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Hardwired Control Changes For NSTX DC Power Feeds

Description: The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The original TFTR Hardwired Control System (HCS) with electromechanical relays was used for NSTX DC Power loop control and protection during NSTX operations. As part of the NSTX Upgrade, the HCS is being changed to a PLC-based system with the same control logic. This paper gives a description of the changeover to the new PLC-based system __________________________________________________
Date: June 28, 2013
Creator: Ramakrishnan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma Heating and Losses in Toroidal Multipole Fields

Description: The heating and loss of plasmas have been studied in three pulsed, toroidal multipole devices: a large levitated octupole, a small supported octupole and a very .small supported quadrupole. Plasmas are produced by gun injection and heated by electron and ion cyclotron resonance heating and ohmic heating. Electron cyclotron heating rates have been measured over a wide range of parameters, and the results are in quantitative agreement with stochastic heating theory. Electron cyclotron resonance heating produces ions with energies larger than predicted by theory. With the addition of a toroidal field, ohmic heating gives densities as high as 10{sup 13}cm{sup -3} in the toroidal quadrupole and 10{sup 12}cm{sup -3} in the small octupole. Plasma losses for n=5 x 10{sup 9}cm{sup -3} plasmas are inferred from Langmuir probe and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements, and measured with special striped collectors on the wall and rings. The loss to a levitated ring is measured using a modulated light beam telemeter. The confinement is better than Bohm but considerably worse than classical. Low frequency convective cells which are fixed in space are observed. These cells around the ring are diminished when a weak toroidal field is added, and loss collectors show a vastly reduced flux to the rings. Analysis of the spatial density profile shows features of B-independent diffusion. The confinement is sensitive to some kinds of dc field errors, but surprisingly insensitive to perturbations of the ac confining field.
Date: September 1, 1974
Creator: Armentrout, C. J.; Barter, J. D.; Breun, R. A.; Cavallo, A. J.; Drake, J. R.; Etzweiler, et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research

Description: The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could ...
Date: September 10, 2012
Creator: Ono, Masayuki
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Local Effects of Biased Electrodes in the Divertor of NSTX

Description: The goal of this paper is to characterize the effects of small non-axisymmetric divertor plate electrodes on the local scrape-off layer plasma. Four small rectangular electrodes were installed into the outer divertor plates of NSTX. When the electrodes were located near the outer divertor strike point and biased positively, there was an increase in the nearby probe currents and probe potentials and an increase in the LiI light emission at the large major radius end of these electrodes. When an electrode located farther outward from the outer divertor strike point was biased positively, there was sometimes a significant decrease in the LiI light emission at the small major radius end of this electrode, but there were no clear effects on the nearby probes. No non-local effects were observed with the biasing of these electrodes.
Date: May 7, 2012
Creator: : S. Zweben, M.D. Campanell, B.C. Lyons, R.J. Maqueda, Y. Raitses, A.L. Roquemore and F. Scotti
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Full Toroidal Imaging of Non-axisymmetric Plasma Material Interaction in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment

Description: A pair of two dimensional fast cameras with a wide angle view (allowing a full radial and toroidal coverage of the lower divertor) was installed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment in order to monitor non-axisymmetric effects. A custom polar remapping procedure and an absolute photometric calibration enabled the easier visualization and quantitative analysis of non-axisymmetric plasma material interaction (e.g., strike point splitting due to application of 3D fields and effects of toroidally asymmetric plasma facing components).
Date: July 11, 2012
Creator: Filippo Scotti, A.L. Roquemore, and V. A. Soukhanovskii
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power Supply Changes for NSTX Resistive Wall Mode Coils

Description: The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. Prior to 2004, the NSTX power system was feeding twelve (12) circuits in the machine. In 2004 the Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) Coils were installed on the machine to correct error fields. There are six of these coils installed around the machine in the mid-plane. Since these coils need fast and accurate controls, a Switching Power Amplifier (SPA) with three sub-units was procured, installed and commissioned along with other power loop components. Two RWM Coils were connected in series and fed from one SPA sub-unit. After the initial RWM campaign, operational requirements evolved such that each of the RWM coils now requires separate power and control. Hence a second SPA with three sub-units has been procured and installed. The second unit is of improved design and has the controls and power components completely isolated. The existing thyristor rectifier is used as DC Link to both of the Switching Power Amplifiers. The controls for the RWM are integrated into the overall computer control of the DC Power systems for NSTX. This paper describes the design changes in the RWM Power system for NSTX.
Date: June 28, 2013
Creator: Ramakrishnan, S S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guiding Center Equations for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Modes

Description: Guiding center simulations are routinely used for the discovery of mode-particle resonances in tokamaks, for both resistive and ideal instabilities and to find modifications of particle distributions caused by a given spectrum of modes, including large scale avalanches during events with a number of large amplitude modes. One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through δ~B = ∇ X (ξ X B) however perturbs the magnetic topology, introducing extraneous magnetic islands in the field. A proper treatment of an ideal perturbation involves a full Lagrangian displacement of the field due to the perturbation and conserves magnetic topology as it should. In order to examine the effect of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes on particle trajectories the guiding center equations should include a correct Lagrangian treatment. Guiding center equations for an ideal displacement ξ are derived which perserve the magnetic topology and are used to examine mode particle resonances in toroidal confinement devices. These simulations are compared to others which are identical in all respects except that they use the linear representation for the field. Unlike the case for the magnetic field, the use of the linear field perturbation in the guiding center equations does not result in extraneous mode particle resonances.
Date: February 21, 2013
Creator: White, Roscoe B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of Polycarbonate Vacuum Vessels in High-Temperature Fusion-Plasma Research

Description: Magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research requires ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions, primarily to reduce plasma contamination by impurities. For radiofrequency (RF)-heated plasmas, a great benefit may accrue from a non-conducting vacuum vessel, allowing external RF antennas which avoids the complications and cost of internal antennas and high-voltage high-current feedthroughs. In this paper we describe these and other criteria, e.g., safety, availability, design flexibility, structural integrity, access, outgassing, transparency, and fabrication techniques that led to the selection and use of 25.4-cm OD, 1.6-cm wall polycarbonate pipe as the main vacuum vessel for an MFE research device whose plasmas are expected to reach keV energies for durations exceeding 0.1 s
Date: September 27, 2012
Creator: B. Berlinger, A. Brooks, H. Feder, J. Gumbas, T. Franckowiak and S.A. Cohen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

Description: Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) is important to magnetized target fusion, wire-array z-pinches, and equation-of-state studies using flyer plates or isentropic compression. It is also important to the study of the crab nebula. The investigators performed MRT experiments on thin foils, driven by the mega-ampere linear transformer driver (LTD) facility completed in their laboratory. This is the first 1-MA LTD in the USA. Initial experiments on the seeding of MRT were performed. Also completed was an analytic study of MRT for a finite plasma slab with arbitrary magnetic fields tangential to the interfaces. The effects of magnetic shear and feedthrough were analyzed.
Date: July 7, 2013
Creator: Lau, Yue Ying & Gilgenbach, Ronald
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flow Shear Effects in the Onset Physics of Resistive MHD Instabilities in Tokamaks. Final report

Description: The progress in this research centers around the computational analysis of flow shear effects in the onset of a 3/2 mode driven by a 1/1 mode in DIII-D equilibria. The initial idea was to try and calculate, via nonlinear simulations with NIMROD, the effects of rotation shear on driven 3/2 and 2/1 seed island physics, in experimentally relevant DIIID equilibria. The simulations indicated that very small seed islands were directly driven, as shielding between the sawtooth and the surfaces is significant at the high Lundquist numbers of the experiment. Instead, long after the initial crash the difference in linear stability of the 3/2, which remained prevalent despite the flattening of the core profiles from the sawtooth, contributed to a difference in the eventual seed island evolution. Essentially the seed islands grew or decayed long after the sawtooth crash, and not directly from it. Effectively the dominant 1/1 mode was found to be dragging the coupled modes surrounding it at a high rate through the plasma at their surfaces. The 1/1 mode is locked to the local frame of the plasma in the core, where the flow rate is greatest. The resonant perturbations at the surrounding surfaces propagate in the 'high slip regime' in the language of Fitzpatrick. Peaked flux averaged jxb forces (see Figs. 1 and 2) agree with localized flow modifications at the surfaces in analogy with Ebrahimi, PRL 2007. We track the mode into nonlinear saturation and have found oscillatory states in the evolution. During a visit (11/09) to Tulsa by R.J. LaHaye (GA), it became clear that similar oscillatory states are observed in DIII-D for these types of discharges.
Date: April 24, 2013
Creator: Brennan, Dylan P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of ELM [edge localized mode] Dynamics with the Resonant Magnetic Perturbation Effects

Description: Topics covered are: anomalous transport and E x B flow shear effects in the H-mode pedestal; RMP (resonant magnetic perturbation) effects in NSTX discharges; development of a scaling of H-mode pedestal in tokamak plasmas with type I ELMs (edge localized modes); and divertor heat load studies.
Date: July 19, 2011
Creator: Pankin, Alexei Y. & Kritz, Arnold H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final report for the NSF/DOE partnership in basic plasma science grant DE-FG02-06ER54906 '˜Laser-driven collisionless shocks in the Large Plasma Device'™

Description: We have performed several thousand high-energy laser shots in the LAPD to investigate the dynamics of an exploding laser-produced plasma in a large ambient magneto-plasma. Debris-ions expanding at super-Alfvenic velocity (up to MA=1.5) expel the ambient magnetic field, creating a large (> 20 cm) diamagnetic cavity. We observed field compressions of up to B/B{sub 0} = 1.5 at the edge of the bubble, consistent with the MHD jump conditions, as well as localized electron heating at the edge of the bubble. Two-dimensional hybrid simulations reproduce these measurements well and show that the majority of the ambient ions are energized by the magnetic piston to super-Alfvenic speeds and swept outside the bubble volume. Nonlinear shear-Alfven waves ({delta}B/B{sub 0} > 25%) are radiated from the cavity with a coupling efficiency of 70% from magnetic energy in the bubble to the wave. While the data is consistent with a weak magneto-sonic shock, the experiments were severely limited by the low ambient plasma densities (10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}). 2D hybrid simulations indicate that future experiments with the new LAPD plasma source and densities in excess of 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} will drive full-blown collisionless shocks with MA>10 over several c/wpi and shocked Larmor radii. In a separate experiment at the LANL Trident laser facility we have performed a proof-of-principle experiment at higher densities to demonstrate key elements of collisionless shocks in laser-produced magnetized plasmas with important implications to NIF. Simultaneously we have upgraded the UCLA glass-laser system by adding two large amplitude disk amplifiers from the NOVA laser and boost the on-target energy from 30 J to up to 1 kJ, making this one of the world’s largest university-scale laser systems. We now have the infrastructure in place to perform novel and unique high-impact experiments on collision-less shocks at the LAPD.
Date: December 14, 2012
Creator: Niemann, Christoph; Gekelman, W.; Winske, D. & Larsen, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plasma Transport at the Magnetospheric Flank Boundary. Final report

Description: Progress is highlighted in these areas: 1. Model of magnetic reconnection induced by three-dimensional Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) modes at the magnetospheric flank boundary; 2. Quantitative evaluation of mass transport from the magnetosheath onto closed geomagnetic field for northward IMF; 3. Comparison of mass transfer by cusp reconnection and Flank Kelvin Helmholtz modes; 4. Entropy constraint and plasma transport in the magnetotail - a new mechanism for current sheet thinning; 5. Test particle model for mass transport onto closed geomagnetic field for northward IMF; 6. Influence of density asymmetry and magnetic shear on (a) the linear and nonlinear growth of 3D Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) modes, and (b) three-dimensional KH mediated mass transport; 7. Examination of entropy and plasma transport in the magnetotail; 8. Entropy change and plasma transport by KH mediated reconnection - mixing and heating of plasma; 9. Entropy and plasma transport in the magnetotail - tail reconnection; and, 10. Wave coupling at the magnetospheric boundary and generation of kinetic Alfven waves.
Date: April 23, 2012
Creator: Otto, Antonius
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

First Generation Final Focusing Solenoid For NDCX-I

Description: This report describes the prototype final focus solenoid (FFS-1G), or 1st generation FFS. In order to limit eddy currents, the solenoid winding consists of Litz wire wound on a non-conductive G-10 tube. For the same reason, the winding pack was inserted into an electrically insulating, but thermally conducting Polypropylene (Cool- Poly© D1202) housing and potted with highly viscous epoxy (to be able to wick the single strands of the Litz wire). The magnet is forced-air cooled through cooling channels. The magnet was designed for water cooling, but he cooling jacket cracked, and therefore cooling (beyond natural conduction and radiation) was exclusively by forced air. Though the design operating point was 8 Tesla, for the majority of running on NDCX-1 it operated up to about 5 Tesla. This was due mostly from limitations of voltage holding at the leads, where discharges at higher pulsed current damaged the leads. Generation 1 was replaced by the 2nd generation solenoid (FFS-2G) about a year later, which has operated reliably up to 8 Tesla, with a better lead design and utilizes water cooling. At this point, FFS-1G was used for plasma source R&D by LBNL and PPPL. The maximum field for those experiments was reduced to 3 Tesla due to continued difficulty with the leads and because higher field was not essential for those experiments. The pulser for the final focusing solenoid is a SCR-switched capacitor bank which produces a half-sine current waveform. The pulse width is ~800us and a charge voltage of 3kV drives ~20kA through the magnet producing ~8T field.
Date: November 9, 2011
Creator: Seidl, P. A. & Waldron, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF A DETERMINISTIC STOCHASTIC ORBIT

Description: If the solution of a deterministic equation is stochastic (in the sense of orbital instability), it can be subjected to a statistical analysis. This is illustrated for a coded orbit of the Chirikov mapping. Statistical dependence and the Markov assumption are tested. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is related to the probability distribution for the orbit.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Kaufman, Allan N.; Abarbanel, Henry D.I. & Grebogi, Celso
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report

Description: Final Technical Report for U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER55005 Nonlinear FLR Effects in Reduced Fluid Models Alain J. Brizard, Saint Michael™s College The above-mentioned DoE grant was used to support research activities by the PI during a sabbatical leave from Saint Michael™s College in 2009. The major focus of the work was the role played by guiding-center and gyrocenter (linear and nonlinear) polarization and magnetization effects in understanding transport processes in turbulent magnetized plasmas. The theoretical tools used for this work include Lie-transform perturbation methods and Lagrangian (variational) methods developed by the PI in previous work. The present final technical report lists (I) the peer-reviewed publications that were written based on work funded by the Grant; (II) invited and contributed conference presentations during the period funded by the Grant; and (III) seminars presented during the period funded by the Grant. I. Peer-reviewed Publications A.J. Brizard and N. Tronko, 2011, Exact momentum conservation for the gyrokinetic Vlasov- Poisson equations, Physics of Plasmas 18 , 082307:1-14 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3625554 ]. J. Decker, Y. Peysson, A.J. Brizard, and F.-X. Duthoit, 2010, Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator for numerical applications, Physics of Plasmas 17, 112513:1-12 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3519514]. A.J. Brizard, 2010, Noether derivation of exact conservation laws for dissipationless reduced fluid models, Physics of Plasmas 17, 112503:1-8 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3515303]. F.-X. Duthoit, A.J. Brizard, Y. Peysson, and J. Decker, 2010, Perturbation analysis of trapped particle dynamics in axisymmetric dipole geometry, Physics of Plasmas 17, 102903:1-9 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3486554]. A.J. Brizard, 2010, Exact energy conservation laws for full and truncated nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, Physics of Plasmas 17, 042303:1-11 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3374428]. A.J. Brizard, J. Decker, Y. Peysson, and F.-X. Duthoit, 2009, Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator, Physics of Plasmas 16, 102304:1-9[http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3249627]. A.J. Brizard, 2009, Variational Principles for Reduced Plasma Physics, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 169, 012003 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/169/1/012003]. II. Invited and Contributed Conference Presentations A.J. ...
Date: 2009
Creator: Brizard, Alain J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE TORMAC V EXPERIMENT

Description: Tormac (Toroidal Magnetic Cusp) is a plasma confinement concept combining the favorable MHD stability properties of a cusp geometry with the good particle confinement inherent to closed field geometry, A Tormac plasma has two regions: an interior region in which a toroidal bias or studding field is embedded, and an exterior or surface region confined by mirror trapping along open field lines. The combination of these two regions is expected to lead to a configuration having confinement substantially superior to that of a mirror. and to allow the plasma to be stable at high {beta}. The Tormac V experiment is an attempt to establish such a configuration and to investigate characteristic behavior of the Tormac plasma. In this paper we describe the Tormac concept. the Tormac V experimental set-up. and the results obtained.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Brown, I.G.; Feinberg, B.; Kunkel, W.B.; Levine, M.A.; Niland, R.A.; Shaw, R.S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bootstrap Current for the Edge Pedestal Plasma in a Diverted Tokamak Geometry

Description: The edge bootstrap current plays a critical role in the equilibrium and stability of the steep edge pedestal plasma. The pedestal plasma has an unconventional and difficult neoclassical property, as compared with the core plasma. It has a narrow passing particle region in velocity space that can be easily modified or destroyed by Coulomb collisions. At the same time, the edge pedestal plasma has steep pressure and electrostatic potential gradients whose scale-lengths are comparable with the ion banana width, and includes a magnetic separatrix surface, across which the topological properties of the magnetic field and particle orbits change abruptly. A driftkinetic particle code XGC0, equipped with a mass-momentum-energy conserving collision operator, is used to study the edge bootstrap current in a realistic diverted magnetic field geometry with a self-consistent radial electric field. When the edge electrons are in the weakly collisional banana regime, surprisingly, the present kinetic simulation confirms that the existing analytic expressions [represented by O. Sauter et al. , Phys. Plasmas 6 , 2834 (1999)] are still valid in this unconventional region, except in a thin radial layer in contact with the magnetic separatrix. The agreement arises from the dominance of the electron contribution to the bootstrap current compared with ion contribution and from a reasonable separation of the trapped-passing dynamics without a strong collisional mixing. However, when the pedestal electrons are in plateau-collisional regime, there is significant deviation of numerical results from the existing analytic formulas, mainly due to large effective collisionality of the passing and the boundary layer trapped particles in edge region. In a conventional aspect ratio tokamak, the edge bootstrap current from kinetic simulation can be significantly less than that from the Sauter formula if the electron collisionality is high. On the other hand, when the aspect ratio is close to unity, the collisional ...
Date: August 10, 2012
Creator: Koh, S.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Menard, J. E.; Weitzner, H. & Choe, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Why is Boris Algorithm So Good?

Description: Due to its excellent long term accuracy, the Boris algorithm is the de facto standard for advancing a charged particle. Despite its popularity, up to now there has been no convincing explanation why the Boris algorithm has this advantageous feature. In this letter, we provide an answer to this question. We show that the Boris algorithm conserves phase space volume, even though it is not symplectic. The global bound on energy error typically associated with symplectic algorithms still holds for the Boris algorithm, making it an effective algorithm for the multi-scale dynamics of plasmas.
Date: March 3, 2013
Creator: Qin, Hong; Zhang, Shuangxi; Xiao, Jianyuan & Tang, William M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics Design of a 28 GHz Electron Heating System for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

Description: A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is being designed to support non-inductive (NI) plasma current (I{sub p}) start-up and local heating and current drive (CD) in H-mode discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). The development of fully NI I{sub p} start-up and ramp-up is an important goal of the NSTX-U research program. 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) heating is predicted to rapidly increase the central electron temperature (T{sub e}(0)) of low density NI plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI). The increased T{sub e}(0) will significantly reduce the Ip decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. Also 28 GHz electron Bernstein wave (EBW) heating and CD can be used during the I{sub p} flat top in NSTX-U discharges when the plasma is overdense. Ray tracing and Fokker-Planck numerical simulation codes have been used to model EC and EBW heating and CD in NSTX-U. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design for the 28 GHz heating system and some of the results from the numerical simulations.
Date: July 9, 2013
Creator: Taylor, G.; Bertelli, N.; Ellis, R. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Harvey, R. W.; Hosea, J. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploration of the Equilibrium Operating Space For NSTX-Upgrade

Description: This paper explores a range of high-performance equilibrium scenarios available in the NSTX-Upgrade device [J.E. Menard, submitted for publication to Nuclear Fusion]. NSTX-Upgrade is a substantial upgrade to the existing NSTX device [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], with significantly higher toroidal field and solenoid capabilities, and three additional neutral beam sources with significantly larger current drive efficiency. Equilibria are computed with freeboundary TRANSP, allowing a self consistent calculation of the non-inductive current drive sources, the plasma equilibrium, and poloidal field coil current, using the realistic device geometry. The thermal profiles are taken from a variety of existing NSTX discharges, and different assumptions for the thermal confinement scalings are utilized. The no-wall and idealwall n=1 stability limits are computed with the DCON code. The central and minimum safety factors are quite sensitive to many parameters: they generally increases with large outer plasmawall gaps and higher density, but can have either trend with the confinement enhancement factor. In scenarios with strong central beam current drive, the inclusion of non-classical fast ion diffusion raises qmin, decreases the pressure peaking, and generally improves the global stability, at the expense of a reduction in the non-inductive current drive fraction; cases with less beam current drive are largely insensitive to additional fast ion diffusion. The non-inductive current level is quite sensitive to the underlying confinement and profile assumptions. For instance, for BT=1.0 T and Pinj=12.6 MW, the non-inductive current level varies from 875 kA with ITER-98y,2 thermal confinement scaling and narrow thermal profiles to 1325 kA for an ST specific scaling expression and broad profiles. This sensitivity should facilitate the determination of the correct scaling of transport with current and field to use for future fully non-inductive ST devices. Scenarios are presented which can be sustained for 8-10 seconds, or (20-30)τCR, at ...
Date: April 25, 2012
Creator: Gerhardt, S. P.; Andre, R. & Menard, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department