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Technical Safety Requirements for the Annular Core Research Reactor Faility (ACRRF)

Description: The Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) document is prepared and issued in compliance with DOE Order 5480.22, Technical Safety Requirements. The bases for the TSR are established in the ACRRF Safety Analysis Report issued in compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The TSR identifies the operational conditions, boundaries, and administrative controls for the safe operation of the facility.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Boldt, K.R.; McCrory, F.M.; Morris, F.M. & Talley, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lessons Learned from Sandia National Laboratories' Operational Readiness Review of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR)

Description: The Sandia ACRR (a Hazard Category 2 Nuclear Reactor Facility) was defueled in June 1997 to modify the reactor core and control system to produce medical radioisotopes for the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production Program. The DOE determined that an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) was required to confirm readiness to begin operations within the revised safety basis. This paper addresses the ORR Process, lessons learned from the Sandia and DOE ORRS of the ACRR, and the use of the ORR to confirm authorization basis implementation.
Date: May 17, 1999
Creator: Bendure, Albert O. & Bryson, James W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotope production target irradiation experience at the annular core research reactor

Description: As a result of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) recently issued by the Department of Energy, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been selected as the {open_quotes}most appropriate facility{close_quotes} for the production of {sup 99}Mo. The daughter product of {sup 99}Mo is {sup 99m}Tc, a radioisotope used in 36,000 medical procedures per day in the U.S.{close_quote} At SNL, the {sup 99}Mo would be created by the fission process in UO{sub 2} coated {open_quotes}targets{close_quotes} and chemically separated in the SNL Hot Cell Facility (HCF). SNL has recently completed the irradiation of five production targets at its Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). Following irradiation, four of the targets were chemically processed in the HCF using the Cintichem process.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Talley, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical Processing and Production of {sup 99}Mo at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently completed the irradiation of five isotope production targets at its Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) using targets fabricated by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Four of the irradiated targets were chemically processed in the SNL Hot Cell Facility (HCF) using the Cintichem process. The Cintichem method for processing {sup 99}Mo isotope production targets involves dissolution of a UO{sub 2} coating, separation of the Mo from the other fission products, and purifying the final product. Several processing issues were addressed during the initial process verification work. This paper discusses the results of work involving dissolving the UO{sub 2} coating, recovering Mo losses in purification columns, and radiation exposure testing of process glassware and components.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Talley, Darren G. & Bourcier, Susan C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical safety requirements for the Annular Core Research Reactor Facility (ACRRF)

Description: The Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) document is prepared and issued in compliance with DOE Order 5480.22, Technical Safety Requirements. The bases for the TSR are established in the ACRRF Safety Analysis Report issued in compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The TSR identifies the operational conditions, boundaries, and administrative controls for the safe operation of the facility.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Boldt, K.R.; Morris, F.M.; Talley, D.G. & McCrory, F.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mo-99 production at the Annular Core Research Reactor - recent calculative results

Description: Significant progress has been made over the past year in understanding the chemistry and processing challenges associated with {sup 99}Mo production using Cintichem type targets. Targets fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been successfully irradiated in fuel element locations at the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and processed at the Sandia Hot Cell Facility. The next goal for the project is to remove the central cavity experiment tube from the reactor core, allowing for the irradiation of up to 37 targets. After the in-core work is complete, the reactor will be capable of producing significant quantities of {sup 99}Mo.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Parma, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Replacement fuel scoping studies for the Annular Core Research Reactor

Description: Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) is undertaking a new mission for the Department of Energy: production of the radioisotope {sup 99}Mo used in nuclear medicine applications. Isotope production is significantly different from previous programs conducted at the ACRR that typically required high intensity, short duration pulses. The current UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel will power the initial startup phase of the production program, and can perform exceptionally well for this mission. However, this type of fuel is no longer available, commercially or otherwise. This paper presents the results of some preliminary studies of commercially available fuels.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Hays, K.; Martin, L. & Parma, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photoneutron effects on pulse reactor kinetics for the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR).

Description: The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) is a swimming-pool type pulsed reactor that maintains an epithermal neutron flux and a nine-inch diameter central dry cavity. One of its uses is neutron and gamma-ray irradiation damage studies on electronic components under transient reactor power conditions. In analyzing the experimental results, careful attention must be paid to the kinetics associated with the reactor to ensure that the transient behavior of the electronic device is understood. Since the ACRR fuel maintains a substantial amount of beryllium, copious quantities of photoneutrons are produced that can significantly alter the expected behavior of the reactor power, especially following a reactor pulse. In order to understand these photoneutron effects on the reactor kinetics, the KIFLE transient reactor-analysis code was modified to include the photoneutron groups associated with the beryllium. The time-dependent behavior of the reactor power was analyzed for small and large pulses, assuming several initial conditions including following several pulses during the day, and following a long steady-state power run. The results indicate that, for these types of initial conditions, the photoneutron contribution to the reactor pulse energy can have a few to tens of percent effect.
Date: June 1, 2009
Creator: Parma, Edward J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor physics calculations for {sup 99}Mo production at the Annular Core Research Reactor

Description: The isotope {sup 99}Mo would be produced at Sandia using ACRR and the collocated Hot Cell Facility. {sup 99}Mo would be produced by irradiating targets coated with {sup 235}U in the form of highly enriched U{sub 3}O{sub 8}; after 7 days, the target would be removed and the isotope extracted using the Cintichem process. The Monte Carlo neutronics computer code MCNP was used to determine the optimum configuration for production, using various fractions of the US demand. Although ACRR operates at a low power level, the US demand for {sup 99}Mo can be easily met using a reasonable number of targets.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Parma, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial generation and separation of {sup 99}Mo at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: Medical isotopes play an important role in the medical industry in both the United States and the world. Isotopes such as {sup 99}Tc, {sup 201}Tl, {sup 111}In, and {sup 123}I are utilized in diagnostic imaging studies, while others such as {sup 131}I and {sup 89}Sr are used as therapeutic agents. The particular medical isotope {sup 99m}Tc is used in 80% of all nuclear medical procedures in the United States. This isotope is produced from the decay of {sup 99}Mo, which has a 66 hour half-life. The importance of {sup 99m}Tc and the fact of its 6 hour half-life indicate the necessity to maintain a constant supply of {sup 99}Mo. The most prominent method for the production of significant quantities of {sup 99}Mo is by fission in highly-enriched uranium loaded targets. This paper describes the work performed at SNL for the production of {sup 99}Mo.
Date: April 11, 1997
Creator: Talley, D.G.; Bourcier, S.C.; McDonald, M.J.; Longley, S.W. & Parma, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive air effluent emission measurements at two research reactors

Description: Sandia National Laboratories operates two reactors which fall under US Environmental Protection Agency regulations for emission of radionuclides to the ambient air. These reactors are: (1) the Annular Core Research Reactor, a pool-type reactor and (2) the Sandia Pulsed Reactor III, a Godiva-type reactor. The annual radioactive air emissions from these two reactors had been estimated based on engineering calculations and used in the facility Safety Analysis Report. The calculated release rates had never been confirmed through measurements. The purpose of this work was to obtain confirmatory radioactive gas and aerosol concentration measurements for radionuclides in exhaust stacks of these reactors during normal operation; however, the measured production rate of argon-41 was significantly different from the engineering calculations for both reactors. The resolution of this difference is discussed.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: McDonald, M.J.; Ghanbari, F.; Burger, M.J. & Holm, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Criticality Safety Study on Storing Unirradiated Cintichem-Type Targets at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: This criticality safety analysis is performed to determine the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for a storage cabinet filled with unirradiated Cintichem-type targets. These targets will be used to produce {sup 99}Mo at Sandia National Laboratories and will be stored on-site prior to irradiation in the Annular Core Research Reactor. The analysis consisted of using the Monte Carlo code MCNP (Version 4A) to model and predict the k{sub eff} for the proposed dry storage configuration under credible loss of geometry and moderator control. Effects of target pitch, non-uniform loading, and target internal/external flooding are evaluated. Further studies were done with deterministic methods to verify the results obtained from MCNP and to obtain a clearer understanding of the parameters affecting system criticality. The diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport code ONEDANT was used to model the target in a one-dimensional, infinite half-slab geometry and determine the critical slab thickness. Hand calculations were also completed to determine the critical slab thickness with modified one-group, and one-group, two region approximations. Results obtained from ONEDANT and the hand calculations were compared to applicable cases in a commonly used criticality safety analysis handbook. Overall, the critical slab thicknesses obtained in the deterministic analysis were much larger than the dimensions of the cabinet and further support the predictions by MCNP that a critical system cannot be attained for the base case or in conditions where loss of geometry and moderation control occur.
Date: April 21, 1999
Creator: Romero, D.J.; Parma, E.J. & Busch, R.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of fission and activation product isotopes at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: The mission of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF) has recently changed from support of Defense and other programs to support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP). SNL`s primary role, in support of IPDP, is ensuring a reliable supply of {sup 99}Mo to the US health care system. SNL will also play a role of complementing the isotope production of other DOE Reactor facilities such as High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) at Brookhaven, New York, ad Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in Idaho. The unique characteristics that the SNL facilities offer to the IPDP facility capability are simplicity, multiple irradiation locations, ready irradiation space access and co-located hot cell facilities capable of processing a short decay fission product stream. The SNL {sup 99}Mo effort is characterized elsewhere and this paper is intended to describe the production of additional isotopes for that can be produced medical and other uses planned to start soon after the {sup 99}Mo capability has been established. Isotope production in the SNL facilities is through fission or by neutron activation.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Coats, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing the Sandia National Laboratories transportation infrastructure for isotope products and wastes

Description: The US Department of Energy (DOE) plans to establish a medical isotope project that would ensure a reliable domestic supply of molybdenum-99 ({sup 99}Mo) and related medical isotopes (Iodine-125, Iodine-131, and Xenon-133). The Department`s plan for production will modify the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and associated hot cell facility at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/New Mexico and the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Transportation activities associated with such production is discussed.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Trennel, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study of medical isotope production at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: In late 1994, Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, (SNL/NM), was instructed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Isotope Production and Distribution Program (IPDP) to examine the feasibility of producing medically useful radioisotopes using the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) and the Hot Cell Facility (HCF). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) would be expected to supply the targets to be irradiated in the ACRR. The intent of DOE would be to provide a capability to satisfy the North American health care system demand for {sup 99}Mo, the parent of {sup 99m}Tc, in the event of an interruption in the current Canadian supply. {sup 99m}Tc is used in 70 to 80% of all nuclear medicine procedures in the US. The goal of the SNL/NM study effort is to determine the physical plant capability, infrastructure, and staffing necessary to meet the North American need for {sup 99}Mo and to identify and examine all issues with potential for environmental impact.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Massey, C.D.; Miller, D.L. & Carson, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotope Production and Distribution Program. Financial statements, September 30, 1994 and 1993

Description: The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Isotope Production and Distribution (IP&D) Program`s financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on IP&D`s 1994 statements. Their reports on IP&D`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws,and regulations are also provided. The charter of the Isotope Program covers the production and sale of radioactive and stable isotopes, byproducts, and related isotope services. Prior to October 1, 1989, the Program was subsidized by the Department of Energy through a combination of appropriated funds and isotope sales revenue. The Fiscal Year 1990 Appropriations Act, Public Law 101-101, authorized a separate Isotope Revolving Fund account for the Program, which was to support itself solely from the proceeds of isotope sales. The initial capitalization was about $16 million plus the value of the isotope assets in inventory or on loan for research and the unexpended appropriation available at the close of FY 1989. During late FY 1994, Public Law 103--316 restructured the Program to provide for supplemental appropriations to cover costs which are impractical to incorporate into the selling price of isotopes. Additional information about the Program is provided in the notes to the financial statements.
Date: November 30, 1994
Creator: Marwick, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety analysis for operating the Annular Core Research Reactor with Cintichem-type targets installed in the central region of the core

Description: Production of the molybdenum-99 isotope at the Annular Core Research Reactor requires highly enriched, uranium oxide loaded targets to be irradiated for several days in the high neutron-flux region of the core. This report presents the safety analysis for the irradiation of up to seven Cintichem-type targets in the central region of the core and compares the results to the Annular Core Research Reactor Safety Analysis Report. A 19 target grid configuration is presented that allows one to seven targets to be irradiated, with the remainder of the grid locations filled with aluminum ''void'' targets. Analyses of reactor, neutronic, thermal hydraulics, and heat transfer calculations are presented. Steady-state operation and accident scenarios are analyzed with the conclusion that the reactor can be operated safely with seven targets in the grid, and no additional risk to the public.
Date: January 1, 2000
Creator: PARMA JR.,EDWARD J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isotope production potential at Sandia National Laboratories: Product, waste, packaging, and transportation

Description: The U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy to establish a domestic source of molybdenum-99, an essential isotope used in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacology. An Environmental Impact Statement for production of {sup 99}Mo at one of four candidate sites is being prepared. As one of the candidate sites, Sandia National Laboratories is developing the Isotope Production Project. Using federally approved processes and procedures now owned by the U.S. Department of Energy, and existing facilities that would be modified to meet the production requirements, the Sandia National Laboratories` Isotope Project would manufacture up to 30 percent of the U.S. market, with the capacity to meet 100 percent of the domestic need if necessary. This paper provides a brief overview of the facility, equipment, and processes required to produce isotopes. Packaging and transportation issues affecting both product and waste are addressed, and the storage and disposal of the four low-level radioactive waste types generated by the production program are considered. Recommendations for future development are provided.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Trennel, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Criticality facilities and programs at Sandia National Laboratories

Description: The reactor facilities at Sandia National Laboratories have hosted a number of reactors and critical experiments. A critical experiment is currently being done to support an ongoing investigation by the US Department of Energy of the consequences of taking fuel burnup into account in the design of spent fuel transportation packages. A series of experiments, collectively called the Spent Fuel Safety Experiment (SFSX), has been devised to provide integral benchmarks for testing computer-generated predictions of spent fuel behavior. A set of experiments is planned in which sections of unirradiated fuel rods are interchanged with similar sections of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rods in a critical assembly. By determining the critical size of the arrays, one can obtain benchmark data for comparison with criticality safety calculations. The SFSX provides a direct measurement of the reactivity effects of spent PWR fuel using a well-characterized, spent fuel sample. The SFSX also provides an experimental measurement of the end-effect, i.e., the reactivity effect of the variation of the burnup profile at the ends of PWR fuel rods. The design of the SFSX is optimized to yield accurate benchmark measurements of the effects of interest, well above experimental uncertainties.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Harms, G.A.; Davis, F.J. & Ford, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MCNP/MCNPX model of the annular core research reactor.

Description: Many experimenters at the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) have a need to predict the neutron/gamma environment prior to testing. In some cases, the neutron/gamma environment is needed to understand the test results after the completion of an experiment. In an effort to satisfy the needs of experimenters, a model of the ACRR was developed for use with the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport codes MCNP [Br03] and MCNPX [Wa02]. The model contains adjustable safety, transient, and control rods, several of the available spectrum-modifying cavity inserts, and placeholders for experiment packages. The ACRR model was constructed such that experiment package models can be easily placed in the reactor after being developed as stand-alone units. An addition to the 'standard' model allows the FREC-II cavity to be included in the calculations. This report presents the MCNP/MCNPX model of the ACRR. Comparisons are made between the model and the reactor for various configurations. Reactivity worth curves for the various reactor configurations are presented. Examples of reactivity worth calculations for a few experiment packages are presented along with the measured reactivity worth from the reactor test of the experiment packages. Finally, calculated neutron/gamma spectra are presented.
Date: October 1, 2006
Creator: DePriest, Kendall Russell; Cooper, Philip J. & Parma, Edward J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiment summary for n/y attenuation through materials (Environments 1A).

Description: The Radiation Effects Sciences (RES) program is responsible for conducting Neutron Gamma Energy Transport (NuGET) code validation. In support of this task, a series of experiments were conducted in the annular core research reactor (ACRR) to investigate the modification of the incident neutron/gamma environment by aluminum (Al6061) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) spheres with 4-in and 7-in-diameter. The experiment series described in this report addresses several NuGET validation concerns. The validation experiment series also addresses the design and execution of proper reactor testing to match the hostile radiation environments and to match the component stresses that arise from the hostile radiation environments. This report summarizes the RES Validation: n/{gamma} Attenuation through Materials, Environments 1A, experiments conducted at the ACRR in FY 2003 using ACRR Experiment Plans 933 and 949.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: DePriest, Kendall Russell
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medical isotope production: A new research initiative for the Annular Core Research Reactor

Description: An investigation has been performed to evaluate the capabilities of the Annular Core Research Reactor and its supporting Hot Cell Facility for the production of {sup 99}Mo and its separation from the fission product stream. Various target irradiation locations for a variety of core configurations were investigated, including the central cavity, fuel and reflector locations, and special target configurations outside the active fuel region. Monte Carlo techniques, in particular MCNP using ENDF B-V cross sections, were employed for the evaluation. The results indicate that the reactor, as currently configured, and with its supporting Hot Cell Facility, would be capable in meeting the current US demand if called upon. Modest modifications, such as increasing the capacity of the external heat exchangers, would permit significantly higher continuous power operation and even greater {sup 99}Mo production ensuring adequate capacity for future years.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Coats, R. L. & Parma, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Leu conversion status of U.S. research reactors: September 1996

Description: At the request of the Department of Energy, the RERTR Program has summarized the conversion status of research and test reactors in the United States and has made estimates of the uranium densities that would be needed to convert the reactors with power levels greater than or equal to 1 MW from Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) (greater than or equal to 20% U-235) to Lightly Enriched Uranium (LEU) (less than 20% U-235) fuels. Detailed conversion studies for each of the reactors need to be completed in order to establish the feasibility of using LEU fuels.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Matos, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New neutron simulation capabilities provided by the Sandia Pulse Reactor (SPR-III) and the Upgraded Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR)

Description: The paper briefly describes the nuclear reactor facilities at Sandia Laboratories which are used for simulating nuclear weapon produced neutron environments. These reactor facilities are used principally in support of continuing R and D programs for the Department of Energy/Office of Military Application (DOE/OMA) in studying the effects of radiation on nuclear weapon systems and components. As such, the reactors are available to DOE and DOD agencies and their contractors responsible for the radiation hardening of advanced nuclear weapon systems. Emphasis is placed upon two new reactor simulation sources; the Sandia Pulse Reactor-III (SPR-III) Facility which enhances the neutron exposure volume capabilities over those presently available with the existing SPR-II Facility, and the Upgraded Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) Facility which enhances the neutron exposure capabilities over those of the former ACPR Facility.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Choate, L.M. & Schmidt, T.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department