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Positive and Negative Affect: Differential Impact of Optimism, Pessimism, and Coping in People Living with HIV/AIDS

Description: People living with HIV/AIDS (PLH) struggle with depression. Recent research suggests that depression affects medical regimen adherence, disease progression, and risky sexual behaviors. The present study uses a stress and coping theory viewing HIV-related stigma and physical symptoms as stressors in PLH. Results suggest whereas symptoms and stigma consistently predict negative affect, positive affect, and overall depression, the role of optimism, pessimism, active coping, denial, and behavioral disengagement is not as clear. Pessimism and denial predict negative affect and depression. Optimism and behavioral disengagement predict depression and positive affect. Active coping only predicts positive affect. Focusing on positive and negative affect as distinct components that contribute to overall depression may help researchers develop interventions more effectively.
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Date: August 2005
Creator: Ranucci, Melissa B.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Relationships among Perception of Stigma, Ethnic Identity, and Acculturation in People Living with HIV/AIDS

Description: The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to grow and minorities have been affected at a disproportionate rate. Two factors that are hypothesized to be associated with HIV/AIDS stigma include ethnic identity and acculturation. The current study uses a diverse, gender-balanced sample (n= 201, aged 23-68) of African-Americans (54.2%), European Americans (31.8%), and Latinos/Hispanics (10%) to evaluate the relationship among the proposed variables. The study found that higher levels of ethnic identity and other group orientation were associated with lower levels of perceived HIV/AIDS stigma. A stepwise linear regression analysis (adjusted R2 = .13, F(11, 189) = 3.74, p < .001) revealed that as the level of inclusiveness of other ethnic groups (t = -4.263, p < .001) increases, the level of perceived HIV/AIDS stigma decreases. The results from this study suggest that the development of interventions that address stigma and inclusiveness of other ethnic groups may benefit people living with HIV/AIDS.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Chiapa, Ana Luz
Partner: UNT Libraries