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Project AN0115A Annual Report, 1976: Migration of Plutonium and Americium in the Lithosphere

Description: Annual report of Argonne National Laboratory project ANO115A. Abstract: Studies have been carried out on the migration of plutonium and americium in solutions flowing through porous and crushed rock and through fissures. The migration process can be described in terms of the surface absorption of these elements. In addition, chemical effects on the absorption have been observed. One of these effects is possibly due to the presence of a plutonium polymer that migrates at a more rapid rate than normal plutonium.
Date: 1976
Creator: Hines, J. J.; Friedman, M. A.; Fried, S.; Atcher, Robert Whitehill; Quarterman, L. A. & Volesky, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotopic measurements of uranium and plutonium by resonance-ionization mass spectrometry

Description: Isotopic measurements of the elements uranium and plutonium have been carried out using laser-excited resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS). This technique makes use of the high elemental selectivity inherent in the resonance-ionization process which results in complete removal of isobaric (same-mass) interferences. The requirements of the laser system and atomization source will be discussed with emphasis on maximizing the efficiency of temporal overlap, thus increasing the sensitivity of the technique. Results will be shown for resin-bead loaded samples containing a mixture of NBS standard reference materials of U and Pu at the nanogram level. Data will be presented which demonstrate the selectivity, accuracy, and precision of RIMS compared to the conventional thermal ionization technique.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Donohue, D.L.; Young, J.P. & Smith, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-stage mass spectrometer for isotopic analysis of radionuclides in environmental samples

Description: A three-stage mass spectrometer was constructed for isotopic analysis of several radioactive as well as stable elements at environmental levels. The spectrometer is interfaced to a digital computer, which controls the operation of the spectrometer, accumulates data, reduces data, and prints a final result. The spectrometer has demonstrated the capability of measuring the isotopic composition of plutonium samples as small as 0.005 picogram and has an abundance sensitivity greater than 10/sup 8/.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Halverson, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thorium resonance ionization mass spectrometry for geochronological and geochemical applications

Description: Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) is being developed to measure thorium isotopics from geological samples. These measurements, in conjunction with uranium measurements by thermal ionization, permit geochronological dating in the timescale of 10,000 to 350,000 years. 15 refs., 2 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Fearey, Bryan L.; Johnson, Stephen G.; Nogar, Nicholas; Murrell, Michael T. & Miller, Charles M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

Description: Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Smith, D. H.; Walker, R. L.; Bertram, L. K. & Carter, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tunable lasers in isotope separation: a colorful view of a dye chemist

Description: Some of the problems to be encountered in the possible large scale use of dye lasers in an isotope separation plant are discussed.The effect of laser dye deterioration on performance is examined algebraically in terms of disappearance of dye molecules and the appearance of a new, single chemical product having absorption in the fluorescence band for a single pass through a transversely pumped amplifier. Loss of output, defined as ''quantum yield of laser deterioration'', Q/sub L/, is related to the true quantum yield of molecular destruction of the dye Q/sub M/, and other known parameters. 6-Diethylamino 3-keto fluoran, an example of an oxygen tricyclic merocyanine, is described. It was first reported in the pre-1900 German literature under the name of Chromogen Red B and it is an ineffective lasing dye on account of low fluorescence quantum yield. The techniques for measurement and the excited state absorption cross-sections are reported for the dyes rhodamine 6G fluoroborate in alcohol, rhodamine B basic solution in trifluoroethanol and kiton red S in trifluoroethanol.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Hammond, P. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual report for FY 1976 on project AN0115A: the migration of plutonium and americium in the lithosphere

Description: Studies have been carried out on the migration of plutonium and americium in solutions flowing through porous and crushed rock and through fissures. The migration process can be described in terms of the surface absorption of these elements. In addition, chemical effects on the absorption have been observed. One of these effects is possibly due to the presence of a plutonium polymer that migrates at a more rapid rate than normal plutonium.
Date: December 1, 1976
Creator: Fried, S; Friedman, A M; Hines, J J; Atcher, R W; Quarterman, L A & Volesky, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The performance of actinide-containing SRL 165 type glass in unsaturated conditions

Description: As part of the effort by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project to evaluate the volcanic tuff beds of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a repository for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste, the interaction of actinide-doped Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) 165 type glass with the unsaturated repository environment has been studied. The NNWSI Unsaturated Test method has been used, and the results from batch and continuous tests completed through 18 months demonstrate that several interactions are important for controlling both the reaction of the glass and the release of radionuclides. These interactions include (1) the reaction between the glass and moist air with interludes of liquid water contact, which results in the release of alkali metals from the glass; and (2) the reaction between standing water, glass, and presensitized 304 L type stainless steel which results in breakdown of the glass matrix and the release of radionuclides from the glass-metal assemblage. A comparison of the results of the Unsaturated Test with those of parametric experiments illustrates the importance of presensitized steel in enhancing the glass reaction, and demonstrates the applicability of the Unsaturated Test to those conditions anticipated to exist in the NNWSI repository horizon. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Date: December 31, 1987
Creator: Bates, J.K. & Gerding, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemistry of berkelium: a review

Description: Element 97 was first produced in December 1949, by the bombardment of americium-241 with accelerated alpha particles. This new element was named berkelium (Bk) after Berkeley, California, the city of its discovery (Thompson, Ghiorso, and Seaborg, Phys. Rev. 77, 838 (1950); 80, 781 (1950)). In the 36 years since the discovery of Bk, a substantial amount of knowledge concerning the physicochemical properties of this relatively scarce transplutonium element has been acquired. All of the Bk isotopes of mass numbers 240 and 242 through 251 are presently known, but only berkelium-249 (..beta../sup -/ decay, 0.125 MeV, t/sub 1/2/ = 325 days) is available in sufficient quantities for bulk chemical studies. About 0.7 gram of this isotope has been isolated at the HFIR/TRU Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in the last 18 years. Over the same time period, the scale of experimental work using berkelium-249 has increased from the tracer level to bulk studies at the microgram level to solution and solid state investigations with milligram quantities. Extended knowledge of the physicochemical behavior of berkelium is important in its own right, because Bk is the first member of the second half of the actinide series. In addition, such information should enable more accurate extrapolations to the predicted behavior of heavier elements for which experimental studies are severely limited by lack of material and/or by intense radioactivity.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Hobart, D.E. & Peterson, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of AVLIS technology for production-scale LIS systems and construction

Description: The use of lasers for uranium and/or plutonium isotope separation is expected to be the first application of lasers utilizing specific atomic processes for large-scale materials processing. Specific accomplishments toward the development of production-scale technology for LIS systems will be presented, along with the status of major construction projects. 24 figures.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Davis, J.I. & Moses, E.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the NAEG model of transuranic radionuclide transport and dose

Description: We analyze the model for estimating the dose from /sup 239/Pu developed for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) by using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the air pathway is the critical pathway for the organs receiving the highest dose. Soil concentration and the factors controlling air concentration are the most important parameters. The only organ whose dose is sensitive to parameters in the ingestion pathway is the GI tract. The air pathway accounts for 100% of the dose to lung, upper respiratory tract, and thoracic lymph nodes; and 95% of its dose via ingestion. Leafy vegetable ingestion accounts for 70% of the dose from the ingestion pathway regardless of organ, peeled vegetables 20%; accidental soil ingestion 5%; ingestion of beef liver 4%; beef muscle 1%. Only a handful of model parameters control the dose for any one organ. The number of important parameters is usually less than 10. Uncertainty analysis indicates that choosing a uniform distribution for the input parameters produces a lognormal distribution of the dose. The ratio of the square root of the variance to the mean is three times greater for the doses than it is for the individual parameters. As found by the sensitivity analysis, the uncertainty analysis suggests that only a few parameters control the dose for each organ. All organs have similar distributions and variance to mean ratios except for the lymph modes. 16 references, 9 figures, 13 tables.
Date: November 1, 1984
Creator: Kercher, J.R. & Anspaugh, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for packaging: neutron shipping cask, model 4T

Description: This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging demonstrates that the neutron shipping cask can safely transport, in solid or powder form, all isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium. The cask and its contents are described. It also evaluates transport conditions, structural parameters (e.g., load resistance, pressure and impact effects, lifting and tiedown devices), and shielding. Finally, it discusses compliance with Chapter 0529 of the Energy Research and Development Administration Manual, Safety Standards for the Packaging of Fissile and Other Radioactive Materials.
Date: March 4, 1977
Creator: Peterson, R. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of transuranic nuclides in soils: a review. [Pu and U isotopes]

Description: The literature is reviewed to ascertain the degree of movement and the distribution patterns for transuranic and uranium nuclides in soils. Typical plutonium and uranium profiles are presented and an attempt is made to identify unique characteristics causing deviation from an ideal distribution pattern. By far most of the distribution observations are with plutonium and little is reported for uranium and other transuranic nuclides.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Essington, E. H. & Fowler, E. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotopic safeguards techniques

Description: Information is presented to explain and illustrate the idea and uses of isotopic safeguards techniques. A generalized, simple approach is maintained to facilitate understanding of the techniques. Once understood, the application, demonstration, and implementation of isotopic safeguards techniques becomes much easier.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Timmerman, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soils element history, sampling, analyses, and recommendations. [Plutonium isotopes]

Description: A five year history of the Soils Element of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) is presented. Major projects are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on mound studies and profile studies for the period March 1, 1975, through February 1, 1976. A series of recommendations is made relative to extensions of past efforts of the Soils Element of the NAEG.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Fowler, E. B. & Essington, E. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2. 05 x 10/sup 9/ age of the Oklo uranium deposit

Description: U and Pb isotopic data on samples (10 to 100 gram) 2 to 10 m away from the borders of the Oklo reactor zones indicate a primary age of 2.05 x 10/sup 9/ years for the Oklo deposit and a secondary age of 0.375 x 10/sup 9/ years. All samples show effects of Pb loss; the average loss is 50 percent. Both the U--Pb and Pb isotopic data are consistent with a model of a primary 2.05 x 10/sup 9/ year age of the deposit, continuous volume diffusion of Pb from uraninite, and either continuous or recent loss of this Pb. In this case the 0.375 x 10/sup 9/ year age is an artifact without time significance. Using an average value of D/a/sup 2/ 3.5 x 10/sup -11/ a/sup -1/ (Cowan, this conference) this model explains the apparent 1.8 x 10/sup 9/ year Pb age observed by other workers. From the /sup 208/Pb//sup 206/Pb data the average U/Th value calculated for the Oklo deposit is approximately 100.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Gancarz, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Apparatus for shifting the wavelength of light. [US patent application]

Description: This invention, which resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a means for shifting the wavelength of light and, more particularly, to a means for changing the wavelength of a laser beam so that the beam can be effectively used in a process for separation uranium isotopes. As disclosed in US Patent 3,940,615, /sup 235/U can be separated from /sup 238/U by selectively ionizing the /sup 235/U isotope in a vapor containing both /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U, this ionization being effected by passing a laser beam having a proper frequency (or wavelength) through the vapor. Doppler shifting of the wavelength of a laser beam to obtain an optimal light wavelength for ionizing /sup 235/U in such a separation process has been proposed heretofore. However, the applicants are aware of no apparatus for Doppler shifting of the wavelength of light that has the features or advantages of apparatus constructed in accordance with the principles of their invention. A light beam is reflected back and forth between a rotating body having a retroreflection corner at opposite ends thereof and a fixed mirror to change the wavelength of the light beam by the Doppler effect.
Date: January 29, 1982
Creator: McCulla, William H. & Allen, John D., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear safeguards progress report, January--June 1976

Description: Development of Nondestructive Assay Techniques: Gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements show that a precision of 3 percent in the ratios of /sup 238/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 241/Pu to /sup 239/Pu can be obtained after 10,000-3,000 s for FBR and LWR materials. Times for the prediction of calorimeter equilibrium have been reduced by 40 to 66 percent by a mathematical technique. Systems Development: The Automated Plutonium Assay System, utilizing calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy, is being developed. Applications: The inhomogeneity of the /sup 239/Pu metal sample for half-life measurements was determined to be less than 0.02 percent. Twenty ash and ten mixed-oxide samples were assayed. (DLC)
Date: January 14, 1977
Creator: Ratay, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Ventron site

Description: Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Ventron site in Beverly, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The derivations for the single radionuclides and the total uranium guidelines were based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Ventron site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Loureiro, C.; Yu, C. & Jones, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AVLIS industrial access program

Description: This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.
Date: November 15, 1984
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculated fission properties of the heaviest elements: Vol. 2, Calculated single-particle levels in heavy nuclei

Description: The decay properties of nuclei in many cases depend strongly on the quantum numbers of the single-particle levels in the vicinity of the Fermi surface. A striking illustration is the prolonged fission half-lives of odd nuclei relative to their even neighbors. The hindrance factor depends on the spin of unpaired odd particle and increases with increasing spin of the odd particle. The effect has been studied theoretically. For /sup 257/Fm the hindrance factor is almost ten orders of magnitude. The computer code for calculating nuclear masses calculates single-particle levels at the deformations considered as one step in the calculations. This code has been run for all nuclei considered in the 1981 mass study and the calculated single-particle levels were stored on permanent mass storage. This is actually point (I.D.1) in the research plan ('UNIFIED MODEL ...'). A computer code has been constructed for extracting levels of nuclei that are specified to the program and plotting them. Four such plots are included in this report as figs. 1-4. The levels are plotted relative to the Fermi surface of each nucleus. It is clear from the pictures that for /sup 257/Fm the calculations predict the N = 157 neutron orbital to have spin 9/2+ as is also found experimentally. The high spin is the reason for the large hindrance factor for fission of /sup 257/Fm. Figures of the type included here may be used to quickly survey larger regions of nuclei for candidates for special properties, such as unusually large hindrance factors in fission. More detailed calculations are usually required to determine the magnitude of the effects. We also include tables of the plotted single-particle levels since it is not always possible to determine the spin from an inspection of the plots, when levels are overlapping. 4 figs.
Date: September 1, 1986
Creator: Moeller, P.; Nix, J. R. & Swiatecki, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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