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Estimated Incremental Costs for NRC Licensees to Implement the US/IAEA Safeguards Agreement

Description: At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy, conducted a brief study to identify the incremental cost for implementing the US/IAEA safeguards treaty agreement. The purpose of the study was to develop an estimate of the cost impact to eligible NRC licensees for complying with the proposed Part 75 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 75), the rule which will implement the treaty. The study was conducted using cost estimates from several eligible licensees who will be affected by the agreement and from cost analyses by PNL staff. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 25 NRC licensees, some of whom had more than one licensed facility. Their responses were obtained primarily by telephone after they had reviewed the survey insttument and a list of assumptions. The primary information received from the licensees was the incremental cost to their particular facility in the form of manpower, dollars or both. In summary, the one-time cost to all eligible NRC licensees to implement 10 CFR 75 is estimated by PNL to range from $1.9 to $7.2 millions. The annual cost to the industry for the required accounting and reporting activities is estimated by PNL at $0.5 to $1.4 millions. Annual inspection costs to the industry for the limited IAEA inspection being assumed is $80,000 to $160,000.
Date: July 19, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Measurement Control Program for Nuclear Material Accounting

Description: A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurements of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities. equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality.
Date: June 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring the Random Errors of Nuclear Material Measurements

Description: Monitoring and controlling random errors is an important function of a measurement control program. This report describes the principal sources of random error in the common nuclear material measurement processes and the most important elements of a program for monitoring, evaluating and controlling the random error standard deviations of these processes.
Date: June 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical Methods for Evaluating Sequential Material Balance Data

Description: Present material balance accounting methods focus primarily upon the "material unaccounted for" (MUF) statistic, which utilizes the data from only one material balance period as an indicator of a possible loss of nuclear material. Typically a cumulative MUF (CUMUF) statistic, which utilizes all the available flow data, is also calculated; but there is no statutory requirement that it be reported or evaluated. Previous work has shown that cumulative MUF has greater power than MUF to detect small constant losses. Techniques which emphasize the sequential nature of MUF (that is, MUF as a sequence of values related over time) are also expected to be more sensitive for detecting losses. The recursive estimation algorithm known as the Kalman filter has been proposed as a possible solution which uses the above idea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the application of the Kalman filter to the MUF problem, to propose other approaches to the problem, and to re-examine the traditional MUF and cumulative MUF statistics in more general settings. The report considers the material balance model where the only modeled variability is that due to the measurements of the net throughput (inputs minus outputs) and the inventories. The problem discussed is how to extract more information from all the available data. Material balance models which assume no loss, and the constant loss and all-at-once loss situations are considered. Emphasis was placed on explaining state variable models and Kalman filtering in relation to the general linear statistical model to which least squares is applied yielding a minimum variance unbiased estimator. All errors affecting material balances were assumed to be random.
Date: April 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Training and Qualifying Personnel for Performing Measurements for the Control and Accounting of Special Nuclear Material

Description: This report presents general procedures for training and qualifying personnel who perform sampling and measurements used for special nuclear material accounting. Considerations for establishing training and qualifying procedures are discussed.
Date: November 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational Age Dating of Special Nuclear Materials

Description: This slide-show presented an overview of the Constrained Progressive Reversal (CPR) method for computing decays, age dating, and spoof detecting. The CPR method is: Capable of temporal profiling a SNM sample; Precise (compared with known decay code, such a ORIGEN); Easy (for computer implementation and analysis).  We have illustrated with real SNM data using CPR for age dating and spoof detection. If SNM is pure, may use CPR to derive its age. If SNM is mixed, CPR will indicate that it is mixed or spoofed.
Date: June 30, 2012
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Heterogeneities on Seismic Wave Propagation in the Climax Stock

Description: The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty requires the ability to detect low-yield (less than 150kton) nuclear events. This kind of monitoring can only be done seismically on a regional scale (within 2000km). At this level, it is difficult to distinguish between low-yield nuclear events and non-nuclear events of similar magnitude. In order to confidently identify a nuclear event, a more detailed understanding of nuclear seismic sources is needed. In particular, it is important to know the effects of local geology on the seismic signal. This study focuses on P-wave velocity in heterogeneous granitoid. The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is currently performing low-yield tests with chemical explosives at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The exact test site was chosen to be in the Climax Stock, a cretaceous granodiorite and quartz-monzonite pluton located in Area 15 of the NNSS. It has been used in the past for the Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests, which provided legacy data that can be used to simulate wave propagation. The Climax Stock was originally chosen as the site of the SPE partly because of its assumed homogeneity. It has since been discovered that the area of the stock where the SPE tests are being performed contains a perched water table. In addition, the stock is known to contain an extensive network of faults, joints, and fractures, but the exact effect of these structural features on seismic wave velocity is not fully understood. The SPE tests are designed to seismically capture the explosion phenomena from the near- to the far-field transition of the seismic waveform. In the first SPE experiment, 100kg of chemical explosives were set off at a depth of 55m. The blast was recorded with an array of sensors and diagnostics, including accelerometers, geophones, rotational sensors, short-period and broadband seismic sensors, Continuous Reflectometry ...
Date: December 1, 2011
Creator: Hagan Webb, C., Snelson, C. M., White, R., Emmitt, R., Barker, D., Abbott, R., Bonal, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Simultaneous Testing Procedures for Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting

Description: This report presents the results of a comparative evaluation of four statistical testing procedures for use in the control and accounting of special nuclear materials. Of primary interest is a bivariate procedure that simultaneously tests ID and CID. Descriptions of the four testing procedures are presented with the necessary formulas and special considerations for their implementation. Results of a simulation study indicate the conditions under which each of the tests would provide superior protection against "trickle" diversions.
Date: March 1, 1982
Creator: Bowen, W. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Performance Testing for Nonproliferation Support Project

Description: The objective of this workshop is to provide participants with training in testing techniques and methodologies for assessment of the performance of: Physical Protection system elements; Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) system elements.
Date: August 20, 2013
Creator: Johns, Russell; Bultz, Garl Alan; Byers, Kenneth R. & Yaegle, William
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Performance Testing Workshop - Supplemental Materials (Scripts and Procedures)

Description: A variety of performance tests are described relating to: Material Transfers; Emergency Evacuation; Alarm Response Assessment; and an Enhanced Limited Scope Performance Test (ELSPT). Procedures are given for: nuclear material physical inventory and discrepancy; material transfers; and emergency evacuation.
Date: February 1, 2014
Creator: Baum, Gregory A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAFEGUARDS AND NONPROLIFERATION CONSIDERATIONS RELEVANT TO FUELS REFABRICATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Description: Early in the Fuels Refabrication and Development (FRAD) program, it was recognized that safeguards and nonproliferation design criteria were needed to provide guidance to equipment, process, and facility designers. This need was highlighted by the recent attention given safeguards and proliferation. Because of this heightened concern, it was found that design criteria that adequately address safeguards and nonproliferation do not now exist. For this reason, a three-day workshop was convened to attempt to collect and organize existing information regarding design criteria. This document is a result of that undertaking and the subsequent efforts required to structure the information. In summary, it was found that domestic and international goals and objectives are reasonably well established. Goals and objectives for evaluating the proliferation resistance of a facility are less firmly defined. A listing of design criteria for domestic and international safeguards has not been compiled. This document presents a summary of considerations that must be incorporated into design criteria but stops short of developing a comprehensive list of design criteria. One is certainly needed and should be funded as a follow-on effort. Following the development of the design criteria, the next logical steps are the development of evaluation methodologies and acceptance criteria. These also were proposed as logical follow-on activities which would be needed before a major FRAD design activity could be initiated.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: McSweeney, T. I.; Powers, J. A.; Forscher, F.; Morris, F.; De Montmollin, J. M.; Higinbotham, W. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tables for Trials and Failures with PD for Designated Confidence Level

Description: Two attachments are provided for performance testing of sensors and other Physical Protection System (PPS) components.#2; The first attachment is a table of Trials and Failures, giving Probability of Detection (PD) for a designated confidence level and sorted by trials.#2; The second attachment contains the same data, sorted by failures.
Date: February 1, 2014
Creator: Leach, Janice
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department