done with the central reactivity worth data for Lady Godiva, a bare uranium metal assembly. Good agreement is found for isotopes that do not violate the assumptions in the first order approximation. In general for cases where there are large discrepancies, the discretized cross section data is not accurately representing certain resonance regions that coincide with dominant flux groups in the Godiva assembly. Comparing reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and a straight {Delta}k/k calculation shows agreement within 10% indicating the perturbation of the calculated fluxes is small enough for first order perturbation theory to be applicable in the modeled system. Computation time comparisons between reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and straight {Delta}k/k calculations indicate considerable time can be saved performing a calculation with a perturbation code particularly as the complexity of the modeled problems increase.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Wenz, T. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Adjoint Method for The Optimization of Brachytherapy and Radiotherapy Patient Treatment Planning Procedures Using Monte Carlo Calculations

Description: The goal of this project is to investigate the use of the adjoint method, commonly used in the reactor physics community, for the optimization of radiation therapy patient treatment plans. Two different types of radiation therapy are being examined, interstitial brachytherapy and radiotherapy. In brachytherapy radioactive sources are surgically implanted within the diseased organ such as the prostate to treat the cancerous tissue. With radiotherapy, the x-ray source is usually located at a distance of about 1-metere from the patient and focused on the treatment area. For brachytherapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal placement of the radioactive sources, which delivers the prescribed dose to the disease tissue while simultaneously sparing (reducing) the dose to sensitive tissue and organs. For external beam radiation therapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal direction and intensity of beam, which provides complete coverage of the tumor region with the prescribed dose while simultaneously avoiding sensitive tissue areas. For both therapy methods, the optimal treatment plan is one in which the diseased tissue has been treated with the prescribed dose and dose to the sensitive tissue and organs has been kept to a minimum.
Date: October 30, 2001
Creator: Henderson, D.L.; Yoo, S.; Kowalok, M.; Mackie, T.R. & Thomadsen, B.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of the adjoint method in atmospheric radiative transfer calculations

Description: The transfer of solar radiation through a standard mid-latitude summer atmosphere including different amounts of aerosols (from clear to hazy) has been computed. The discrete-ordinates (S/sub N/) method, which has been developed to a high degree of computational efficiency and accuracy primarily for nuclear radiation shielding applications, is employed in a forward as well as adjoint mode. In the adjoint mode the result of a transfer calculation is an importance function (adjoint intensity) which allows the calculation of transmitted fluxes, or other radiative responses, for any arbitrary source distribution. The theory of the adjoint method is outlined in detail and physical interpretations are developed for the adjoint intensity. If, for example, the downward directed solar flux at ground level, F/sub lambda/ (z = 0), is desired for N different solar zenith angles, a regular (forward) radiative transfer calculation must be repeated for each solar zenith angle. In contrast, only 1 adjoint transfer calculation gives F/sub lambda/ (z = 0) for all solar zenith angles in a hazy aerosol atmosphere, for 1 wavelength interval, in 2.3 seconds on a CDC-7600 computer. A total of 155 altitude zones were employed between 0 and 70 km, and the convergence criterion for the ratio of fluxes from successive iterations was set at 2 x 10/sup -3/. Our results demonstrate not only the applicability of the highly efficient modern S/sub N/ codes, but indicate also conceptual and computational advantages when the adjoint formulation of the radiative transfer equation is used.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Gerstl, S.A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automated Monte Carlo biasing for photon-generated electrons near surfaces.

Description: This report describes efforts to automate the biasing of coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo particle transport calculations. The approach was based on weight-windows biasing. Weight-window settings were determined using adjoint-flux Monte Carlo calculations. A variety of algorithms were investigated for adaptivity of the Monte Carlo tallies. Tree data structures were used to investigate spatial partitioning. Functional-expansion tallies were used to investigate higher-order spatial representations.
Date: September 1, 2009
Creator: Franke, Brian Claude; Crawford, Martin James & Kensek, Ronald Patrick
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model-based image reconstruction from time-resolved diffusion data

Description: This paper addresses the issue of reconstructing the unknown field of absorption and scattering coefficients from time-resolved measurements of diffused light in a computationally efficient manner. The intended application is optical tomography, which has generated considerable interest in recent times. The inverse problem is posed in the Bayesian framework. The maximum {ital a posteriori} (MAP) estimate is used to compute the reconstruction. We use an edge- preserving generalized Gaussian Markov random field to model the unknown image. The diffusion model used for the measurements is solved forward in time using a finite-difference approach known as the alternating-directions implicit method. This method requires the inversion of a tridiagonal matrix at each time step and is therefore of O(N) complexity, where N is the dimensionality of the image. Adjoint differentiation is used to compute the sensitivity of the measurements with respect to the unknown image. The novelty of our method lies in the computation of the sensitivity since we can achieve it in O(N) time as opposed to O(N{sup 2}) time required by the perturbation approach. We present results using simulated data to show that the proposed method yields superior quality reconstructions with substantial savings in computation.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Saquib, S.S.; Hanson, K.M. & Cunningham, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Space applications of the MITS electron-photon Monte Carlo transport code system

Description: The MITS multigroup/continuous-energy electron-photon Monte Carlo transport code system has matured to the point that it is capable of addressing more realistic three-dimensional adjoint applications. It is first employed to efficiently predict point doses as a function of source energy for simple three-dimensional experimental geometries exposed to simulated uniform isotropic planar sources of monoenergetic electrons up to 4.0 MeV. Results are in very good agreement with experimental data. It is then used to efficiently simulate dose to a detector in a subsystem of a GPS satellite due to its natural electron environment, employing a relatively complex model of the satellite. The capability for survivability analysis of space systems is demonstrated, and results are obtained with and without variance reduction.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Kensek, R.P.; Lorence, L.J.; Halbleib, J.A. & Morel, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geometrically-compatible 3-D Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinates methods

Description: This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was two-fold. The first purpose was to develop a deterministic discrete-ordinates neutral-particle transport scheme for unstructured tetrahedral spatial meshes, and implement it in a computer code. The second purpose was to modify the MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport code to use adjoint solutions from the tetrahedral-mesh discrete-ordinates code to reduce the statistical variance of Monte Carlo solutions via a weight-window approach. The first task has resulted in a deterministic transport code that is much more efficient for modeling complex 3-D geometries than any previously existing deterministic code. The second task has resulted in a powerful new capability for dramatically reducing the cost of difficult 3-D Monte Carlo calculations.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Morel, J.E.; Wareing, T.A.; McGhee, J.M. & Evans, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AVATAR -- Automatic variance reduction in Monte Carlo calculations

Description: AVATAR{trademark} (Automatic Variance And Time of Analysis Reduction), accessed through the graphical user interface application, Justine{trademark}, is a superset of MCNP{trademark} that automatically invokes THREEDANT{trademark} for a three-dimensional deterministic adjoint calculation on a mesh independent of the Monte Carlo geometry, calculates weight windows, and runs MCNP. Computational efficiency increases by a factor of 2 to 5 for a three-detector oil well logging tool model. Human efficiency increases dramatically, since AVATAR eliminates the need for deep intuition and hours of tedious handwork.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Van Riper, K.A.; Urbatsch, T.J. & Soran, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operation of the Bayes Inference Engine

Description: The authors have developed a computer application, called the Bayes Inference Engine, to enable one to make inferences about models of a physical object from radiographs taken of it. In the BIE calculational models are represented by a data-flow diagram that can be manipulated by the analyst in a graphical-programming environment. The authors demonstrate the operation of the BIE in terms of examples of two-dimensional tomographic reconstruction including uncertainty estimation.
Date: July 27, 1998
Creator: Hanson, K.M. & Cunningham, G.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An enhanced geometry-independent mesh weight window generator for MCNP

Description: A new, enhanced, weight window generator suite has been developed for MCNP{trademark}. The new generator correctly estimates importances in either an user-specified, geometry-independent orthogonal grid or in MCNP geometric cells. The geometry-independent option alleviates the need to subdivide the MCNP cell geometry for variance reduction purposes. In addition, the new suite corrects several pathologies in the existing MCNP weight window generator. To verify the correctness of the new implementation, comparisons are performed with the analytical solution for the cell importance. Using the new generator, differences between Monte Carlo generated and analytical importances are less than 0.1%. Also, assumptions implicit in the original MCNP generator are shown to be poor in problems with high scattering media. The new generator is fully compatible with MCNP`s AVATAR{trademark} automatic variance reduction method. The new generator applications, together with AVATAR, gives MCNP an enhanced suite of variance reduction methods. The flexibility and efficacy of this suite is demonstrated in a neutron porosity tool well-logging problem.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Evans, T.M. & Hendricks, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COMBINE7.1 - A Portable ENDF/B-VII.0 Based Neutron Spectrum and Cross-Section Generation Program

Description: COMBINE7.1 is a FORTRAN 90 computer code that generates multigroup neutron constants for use in the deterministic diffusion and transport theory neutronics analysis. The cross-section database used by COMBINE7.1 is derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF/B-VII.0). The neutron energy range covered is from 20 MeV to 1.0E-5 eV. The Los Alamos National Laboratory NJOY code is used as the processing code to generate a 167 fine-group cross-section library in MATXS format for Bondarenko self-shielding treatment. Resolved resonance parameters are extracted from ENDF/B-VII.0 File 2 for a separate library to be used in an alternate Nordheim self-shielding treatment in the resolved resonance energy range. The equations solved for energy dependent neutron spectrum in the 167 fine-group structure are the B3 or B1 zero-dimensional approximations to the transport equation. The fine group cross sections needed for the spectrum calculation are first prepared by Bondarenko self-shielding interpolation in terms of background cross section and temperature. The geometric lump effect, when present, is accounted for by augmenting the background cross section. Nordheim self-shielded fine group cross sections for a material having resolved resonance parameters overwrite correspondingly the existing self-shielded fine group cross sections when this option is used. COMBINE7.1 coalesces fine group cross sections into broad group macroscopic and microscopic constants. The coalescing is performed by utilizing fine-group fluxes and/or currents obtained by spectrum calculation as the weighting functions. The multigroup constants may be output in any of several standard formats including INL format, ANISN 14** free format, CCCC ISOTXS format, and AMPX working library format. ANISN-PC, a one-dimensional (1-D) discrete-ordinate transport code, is incorporated into COMBINE7.1. As an option, the 167 fine-group constants generated by zero-dimensional COMBINE portion in the program can be used to calculate regionwise spectra in the 1-D ANISN portion, all internally to reflect the 1-D transport correction. ...
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Yoon, Woo Y. & Nigg, David W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department