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Evaluation of the impact of a committed site on fusion reactor development

Description: The technical and economic merits of a committed fusion site for development of tokamak, mirror, and EBT reactor from ignition through demo phases were evaluated. Schedule compression resulting from evolving several reactor concepts and/or phases on a committed site as opposed to sequential use of independent sites was estimated. Land, water, and electrical power requirements for a committed fusion site were determined. A conceptual plot plan for siting three fusion reactors on a committed site was configured. Reactor support equipment common to the various concepts was identified as candidates for sharing. Licensing issues for fusion plants were briefly addressed.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Reid, R.L. & Nagy, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TIBER (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) II as a precursor to an international thermonuclear experimental reactor

Description: The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER) was pursued in the US as one option for an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This concept evolved from earlier work on the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) to develop a small, ignited tokamak. While the copper-coil versions of TFCX became the short-pulsed, 1.23-m radius, Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the superconducting TIBER with long pulse or steady state and a 2.6-m radius was considered for international collaboration. Recently the design was updated to TIBER II, to accommodate more conservative confinement scaling, double-poloidal divertors for impurity control, steady-state current drive, and nuclear testing. 18 refs., 1 fig.
Date: April 6, 1988
Creator: Henning, C.D. & Gilleland, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computerized cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base for fusion devices

Description: Component design parameters (weight, surface area, etc.) and cost factors are input and direct and indirect costs are calculated. The cost data base file derived from actual cost experience within the fusion community and refined to be compatible with the spreadsheet costing approach is a catalog of cost coefficients, algorithms, and component costs arranged into data modules corresponding to specific components and/or subsystems. Each data module contains engineering, equipment, and installation labor cost data for different configurations and types of the specific component or subsystem. This paper describes the assumptions, definitions, methodology, and architecture incorporated in the development of the cost estimation spreadsheet and cost data base, along with the type of input required and the output format.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Hamilton, W.R. & Rothe, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accelerated plan to develop magnetic fusion energy

Description: We have shown that, despite funding delays since the passage of the Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980, fusion development could still be carried to the point of a demonstration plant by the year 2000 as called for in the Act if funding, now about $365 million per year, were increased to the $1 billion range over the next few years (see Table I). We have also suggested that there may be an economic incentive for the private sector to become in accelerating fusion development on account of the greater stability of energy production costs from fusion. Namely, whereas fossil fuel prices will surely escalate in the course of time, fusion fuel will always be abundantly available at low cost; and fusion technology poses less future risk to the public and the investor compared to conventional nuclear power. In short, once a fusion plant is built, the cost of generating electricity mainly the amortization of the plant capital cost - would be relatively fixed for the life of the plant. In Sec. V, we found that the projected capital cost of fusion plants ($2000 to $4000 per KW/sub e/) would probably be acceptable if fusion plants were available today.
Date: May 28, 1986
Creator: Fowler, T.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LLNL nuclear data libraries used for fusion calculations

Description: The Physical Data Group of the Computational Physics Division of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has as its principal responsibility the development and maintenance of those data that are related to nuclear reaction processes and are needed for Laboratory programs. Among these are the Magnetic Fusion Energy and the Inertial Confinement Fusion programs. To this end, we have developed and maintain a collection of data files or libraries. These include: files of experimental data of neutron induced reactions; an annotated bibliography of literature related to charged particle induced reactions with light nuclei; and four main libraries of evaluated data. We also maintain files of calculational constants developed from the evaluated libraries for use by Laboratory computer codes. The data used for fusion calculations are usually these calculational constants, but since they are derived by prescribed manipulation of evaluated data this discussion will describe the evaluated libraries.
Date: May 21, 1984
Creator: Howerton, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

United States magnetic fusion energy program

Description: This document describes the programs of the Office of Fusion Energy in magnetic confinement systems. The following topics are described: (1) policy, (2) magnetic fusion energy program, (3) physics proof-of-principle programs, (4) major scaling experiments, (5) energy producing experimental reactors: design studies and long lead time technology development, (6) commercialization: reactor designs and systems studies, and (7) enhancement studies. (MOW)
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Dean, S.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steady-state plasma and reactor parameters for elliptical cross section tokamaks with very large power ratings

Description: In previous studies only circular cross section reactor plasmas were considered. The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of elliptical plasma cross sections. Several technological benefits have been determined. Maximum magnetic field strength requirements are 30 to 65 percent less than for 5000 MW (th) reactors and may be as much as 40 percent less than for circular cross section reactors of comparable size. Very large n tau values are found (10$sup 15$ to 10$sup 17$ sec/cm$sup 3$), which produce large burn-up fractions (15 to 60 percent). There is relatively little problem with impurity build-up. Long confinement times (60 to 500 seconds) are found. Finally, the elliptical cross section reactors exhibit a major toroidal radius reduction of as large as 30 percent over circular reactors operating at comparable power levels. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1975
Creator: Usher, J.L. & Powell, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of steady-state and pulsed operating regimes for controlled thermonuclear reactors with very large power ratings

Description: The operating regimes of large CTR's are identified and examined for cases of steady-state and pulsed operation. Several technological benefits of these large reactors are determined: (1) low maximum magnetic field strength requirements (25 to 50 percent less than for 5000 MW(th) reactors), (2) high n tau products (10$sup 15$ to 10$sup 17$ sec/cm$sup 3$) with associated high burn- up fractions (10 to 50 percent), (3) relatively little problem with impurity build-up, and (4) long confinement times (50 to 500 seconds). The advantages of pulsed operation are also discussed: (1) smaller problem with impurities than in the steady-state case, (2) alleviation of any possible fueling difficulties, and (3) no problem with control of temperature in the pulsed reactor based on a simple control function model incorporating a finite delay time. (auth)
Date: March 1, 1975
Creator: Usher, J.L. & Powell, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion energy for food production

Description: Food and energy shortages in many parts of the world in the past two years raise an immediate need for the evaluation of energy input in food production. The present paper investigates systematically (1) the energy requirement for food production, and (2) the provision of controlled thermonuclear fusion energy for major energy intensive sectors of food manufacturing. Among all the items of energy input to the ''food industry,'' fertilizers, water for irrigation, food processing industries, such as beet sugar refinery and dough making and single cell protein manufacturing, have been chosen for study in detail. A controlled thermonuclear power reactor was used to provide electrical and thermal energy for all these processes. Conceptual design of the application of controlled thermonuclear power, water and air for methanol and ammonia synthesis and single cell protein production is presented. Economic analysis shows that these processes can be competitive. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1975
Creator: Dang, V.D. & Steinberg, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Princeton Fusion Power Plant superconducting magnet system and costs

Description: The Princeton University Reference Design of a proposed fusion power plant has been previously described. This paper describes details of the superconducting magnet system consisting of toroidal field, divertor, ohmic heating, equilibrium field and control field magnets, all of which are wound of Nb$sub 3$Sn conductor. The toroidal field coils are of the moment-free, ''D'' type, previously described. The toroidal field magnet is comprised of 48 discrete ''D'' coils, 12m x 19m bore. The magnet has a stored energy of 250 x 10$sup 9$ joules. The magnet which is operated at a maximum field of 16T is described in detail. Fault conditions are calculated and design conditions based on maximum fault forces are outlined. In addition, the Dewar System, the refrigeration plant (requiring 280 kW of refrigeration), the safety system, and the coil protection system for the magnets are described. Finally, an overview of the helium-steam generating plant and detailed cost data for the plant, the nuclear island and the magnet are presented. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1975
Creator: File, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposal for the construction of the staged Scyllac prototype

Description: After the completion of the present feedback experiment on Scyllac, the machine will be reconfigured into a toroidal staged theta pinch. A 0.9-m prototype of the Staged Scyllac experiment is proposed which will be used to test the components required for the implosion-heating and staging circuits in a system environment. In addition, various systems of the Staged Scyllac, such as the trigger system and the gap-monitoring system, can be developed on the prototype before installation on the full experiment. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1975
Creator: Nunnally, W. C. & McDonald, T. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tokamak engineering test reactor

Description: The design criteria for a tokamak engineering test reactor can be met by operating in the two-component mode with reacting ion beams, together with a new blanket-shield design based on internal neutron spectrum shaping. A conceptual reactor design achieving a neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m$sup 2$ is presented. The tokamak has a major radius of 3.05 m, the plasma cross-section is noncircular with a 2:1 elongation, and the plasma radius in the midplane is 55 cm. The total wall area is 149 m$sup 2$. The plasma conditions are T/sub e/ approximately T/sub i/ approximately 5 keV, and ntau approximately 8 x 10$sup 12$ cm$sup -3$s. The plasma temperature is maintained by injection of 177 MW of 200- keV neutral deuterium beams; the resulting deuterons undergo fusion reactions with the triton-target ions. The D-shaped toroidal field coils are extended out to large major radius (7.0 m), so that the blanket-shield test modules on the outer portion of the torus can be easily removed. The TF coils are superconducting, using a cryogenically stable TiNb design that permits a field at the coil of 80 kG and an axial field of 38 kG. The blanket-shield design for the inner portion of the torus nearest the machine center line utilizes a neutron spectral shifter so that the first structural wall behind the spectral shifter zone can withstand radiation damage for the reactor lifetime. The energy attenuation in this inner blanket is 8 x 10$sup -6$. If necessary, a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8 can be achieved using liquid lithium cooling in the outer blanket only. The overall power consumption of the reactor is about 340 MW(e). A neutron wall loading greater than 1 MW/m$sup 2$ can be achieved by increasing the maximum magnetic field or the plasma elongation. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1975
Creator: Conn, R.W. & Jassby, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assembly of the PLT device

Description: The assembly of the PLT device began in June 1974 with a preassembly of the mechanical structure at a remote site. The preassembly sequence incorporated final fabrication procedures with an initial staging operation. This successful staging/fabrication procedure proved to be an invaluable asset when the final assembly was started in August 1974. The assembly continued with the initial reassembly of the previously tested structural components at the final machine site. Construction was interrupted at several points to allow for toroidal field coil, vacuum vessel, and poloidal coil installation. Two phases of toroidal field coil power tests were included in the assembly sequence prior to, and just after the vacuum vessel insertion. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1975
Creator: Marino, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mirror fusion reactor study

Description: The principal features of a fusion power reactor employing the magnetic mirror confinement concept are described. A parametric design and cost estimate analysis has been used to optimize the design for minimum capital cost per net electric output. Optimized parameters include the vacuum mirror ratio, the injection energy and angle, the choice of a thermal conversion cycle, and the design efficiency of the charged particle direct converter. The sensitivity of the cost of power for the optimized design to variations in many of the reactor parameters is discussed. (auth)
Date: November 12, 1975
Creator: Carlson, G.A. & Moir, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Astron Program final report

Description: This report describes important experimental results obtained in the last two years of the Astron Program, an LLL controlled nuclear fusion program which terminated in 1973. Little theoretical work is included, but an extensive bibliography is given. (auth)
Date: August 25, 1975
Creator: Briggs, R.J.; Hester, R.E.; Porter, G.D.; Sherwood, W.A.; Spoerlein, R.; Stallard, B.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status report on mirror alternatives

Description: The present status of studies at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) directed toward exploring variants on the basic magnetic mirror confinement concept is described. These studies have emphasized those ideas that could lead most directly to improvements in the scientific and economic viability of fusion reactors based on the mirror concept, within the general context of the extensive body of specialized physics and technology that has been developed in the course of the Mirror Program. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1976
Creator: Condit, W.C.; Fowler, T.K. & Post, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ISX: a tokamak for surface and impurities studies

Description: The ISX (Impurity Study Experiment) is a moderate size tokamak slightly larger than the ORMAK tokamak. ISX is being built explicitly for the study of impurities and plasma-wall interactions. It is scheduled to begin experiments in the spring of 1977. Several features have been deliberately designed into the ISX which make it particularly adaptable to surface studies. The first is a welded stainless steel vacuum system, bakeable to 400$sup 0$C, with a projected base pressure greater than or equal to 2 x 10$sup -9$ torr. Another feature is that of ''easy'' demountability of the vacuum system. Replacement of the entire vacuum system should take about two weeks. A third feature is diagnostic access to the edges of the plasma. The initial surface physics question to be answered is how best to keep surfaces clean: by baking, by direct or indirect wall bombardment discharges, or by gettering. Later experiments will involve using wall materials other than stainless steel to determine their effects on the plasma. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Colchin, R.J. & Jernigan, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prospects for thermonuclear ignition in a ''collisional'' tokamak

Description: The parameters are described for a tokamak reactor plasma that attains ignition in the same regime of collisionality as present-day ohmic-heated tokamak plasmas, where the confinement scaling ntau$alpha$n$sup 2$ is observed. The use of Nb$sub 3$Sn toroidal field coils and a plasma elongation greater than or equal to 1.5 are necessary to attain the high plasma density (n approximately 10$sup 15$ cm$sup -3$) required for ignition in this collisional regime. Under these conditions, the fusion power density is of order 10 W/cm$sup 3$. This high value is probably necessary for an economic tokamak reactor. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1975
Creator: Cohn, D.R.; Jassby, D.L. & Parker, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reactor applications of two-component tokamak plasmas

Description: The physics of two-energy-component toroidal plasmas (TCT) is reviewed. Energy ''breakeven'' using the TCT mode (deuteron beams on a triton-target plasma) can be attained at much smaller ntau and temperature than in thermal plasma operation. This result reflects the fact that the fusion power density in a TCT can be much larger than in a thermal DT plasma of the same pressure. The large fusion power density (i.e., large neutron flux) of a TCT may find practical use in a number of applications. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1975
Creator: Tenney, F.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Suggestions for an updated fusion power program

Description: This document contains suggestions for a revised CTR Program strategy which should allow us to achieve equivalent goals while operating within the above constraints. The revised program is designed around three major facilities. The first is an upgrading of the present TFTR facility which will provide a demonstration of the generation of tens of megawatts electric equivalent originally envisioned for the 1985 EPR. The second device is the TTAP which will allow the integration and optimization of the plasma physics results obtained from the next generation of plasma physics experiments. The improvement in tokamak reactor operation resulting from this optimization of fusion plasma performance will enable an EPR to be designed which will produce several hundred megawatts of electric power by 1990. This will move the fusion program much closer to its goal of commercial fusion power by the turn of the century. In addition to this function the TTAP will serve as a prototype of the 1990 EPR system, thus making more certain the successful operation of this device. The third element of this revised program is an intense radiation damage facility which will provide the radiation damage information necessary for the EPR and subsequent fusion reactor facilities. The sum total of experience gained from reacting plasma experiments on TFTR, reactor grade plasma optimization and technological prototyping on TTAP, and end of life radiation damage results from the intense neutron facility will solve all of the presently foreseen problems associated with a tokamak fusion power reactor except those associated with the external nuclear systems. These external system problems such as tritium breeding and optimal power recovery can be developed in parallel on the 1990 EPR. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1976
Creator: Clarke, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department