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The Relation of Perceived Motivational Climate, Mindset, and Achievement Goal Orientation to Grit in Male High School Soccer Players

Description: Grit is defined as "perseverance and passion for long-term goals." Although studied in relation to various outcomes, such as retention and academic performance, few studies have examined variables that may contribute to grit's development. Further, few studies have examined this construct in relation to sport performance or within athletic environments, despite its clear connection to sport-related constructs like mental toughness and resilience. Thus, based in achievement motivation theory, this study examined the relations of the perceived motivational climate as defined by athletes' perceptions of the coaches' behaviors (task vs. ego), athletes' perceptions of their achievement goal orientation (task vs. ego), athletes' perceptions of their implicit theory (i.e., fundamental beliefs regarding whether or not ability can change; growth vs. fixed), and athletes' perception of their level of grit. Male varsity soccer players (N = 81; Mage = 15.80 ± .81) from a large metropolitan area in the south central U.S. completed questionnaires measuring these achievement motivation constructs. The full regression model was significant, accounting for 18% of the grit variance, F(6, 74) = 2.77, p = .017. Within the full model, having a growth mindset (β = .25, p = .035) and endorsing a task goal orientation (β = .36, p = .004) predicted higher levels of grit for the athletes. Neither the coach-created motivational climate, nor the athletes' ego orientation or fixed mindset, were significantly predicted their grit scores. Consistent with Dweck and Duckworth, components of achievement motivation theory, particularly related to a task or growth perspective, may play an important role in athletes' developing a perspective that allows them to work effectively and diligently toward long-term goals.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Albert, Erin
Partner: UNT Libraries

Impact of Grit on Performance After Mastery- or Performance-oriented Feedback

Description: Grit and achievement motivation have been predictors of behavior in academia and military settings (Duckworth, Matthews, Peterson, & Kelly, 2007), but to date, research on their effects on sport performance has been limited. Given grit's predictive role in other performance domains, grit may be influential in athletes' long-term goal attainment, interacting with their achievement motives and leading to better performances. Athletes' trait levels of grit may influence how they understand and respond to messages received within motivational climates from key personnel such as from coaches and teammates. We examined potential moderating effects of grit on the relationship between motivational feedback and high school soccer players (N = 71, Mage = 15.81) performance on a soccer task, their desire to persist in the task, and their choices of task difficulty. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test the main effects of feedback and grit and to determine if grit moderated the effects of feedback on performance. Grit was a significant moderator of the feedback-shooting performance relationship, accounting for 3.9% of variance. Simple slopes analysis revealed a significant effect for low (B = 13.32, SEb = 4.44, p = .004, t = 2.99), but not high, (B = 2.11, SEb = 4.31, p = .63, t = .49), grit on task success. Grit was not a significant moderator of task difficulty selection or task persistence. These results suggest that for those high in grit, feedback about natural ability or hard work is not particularly influential on performance. However, for low grit athletes, type of feedback matters.
Date: May 2016
Creator: Auerbach, Alex
Partner: UNT Libraries

Perseverance in Children

Description: The purpose of this study was to measure perseverance time as related to the individual's need for achievement, past success or failure, the difficulty of a task, and the experimenter's instructions regarding its difficulty. The subjects used in this study were twenty-eight children, fifteen males and thirteen females, who ranged in age from eight years, six months to nineteen years and nine months, with the mean chronological age being twelve years and ten months.
Date: August 1969
Creator: Grable, Frances
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Self-Recording and Projected Levels of Aspiration Upon Competitive Swimming Performance

Description: The purposes of the study were to determine the effects of self-recording techniques upon competitive swimming times, to determine the relationship between stated level of aspiration and subsequent performance, and to determine the influence of success or failure upon stated levels of aspiration. Subjects were fifteen female high-school competitive swimmers. Five subjects utilized self-recording techniques and projected levels of aspiration; ten subjects did not. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance and by regression analysis. Alpha was .05. Conclusions of this study were that self-recording techniques do not significantly affect competitive swimming times, that a strong relationship exists between stated level of aspiration and subsequent performance, and that successful and unsuccessful performances generate increases in stated levels of aspiration.
Date: August 1976
Creator: Hamlett, Laurie Ray
Partner: UNT Libraries

Causal Attributions, Attributional Dimensions, and Academic Performance in a School Setting

Description: The attribution model of achievement motivation has been applied to academic achievement as a way of understanding underachievement and as a basis for developing intervention programs. There has been little applied research in this area, however, that supports the use of the model in school settings. The purpose of the present study was to test the applicability of the model to an actual school setting. Subjects were 149 tenth grade students in a large urban school district. In accordance with the model, specific attributions for success or failure were assessed, as well as subjects' perceptions of the locus, stability, and controllability of attributions. Attribution patterns found in previous analog research were not found in a school setting. Immediate effort attributions were the most prevalent, regardless of performance level or outcome. Causal beliefs were found to relate to performance in ways predicted by the model but also in some ways not predicted. Relationships were generally stronger for high performers. Comparing subjects' perceptions of the dimensional properties of attributions across outcomes showed a strong outcome bias. Attributions were perceived as more internal and stable following successes, consistent with previous research. In addition, a performance level bias was found. Low performers rated attributions as less internal, stable, and controllable following successes and more so following failures than did high performers. This bias, termed the underachievement bias, was discussed in terms of its detrimental effects on school performance. The differences between high and low performers regarding perceptions of dimensionalities were consistent with the predictions of the attribution model. It was concluded that the attribution model is applicable to school settings. Suggestions were made that more applied research be conducted, that intervention programs based on this model should target subjects' perceptions of attributions rather than just the specific attributions themselves, and that because of the ...
Date: December 1987
Creator: Huffine, John Harold
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Field Test of Garland's Cognitive Mediation Theory of Goal Setting

Description: The present study examined Garland's cognitive mediation theory of goal setting in a three-minute basketball shooting task. The effects of different goal conditions were also investigated along with achievement motivation and self-motivation as mediating constructs of performance. Subjects (N=150) were males and females, assigned to one of five goal conditions: "do your best", easy, moderate, hard, and improbable. Results indicated no performance differences between the different goal conditions, with subjects in the "do your best" condition performing as well as subjects in the other goal conditions. Results also yielded partial support for Garland's cognitive mediation theory with task goals influencing performance through its influence on performance expectancy. Furthermore, a negative correlation between achievement motivation and performance was found for females in the improbable goal condition and a positive correlation was found between self-motivation and performance for females in the easy goal condition.
Date: August 1987
Creator: Bagnall, Jamie
Partner: UNT Libraries

Autostereotypes and Acculturative Stress in Hispanic College Students: Implications on Self-Esteem and Achievement Motivation

Description: This study evaluated the impact of acculturative stress and negative autostereotypes on the level of self-esteem and achievement motivation among subgroups of Hispanic college students. Subjects were classified by generational level as Second-generation (i.e., foreign-born parents), or Other (i.e., first-generation, foreign-born individuals, and third-generation, foreign-born grandparents;). By country/region of origin, subjects were divided into Central-Americans, Puerto-Ricans, Mexican, Mexican-Americans, and South Americans. Results showed that acculturative stress may facilitate loss of self-esteem particularly in Second-generation individuals, while negative autostereotypic attitudes may actually increase the student's level of motivation for achievement, particularly in Mexican-American individuals. Also, country/region of origin overall influenced negative autostereotypic attitudes.
Date: May 1993
Creator: Fantoni, Patricia (Patricia Maria Angelica)
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of an Achievement Motivation Program on the Self-Concepts of Selected Ninth-Grade Students Representing Three Ethnic Groups

Description: The problem with which this investigation was concerned was that of determining the effects that an achievement motivation program had on changing the self-concepts and academic achievement among ninth-grade students in a triethnically mixed junior high school. The subjects for this study were ninth-grade students from a large southwestern city. The experimental program was conducted in a junior high school composed of Anglo, Mexican-American, and Negro students of approximately 30 per cent, 40 per cent, and 30 per cent ratios, respectively. The comparison school was an adjoining area with approximately the same ethnic mixture. In measuring changes in self-concept, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale was used. Teacher-assigned grades converted to numerical equivalents were used in measuring changes in academic achievement. All hypotheses were tested at the .05 level of confidence by using two by three analysis of covariance. All data were entered on computer cards, using computer services of North Texas State University.
Date: December 1972
Creator: Allen, John G., 1925-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Fear of Failure and Fear of Success: The Relationship of Achievement Motives to the Motor Performance of Males and Females

Description: The study was designed to determine the relationship between the psychological constructs of "fear of failure (FOF)" and "fear of success (FOS)" and motor performance in badminton. Forty-three males and fifty-one females in beginning badminton classes were administered the FOF and FOS scales, followed by three independent skills tests and a round-robin singles tournament. Conclusions were that FOF and FOS are two separate performance motives; FOF appears to be the dominant motive for females; both FOF and FOS are related to motor performance in face-to-face competition, while only FOS is related to performance in isolated skills.
Date: December 1982
Creator: Albury, Kevin W.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationship between Achievement Motivation and Academic Achievement in Elementary School Children

Description: This study was made to determine the relationship between n Achievement, the McClelland technique measure of achievement motivation obtained from picture-story protocols, and academic achievement in elementary school children. The California Achievement Tests Battery was used as the criterion for academic achievement.
Date: January 1962
Creator: Maxwell, Roy Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Single and Combined Psyching up Strategies on Basketball Free-Throws and Leg Strength

Description: The present investigation was to determine if combining two mental preparation strategies would be more effective than a single strategy. In Experiment 1, subjects (n=40) performed basketball free-throws (20 shots) using one of these mental strategies: 1) imagery, 2) relaxation, 3)relaxation plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant main effect with the imagery group performing significantly better than the placebo control group. In Experiment 2, subjects (n=40) performed five trials on an isokinetic leg-strength task using one of the following mental strategies: 1) preparatory arousal, 2) imagery, 3) preparatory arousal plus imagery, 4) placebo control. Results indicated a significant trials main effect with all subjects improving over time. State anxiety results indicated that the combination group exhibited higher levels of anxiety than all other conditions.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Chan, Roy Chin Ming
Partner: UNT Libraries

Cultural mistrust, occupational aspirations and achievement motivation of black students

Description: The purpose of this study were three-fold: First, this study examined occupation prestige ratings of African American adolescents using a modified version of the Hatt-North (1947) Occupation Prestige Scale. A second purpose investigated the effects of cultural mistrust on occupation prestige preferences, as well as aspirations and expectations. Finally, this study examined the effects of cultural mistrust and achievement motivation on the occupational aspirations of Black youth.
Date: December 1991
Creator: Cuffee, Deborah Robinson
Partner: UNT Libraries

Psychological Consequences of Causal Attributions of Social Success and Failure: An Analysis in Terms of Social Anxiety

Description: This study attempted to extend the concept of achievement motivation, as proposed by Weiner's attributional model, to social affiliative contexts. It was proposed that low social anxiety individuals behave like high achievement motivation individuals who make more self-attributions for success, but more external attributions for failure, whereas high social anxiety individuals take more personal responsibility for failure social outcomes, but make more external attributions when successful. Subjects were 243 undergraduate students, 143 females and 100 males. They completed the Leary Social Anxiety Scale, the Lefcourt Affiliation Locus of Control Scale, the Fenigstein Social Anxiety Scale, the Social Attribution Scale, and the Russell Causal Dimension Scale.
Date: December 1983
Creator: Sabogal, Fabio
Partner: UNT Libraries

Racial Differences in Female Achievement Motivation and Motivation to Work

Description: In the present project racial differences in female achievement motivation and motivation to work were examined, and related this information to the theory that African American females, when compared to White females, are less likely to marry someone equal to themselves in the areas of education, employment, and earning potential because of an assumed shortage of suitable African-American males. It was hypothesized that African-American females would score higher on assessments of achievement motivation and motivation to work, and rate lower the likelihood of meeting and marrying a partner equal in education level, employment level, and earning potential than would White females. Data analysis supported all hypotheses. The results were discussed in the context of the female achievement motivation literature as well as the literature concerning female motivation to work.
Date: December 1994
Creator: Bruner, Yolanda Kaye
Partner: UNT Libraries

Attribution Retraining: Effects on Persistence in Special Education Students' Mathematics Behavior

Description: To investigate the effects of attribution retraining under conditions of intermittent success and failure, 14 helpless subjects were given 15 days of treatment in one of two procedures. Except for the attribution of all failures to lack of effort in the attribution retraining condition, the two procedures were identical in all respects. After training, both groups showed significant and equivalent improvement in reactions to failure, suggesting that intermittent success and failure increase the persistence of helpless children, rather than attribution retraining as suggested by Dweck (1975). Recommendations included follow-up studies and exploration of the attributional patterns of children under conditions of intermittent success and failure.
Date: May 1978
Creator: Benson, Patricia Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Impact of Career Motivation and Polychronicity on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention among Hotel Industry Employees

Description: Employee turnover has been one of the most serious issues facing the hotel industry for many years. Both researchers and practitioners have devoted considerable time and effort to better understand and indentify ways to decrease employee turnover. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of individual differences focusing on career motivation and polychronicity on job satisfaction and its influence on employee turnover intention in the hotel industry. This study surveyed 609 non-supervisory employees working at two Dallas hotels. Respondents provided information regarding career motivations, polychronicity, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Career motivations were significantly related to employee job satisfaction which impacted employee turnover intention. This finding can be useful to hotel companies and their managers when attempting to understand employee motivation.
Date: August 2008
Creator: Jang, Jichul
Partner: UNT Libraries

Determining the Relationship Between Motivation and Academic Outcomes Among Students in the Health Professions.

Description: Admissions processes for health professions programs result in students entering these programs academically homogeneous. Yet some students have great difficulty with the programs. Research has shown a limited ability of traditional academic indicators to predict successful outcomes for health professions education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between learning motivation and academic outcomes for students in health professions programs. The Modified Archer Health Professions Motivation Scale (MAHPMS) and a demographic survey were administered at orientation to 131 medical and 29 physician assistant students at the University of North Texas Health Science Center in the fall of 2005. At the end of the semester, the same version of the MAHPMS was administered, and final course grades and semester averages were collected. Descriptive statistics were analyzed for all the study variables. Analysis of variance was utilized to examine within subjects and between subjects differences for the learning motivation scores among programs and demographic categories. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between learning motivation scores and end-of-semester grades. And finally, logistic regression was performed to explore the ability of the motivation scores to predict academically high-risk students. Approximately three-fourths of the students indicated a preference for mastery learning and an internal locus of control. For the PA students, alienation to learning and performance goal scores statistically related to semester grades, and alienation to learning scores predicted high-risk academic performance almost 90% of the time. For the medical students, mastery goal scores statistically related to semester grades, but no motivation score predicted high-risk performance. External locus of control scores predicted high-risk performance 81% of the time for the total group of students at the end of the semester. Students in this study exhibited learning motivation preferences similar to those of other health professions students reported in the ...
Date: May 2007
Creator: Reed, Linda E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The relationships between goal orientation, perfectionism, parental involvement, peer climate, enjoyment, and intention to continue in sport in children.

Description: This investigation examined the relationships between parental involvement, peer-initiated climates, and perfectionism to goal orientation as well as children's enjoyment and the intention to continue playing sport in youth sport. Participants were 188 athletes, 100 boys (M = 12.06, SD = 1.06) and 88 girls (M = 12.18, SD = .73). The athletes completed the TEOSQ, Sport MPS, PIAS, and the PeerMCYSQ. Parental support and peer task environment was related to girls' and boy's task orientation. For boys, personal standards, parental pressure, and fewer concerns over mistakes, also were related to task orientation. Ego orientation was related to peer-initiated ego and task climates, for the boys. For the girls, higher personal standard was the only variable related to ego orientation. For enjoyment, task orientation was the strongest predictor for the girls and the only predictor for the boys for enjoyment. The fewer concerns girls had over mistakes the more enjoyment they reported. For girls and boys, intention to continue playing next season was predicted only by enjoyment. However, results were varied when intention to play next year was examined. For boys, no predictors were discovered whereas for girls, higher levels of enjoyment and task orientation, and lower levels of parental support and pressure related to intention.
Date: December 2007
Creator: Braddock, LaTisha Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries