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Reactivity in the South Spoils and Hillside Dump at the Midnite Mine

Description: The Midnite Mine is an inactive open-pit uranium mine located on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Washington State. Drill samples from two large waste rock dumps on the site, known as South Spoils and Hillside Dump, were collected with a Becker hammer drill and evaluated to determine potential of the rock to generate acid mine drainage (AMD). Waste rock at this mine contains both pyrite and uranium, and AMD effects are more complicated on this site than most in that uranium is soluble in both acidic and neutral aqueous solutions. Although AMD protocols identified 26% of the South Spoils samples as potentially acid, under 7% of the spoil samples were actually producing acid. Considerable calcite exists in the South Spoils, and weathering feldspars further contribute to acid neutralization. The Hillside Dump has low concentrations of pyrite and calcite that acid-base accounting protocols would predict to be non-acidic. Accumulation of sulfate in rocks with concentrations of less than 0.3% S causes some of those normally non-acid producing rocks to produce acid in the Hillside Dump.
Date: 1996
Creator: Moore, Bruce W.; Price, Jesse W. & Gardner, Ted
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cleanup at Inactive and Abandoned Mines: Issues in "Good Samaritan" Legislation in the 114th Congress

Description: This report discusses several issues that have drawn attention: eligibility for a Good Samaritan permit, minerals covered by a permit, standards applicable to a Good Samaritan cleanup, scope of liability protection, funding, treatment of revenues from cleanup, enforcement, the appropriate implementation role for states and Indian tribes, terminating a permit, and sunsetting the permit program.
Date: November 25, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reanalysis of the Schwertmannite structure and the incorporationof SO42- groups: An IR, XAS, WAXS and simulation study

Description: Schwertmannite is a poorly crystallized iron oxyhydroxidewith essential structural sulfate that can be a major component in acidmine drainage environments. Original characterization work concluded thatthe sulfate was largely contained within tunnels of an orderedakaganeite-like structure based on powder XRD, analysis of IR spectra,and sulfate extraction procedures [1]. Since the original description,problems have emerged with the nature of the tunnel sulfate, and with theinterpretation of the IR spectra. Other related work has shown that it isnow possible to determine sulfate-iron oxide inner sphere bindingunambiguously from the S K-edge XANES spectrum. Hence a reassessment ofthe evidence for the original schwertmannite structure was deemednecessary and timely.
Date: May 5, 2001
Creator: Waychunas, G.A.; Myneni, S.C.B.; Traina, S.J.; Bigham, J.M.; Fuller, C.C. & Davis, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A SILICA/FLY ASH-BASED TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROLLING PYRITE OXIDATION

Description: The results of pyrite oxidation in mining areas are very low pH and elevated concentrations of iron and sulfate in the groundwater. Pyrite oxidation is therefore the main cause for acid mine drainage production. One approach to prevent AMD production is microencapsulation of pyrite crystals with an iron-oxide/silica coating (Zhang and Evangelou, 1998). Coating prevents diffusion of oxygen and Fe{sup 3+} to the crystal's surface and they are no longer able to oxidize it. The objective of this portion of the study was to test the hypothesis that fly ash is able to provide the necessary silica for iron-oxide/silica coating formation on the pyrite surfaces thus, decreasing pyrite oxidation and diminishing acid mine drainage production.
Date: February 10, 1998
Creator: EVANGELOU, DR. V.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

Description: This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.
Date: April 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

Description: This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.
Date: April 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

Description: This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.
Date: July 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

Description: This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into three major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report describes the progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.
Date: January 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gold King Mine Spill May Renew Interest in "Good Samaritan" Legislation

Description: This report discusses legislation related to an accidental spill from the Gold King Mine, a long-abandoned gold mine site in Colorado, which released acid mine drainage (AMD) wastewater into a tributary of the Animas River and downstream to the San Juan River. The proposed legislation would authorize Good Samaritan remediation, in which third parties who have no history of polluting at a particular site or legal responsibility for its pollution step forward to clean up AMD or other historic mine residue of pollution.
Date: August 27, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstrating a Market-Based Approach to the Reclamation of Mined Lands in West Virginia

Description: This is the third quarter progress report of Phase II of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate the efficacy of developing multiple environmental market trading credits on a partially reclaimed surface mined site near Valley Point, Preston County, WV. Construction of the passive acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment system was completed but several modifications from the original design had to be made following the land survey and during construction to compensate for unforeseen circumstances. We continued to collect baseline quality data from the Conner Run AMD seeps to confirm the conceptual and final design for the passive AMD treatment system.
Date: July 19, 2006
Creator: Goodrich-Mahoney, John W. & Ziemkiewicz, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TOUGHREACT: a new code of the TOUGH Family for Non-Isothermal multiphase reactive geochemical transport in variably saturated geologic media

Description: Coupled modeling of subsurface multiphase fluid and heat flow, solute transport and chemical reactions can be used for the assessment of acid mine drainage remediation, waste disposal sites, hydrothermal convection, contaminant transport, and groundwater quality. We have developed a comprehensive numerical simulator, TOUGHREACT, which considers non-isothermal multi-component chemical transport in both liquid and gas phases. A wide range of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered under various thermohydrological and geochemical conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. The code can be applied to one-, two- or three-dimensional porous and fractured media with physical and chemical heterogeneity.
Date: March 11, 2003
Creator: Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas & Pruess, Karsten
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[Final Reports]

Description: No abstract prepared.
Date: October 1999
Creator: Grimes, R. Will; Milkinis, Francis P.; Merriam, Norman; Fahy, L. J.; Mones, C. G.; Johnson, L. A., Jr. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

Description: This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion-FBC ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). This document reports on progress made during Phase III. The report is divided into four major sections. The first deals with the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report reports on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase III tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis is covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase III (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.
Date: January 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DISPOSAL OF FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH IN AN UNDERGROUND MINE TO CONTROL ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE

Description: This project evaluated the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with coal combustion byproducts. Success was measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). Phase 1 of the project was completed in September 1995 and was concerned with the development of the grout and a series of predictive models. These models were verified through the Phase II field phase and will be further verified fin the large scale field demonstration of Phase III. The verification allows the results to be packaged in such a way that the technology can be easily adapted to different site conditions. Phase II was successfully completed with 1000 cubic yards of grout being injected into Anker Energy's Fairfax mine. The grout flowed over 600 feet from a single injection borehole. The grout achieved a compressive strength of over 1000 psi (twice the level that is needed to guarantee subsidence control). Phase III was a full scale test at Anker's eleven acre Longridge mine site. The CCB grout replaced what was an open mine void with a solid so that the groundwater tends to flow around and through the pillars rather than through the previously mined areas. The project has demonstrated that CCBs can be successfully disposed in underground mines. Additionally, the project has shown that filling an abandoned underground mine with CCBs can lead to the reduction and elimination of environmental problems associated with underground mining such as acid mine drainage and subsidence. The filling of the Longridge Mine with 43,000 cubic yards of CCB grout resulted in a 97% reduction in acid mine drainage coming from the mine.
Date: October 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Maxi-Acid{trademark}: In-situ amelioration of acid mine drainage problems. Topical report, February 1, 1995--February 1, 1996

Description: The development of technologies to ameliorate acid mine drainage problems has had few successes. Most often, once acid mine drainage exists, the company responsible develops treatment programs to make sure that water resources and land are not contaminated by the acid mine drainage. These treatments usually result in significant costs and do not result in a cure to the problem. Much effort and money has been spent on the problems associated with acid mine drainage. However, it appears that most of the meaningful breakthroughs have come in the area of treatment of the results of the problem (i.e. water treatment). There have been few breakthroughs in the prevention of acid formation. Most of the work associated with the prevention of acid formation has dealt with the prevention of oxidation using grouting to seal mines, removing oxygen from the system or preventing water flow into the mines, using bactericides to eliminate the catalytic effect of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, and modifying the mining methods. The Maxi-Acid{trademark} technology takes a different approach to the problem. A site treated using Maxi-Acid won`t be expected to generate acid mine drainage for a number of years, if ever. The application of Maxi-Acid is expected to eliminate continuous treatment of acid waters discharged from applicable mine sites. The work accomplished to date includes characterization of overburden materials that contain large quantities of potential acidity, and preliminary evaluations of the acid-generating capabilities of materials containing high levels of potential acidity (pyritic materials) using humidity cells. This research effort is in the preliminary stages. To date, a number of interesting findings have been made that could be used to contribute to the elimination of acid mine drainage. However, the concepts that are expected to have the most significant impact on the formation of acid mine drainage have not yet been ...
Date: August 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disposal of Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash in an Underground Mine to Control Acid Mine Drainage and Subsidence

Description: This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes (Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) ash). Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. YO void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). During Phase Ill the majority of the activity involves completing two full scale demonstration projects. The eleven acre Longridge mine in Preston County will be filled with 53,000 cubic yards of grout during the spring of 1998 and monitored for following year. The second demonstration involves stowing 2000 tons of ash into an abandoned mine to demonstrate the newly redesigned Burnett Ejector. This demonstration is anticipated to take place during the winter of 1997. This document will report on progress made during Phase Ill. The report will be divided into four major sections. The first will be the Hydraulic Injection component. This section of the report will report on progress and milestones associated with the grouting activities of the project. The Phase Ill tasks of Economic Analysis and Regulatory Analysis will be covered under this section. The second component is Pneumatic Injection. This section reports on progress made towards completing the demonstration project. The Water Quality component involves background monitoring of water quality and precipitation at the Phase Ill (Longridge) mine site. The last component involves evaluating the migration of contaminants through the grouted mine. A computer model has been developed in earlier phases and will model the flow of water in and around the grouted Longridge mine.
Date: August 31, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Novel Treatment for Acid Mine Drainage Utilizing Reclaimed Limestone Residual

Description: The viability of utilizing Reclaimed Limestone Residual (RLR) to remediate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) was investigated. Physical and chemical characterization of RLR showed that it is composed of various minerals that contain significant quantities of limestone or calcium bearing compounds that can be exploited for acid neutralization. Acid Neutralization Potential (ANP) test results showed that RLR has a neutralization potential of approximately 83% as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). Neutralization tests with most of the heavy metals associated with AMD showed removal efficiencies of over 99%. An unexpected benefit of utilizing RLR was the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) from the aqueous phase. Due to an elevation in pH by RLR most AMD heavy metals are removed from solution by precipitation as their metal hydroxides. Cr (VI) however is not removed by pH elevation and therefore subsequent ongoing tests to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reaction were conducted.
Date: August 31, 2004
Creator: Moo-Young, Horace K. & Ochola, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural nanoparticle structure, properties and reactivity from X-ray studies

Description: Synthetic analogs of naturally occurring nanoparticles have been studied by a range of X-ray techniques to determine their structure and chemistry, and relate these to their novel chemical properties and physical behavior. ZnS nanoparticles, formed in large concentrations naturally bymicrobial action, have an interesting core-shell structure with a highly distorted and strained outer layer. The strain propagates through the particles and produces unusual stiffness but can be relieved by changing the nature of the surface ligand binding. Weaker bound ligands allow high surface distortion, but strongly bound ligands relax this structure and reduce the overall strain. Only small amounts of ligand exchange causes transformations from the strained to the relaxed state. Most remarkably, minor point contacts between strained nanoparticles also relax the strain. Fe oxyhydroxide nanoparticles appear to go through structural transformations dependent on their size and formation conditions, and display a crystallographically oriented form of aggregation at the nanoscale that alters growth kinetics. At least one Fe oxyhydroxide mineral may only be stable on the nanoscale, and nonstoichiometry observed on the hematite surface suggests that for this phase and possibly other natural metal oxides, chemistry may be size dependent. Numerous questions exist on nanominerals formed in acid mine drainage sites and by reactions at interfaces.
Date: October 1, 2009
Creator: Waychunas, Glenn A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

WATER-QUALITY CONDITIONS DURING LOW FLOW IN THE LOWER YOUGHIOGHENY RIVER BASIN, PENNSYLVANIA, OCTOBER 5-7, 1998

Description: In October 1998, a chemical synoptic survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, in the Lower Youghiogheny River Basin in Pennsylvania to give a snap-shot of present (1998) water quality during low-flow conditions. Water samples from 38 sites--12 mainstem sites, 22 tributaries, and 4 mine discharges that discharge directly to the Youghiogheny River--were used to identify sources of contaminants from mining operations. Specific conductance, water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at each site and concentrations of major ions and trace elements were measured in the laboratory. Unaccounted for gains and losses in streamflow were measured during the study. Unaccounted for losses in streamflow might be attributed to water loss through streambed fractures. Extensive mine tunnels are present in the basin and loss of water to these tunnels seems likely. Unaccounted for gains in streamflow may be from unmeasured tributaries or surface seeps, but most of the gains are suspected to come from artesian flow through fractures in the streambed from underground mine pools. Influent flows of rust-colored water were noted in some river sections. The pH values for all the samples collected during this survey were above 5.8, and most (33 of 38 samples) were above 7.0. Samples from the four mine-discharge sites also had pH values between 6.3 and 6.7. The lowest pH (5.8) was in a tributary, Galley Run. All 38 sampling sites had net alkalinity. The alkalinity load in the Youghiogheny River increased between Connellsville and McKeesport from 35 to 79 tons per day. Above Smithton, the measured alkalinity load in the Lower Youghiogheny River agreed well with the estimated alkalinity load. Below Smithton, measured alkalinity loads in the Lower Youghiogheny River are greater than calculated loads, resulting in ...
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: James I. Sams, III, Karl T. Schroeder; Ackman, Terry E.; Crawford, J. Kent & Otto, Kim L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of Coal ash leaching behavior in acid mine water, comparison of laboratory and field studies

Description: Strongly alkaline fluidized bed combustion ash is commonly used to control acid mine drainage in West Virginia coal mines. Objectives include acid neutralization and immobilization of the primary AMD pollutants: iron, aluminum and manganese. The process has been successful in controlling AMD though doubts remain regarding mobilization of other toxic elements present in the ash. In addition, AMD contains many toxic elements in low concentrations. And, each mine produces AMD of widely varying quality. So, predicting the effect of a particular ash on a given coal mine's drainage quality is of particular interest. In this chapter we compare the results of a site-specific ash leaching procedure with two large-scale field applications of FBC ash. The results suggested a high degree of predictability for roughly half of the 25 chemical parameters and poor predictability for the remainder. Of these, seven parameters were successfully predicted on both sites: acidity, Al, B, Ba, Fe, Ni and Zn while electrical conductivity, Ca, Cd, SO4, Pb and Sb were not successfully predicted on either site. Trends for the remaining elements: As, Ag, Be, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mg, Mn, pH, Se Tl and V were successfully predicted on one but not both mine sites.
Date: January 10, 2005
Creator: ANNA, KNOX
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Direction in Hydrogeochemical Transport Modeling: Incorporating Multiple Kinetic and Equilibrium Reaction Pathways

Description: At least two distinct kinds of hydrogeochemical models have evolved historically for use in analyzing contaminant transport, but each has important limitations. One kind, focusing on organic contaminants, treats biodegradation reactions as parts of relatively simple kinetic reaction networks with no or limited coupling to aqueous and surface complexation and mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions. A second kind, evolving out of the speciation and reaction path codes, is capable of handling a comprehensive suite of multicomponent complexation (aqueous and surface) and mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, but has not been able to treat reaction networks characterized by partial redox disequilibrium and multiple kinetic pathways. More recently, various investigators have begun to consider biodegradation reactions in the context of comprehensive equilibrium and kinetic reaction networks (e.g. Hunter et al. 1998, Mayer 1999). Here we explore two examples of multiple equilibrium and kinetic reaction pathways using the reactive transport code GIMRT98 (Steefel, in prep.): (1) a computational example involving the generation of acid mine drainage due to oxidation of pyrite, and (2) a computational/field example where the rates of chlorinated VOC degradation are linked to the rates of major redox processes occurring in organic-rich wetland sediments overlying a contaminated aerobic aquifer.
Date: February 2, 2000
Creator: Steefel, C.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage sites. Semiannual progress report, November 1, 1985--March 31, 1986

Description: This progress report contains an account of recent research efforts carried out at the Oak Ridge Research Institute, to raise antibodies in New Zealand White Rabbits which are specific for various strains of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. It is then intended to use the antibodies, in a subsequent phase of the project, to develop one or more ELISAs, which would be used to analyze, both in the laboratory and in the field, the numbers and extent of dispersion of these microorganisms at acid mine drainage sites. This is important because it is the metabolic consequences of unrestricted dissemination of these bacteria which are responsible in large measure for the environmentally damaging acid run-off. Efforts to control the proliferation of these microorganisms have been relatively unfocused up to the present, because of the lack of suitably discriminating methods of assaying the effects of treatment. In this report, the authors describe the work carried out in the first section of the project, which has been concerned with the raising of the antibodies to the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans cultures. They given an account of how the various cultures were grown, how they were treated before being injected into rabbits, the injection protocol, how the animals were bled, and how the formation of IgG and its degree of specificity was assessed. Finally, they describe how large quantities of the various IgG fractions were prepared, and how and where they were stored.
Date: December 31, 1986
Creator: Blake, R. & Revis, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department