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Project AN0115A Annual Report, 1976: Migration of Plutonium and Americium in the Lithosphere

Description: Annual report of Argonne National Laboratory project ANO115A. Abstract: Studies have been carried out on the migration of plutonium and americium in solutions flowing through porous and crushed rock and through fissures. The migration process can be described in terms of the surface absorption of these elements. In addition, chemical effects on the absorption have been observed. One of these effects is possibly due to the presence of a plutonium polymer that migrates at a more rapid rate than normal plutonium.
Date: 1976
Creator: Hines, J. J.; Friedman, M. A.; Fried, S.; Atcher, Robert Whitehill; Quarterman, L. A. & Volesky, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotopic measurements of uranium and plutonium by resonance-ionization mass spectrometry

Description: Isotopic measurements of the elements uranium and plutonium have been carried out using laser-excited resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS). This technique makes use of the high elemental selectivity inherent in the resonance-ionization process which results in complete removal of isobaric (same-mass) interferences. The requirements of the laser system and atomization source will be discussed with emphasis on maximizing the efficiency of temporal overlap, thus increasing the sensitivity of the technique. Results will be shown for resin-bead loaded samples containing a mixture of NBS standard reference materials of U and Pu at the nanogram level. Data will be presented which demonstrate the selectivity, accuracy, and precision of RIMS compared to the conventional thermal ionization technique.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Donohue, D.L.; Young, J.P. & Smith, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual report for FY 1976 on project AN0115A: the migration of plutonium and americium in the lithosphere

Description: Studies have been carried out on the migration of plutonium and americium in solutions flowing through porous and crushed rock and through fissures. The migration process can be described in terms of the surface absorption of these elements. In addition, chemical effects on the absorption have been observed. One of these effects is possibly due to the presence of a plutonium polymer that migrates at a more rapid rate than normal plutonium.
Date: December 1, 1976
Creator: Fried, S; Friedman, A M; Hines, J J; Atcher, R W; Quarterman, L A & Volesky, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

Description: Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%. (DLC)
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Bertram, L.K. & Carter, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tunable lasers in isotope separation: a colorful view of a dye chemist

Description: Some of the problems to be encountered in the possible large scale use of dye lasers in an isotope separation plant are discussed.The effect of laser dye deterioration on performance is examined algebraically in terms of disappearance of dye molecules and the appearance of a new, single chemical product having absorption in the fluorescence band for a single pass through a transversely pumped amplifier. Loss of output, defined as ''quantum yield of laser deterioration'', Q/sub L/, is related to the true quantum yield of molecular destruction of the dye Q/sub M/, and other known parameters. 6-Diethylamino 3-keto fluoran, an example of an oxygen tricyclic merocyanine, is described. It was first reported in the pre-1900 German literature under the name of Chromogen Red B and it is an ineffective lasing dye on account of low fluorescence quantum yield. The techniques for measurement and the excited state absorption cross-sections are reported for the dyes rhodamine 6G fluoroborate in alcohol, rhodamine B basic solution in trifluoroethanol and kiton red S in trifluoroethanol.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Hammond, P. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thorium resonance ionization mass spectrometry for geochronological and geochemical applications

Description: Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) is being developed to measure thorium isotopics from geological samples. These measurements, in conjunction with uranium measurements by thermal ionization, permit geochronological dating in the timescale of 10,000 to 350,000 years. 15 refs., 2 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Fearey, Bryan L.; Johnson, Stephen G.; Nogar, Nicholas; Murrell, Michael T. & Miller, Charles M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-stage mass spectrometer for isotopic analysis of radionuclides in environmental samples

Description: A three-stage mass spectrometer was constructed for isotopic analysis of several radioactive as well as stable elements at environmental levels. The spectrometer is interfaced to a digital computer, which controls the operation of the spectrometer, accumulates data, reduces data, and prints a final result. The spectrometer has demonstrated the capability of measuring the isotopic composition of plutonium samples as small as 0.005 picogram and has an abundance sensitivity greater than 10/sup 8/.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Halverson, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The performance of actinide-containing SRL 165 type glass in unsaturated conditions

Description: As part of the effort by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project to evaluate the volcanic tuff beds of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a repository for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste, the interaction of actinide-doped Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) 165 type glass with the unsaturated repository environment has been studied. The NNWSI Unsaturated Test method has been used, and the results from batch and continuous tests completed through 18 months demonstrate that several interactions are important for controlling both the reaction of the glass and the release of radionuclides. These interactions include (1) the reaction between the glass and moist air with interludes of liquid water contact, which results in the release of alkali metals from the glass; and (2) the reaction between standing water, glass, and presensitized 304 L type stainless steel which results in breakdown of the glass matrix and the release of radionuclides from the glass-metal assemblage. A comparison of the results of the Unsaturated Test with those of parametric experiments illustrates the importance of presensitized steel in enhancing the glass reaction, and demonstrates the applicability of the Unsaturated Test to those conditions anticipated to exist in the NNWSI repository horizon. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Date: December 31, 1987
Creator: Bates, J.K. & Gerding, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of /sup 241/Am recovery and purification at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

Description: Americium recovery was initiated at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in the late 1940's. The early procedures separated gram quantities of americium from large amounts of impurities including plutonium and the rare earths. Ion exchange procedures were developed for further purification. Until recently, no routine processing of americium has been done at LASL for several years. The increasing demand for americium in oil-well logging instruments and other uses led LASL to develop and install a process to recover larger quantities of americium. The LASL process was developed around the chemistry of americium that had been elucidated both at LASL and at other facilities. Presently, the americium feed is obtained as a by-product from a plutonium purification process at the new plutonium facility at LASL. This feed filtrate from a peroxide precipitation process is precipitated as a slurry of hydroxides, filtered, dissolved in nitric acid, and passed through an anion exchange column to remove any residual plutonium. The americium, contained in the effluent, is precipitated as the oxalate and calcined to the oxide. Americium is also available in other highly salted acidic process streams. These should lend themselves to solvent extraction. Developmental work has been promising, and a dibutyl butyl phosphate-kerosene extraction process is being brought on-line.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Ramsey, H.D.; Clifton, D.G.; Hayter, S.W.; Penneman, R.A. & Christensen, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characteristics of the samples in the FNG fission deposit collection

Description: Information concerning the samples in the Fast Neutron Generator (FNG) Group's fission deposit collection has been assembled. This includes the physical dimensions, isotopic analyses, half-lives, alpha emission rates specific activities and deposit weights. 10 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Meadows, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MARS vessel safety analysis. LATA report No. 115

Description: A previous study was performed to assess the hazards associated with an accidental leakage of cooling water into the crucible of molten /sup 238/U for the MARS laser isotope separation experiment. Since that study found that the probability of such an explosion is extremely low during an accidental cooling system failure, a study was conducted to define a more realistic design basis accident (DBA) for the final MARS configuration. If the vapor-phase explosion is considered to be a significant threat, the design criteria for the vacuum vessel should be a working pressure of 67 psig or 101 psig momentary single pulse equivalent static pressure.
Date: August 1, 1979
Creator: Rigdon, L.D.; Donham, B.J. & Hughes, P.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear safeguards progress report, January--June 1976

Description: Development of Nondestructive Assay Techniques: Gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements show that a precision of 3 percent in the ratios of /sup 238/Pu, /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 241/Pu to /sup 239/Pu can be obtained after 10,000-3,000 s for FBR and LWR materials. Times for the prediction of calorimeter equilibrium have been reduced by 40 to 66 percent by a mathematical technique. Systems Development: The Automated Plutonium Assay System, utilizing calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy, is being developed. Applications: The inhomogeneity of the /sup 239/Pu metal sample for half-life measurements was determined to be less than 0.02 percent. Twenty ash and ten mixed-oxide samples were assayed. (DLC)
Date: January 14, 1977
Creator: Ratay, R. P. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis report for packaging: neutron shipping cask, model 4T

Description: This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging demonstrates that the neutron shipping cask can safely transport, in solid or powder form, all isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, and fermium. The cask and its contents are described. It also evaluates transport conditions, structural parameters (e.g., load resistance, pressure and impact effects, lifting and tiedown devices), and shielding. Finally, it discusses compliance with Chapter 0529 of the Energy Research and Development Administration Manual, Safety Standards for the Packaging of Fissile and Other Radioactive Materials.
Date: March 4, 1977
Creator: Peterson, R. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of transuranic nuclides in soils: a review. [Pu and U isotopes]

Description: The literature is reviewed to ascertain the degree of movement and the distribution patterns for transuranic and uranium nuclides in soils. Typical plutonium and uranium profiles are presented and an attempt is made to identify unique characteristics causing deviation from an ideal distribution pattern. By far most of the distribution observations are with plutonium and little is reported for uranium and other transuranic nuclides.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Essington, E. H. & Fowler, E. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Equipment and techniques for remote fabrication and calibration of physically small, high intensity /sup 252/Cf neutron sources

Description: Special equipment and techniques were required to fabricate /sup 252/Cf neutron source capsules, in which milligram quantities of /sup 252/Cf were concentrated in each capsule to approximate an idealized ''point source'' as closely as possible. Through this cooperative effort with the National Bureau of Standards all /sup 252/Cf neutron against the national reference radium-beryllium source.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Williams, L. C.; Bigelow, J. E. & Knauer, J. B. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of AVLIS technology for production-scale LIS systems and construction

Description: The use of lasers for uranium and/or plutonium isotope separation is expected to be the first application of lasers utilizing specific atomic processes for large-scale materials processing. Specific accomplishments toward the development of production-scale technology for LIS systems will be presented, along with the status of major construction projects. 24 figures.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Davis, J.I. & Moses, E.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soils element history, sampling, analyses, and recommendations. [Plutonium isotopes]

Description: A five year history of the Soils Element of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) is presented. Major projects are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on mound studies and profile studies for the period March 1, 1975, through February 1, 1976. A series of recommendations is made relative to extensions of past efforts of the Soils Element of the NAEG.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Fowler, E. B. & Essington, E. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission cross section ratios for sup 233,234,236 U relative to sup 235 U from 0. 5 to 400 MeV

Description: Neutron-induced fission cross section ratios from 0.5 to 400 MeV for samples of {sup 233, 234, 236}U relative to {sup 235}U have been measured at the WNR neutron Source at Los Alamos. The fission reaction rate was determined using a fast parallel plate ionization chamber at a 20-m flight path. Cross sections over most the energy range were also extracted using the neutron fluence determined with three different proton telescope arrangements. Those data provided the shape of the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section relative to the hydrogen scattering cross section. That shape was then normalized to the very accurately known value for {sup 235}U(n,f) at 14.1 MeV to allow us to obtain cross section section values from the ratio data and our values for {sup 235}U(n,f). 6 refs., 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Balestrini, S.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High burn-up plutonium isotopic compositions recommended for use in shielding analysis

Description: Isotopic compositions for plutonium generated and recycled in LWR's were estimated for use in shielding calculations. The values were obtained by averaging isotopic values from many sources in the literature. These isotopic values should provide the basis for a reasonable prediction of exposure rates from the range of LWR fuel expected in the future. The isotopic compositions given are meant to be used for shielding calculations, and the values are not necessarily applicable to other forms of analysis, such as inventory assessment or criticality safety. 11 tables, 2 figs.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Zimmerman, M. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

Description: This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Davis, J.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Ventron site

Description: Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Ventron site in Beverly, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The derivations for the single radionuclides and the total uranium guidelines were based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Ventron site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Loureiro, C.; Yu, C. & Jones, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intercomparison of U-238 deposits employed for neutron fluence determination in neutron activation cross section measurements

Description: An intercomparison is made between a collection of five uranium deposits used for neutron fluence determination in neutron activation experiments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Illinois, USA, and a single corresponding deposit from the Institut fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik (IRK), Vienna, Austria. The predominant uranium isotope in each of these deposits is U-238. Two methods were used in the study: low-solid-angle alpha counting and the measurement of fast-neutron fission yield ratios. This investigation produced the following calibration values for the IRK deposit: (160.6 {plus minus} 1.7) micrograms from alpha counting and (163.3 {plus minus} 2.0) micrograms from fission ratio measurements. The latter value is a weighted average of twenty-four separate measurements. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Meadows, J.W.; Smith, D.L.; Winkler, G.; Vonach, H.; Wagner, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) & Kernphysik), Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiumforschung und
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department