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RADON PROGENY AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR DOSIMETRY OF NANOAEROSOLS

Description: The study of aerosol exposure and dosimetry measurements and related quantitation of health effects are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry ?-- nanotechnology. Nanoproduct commerce is predicted to top $1 trillion by 2015. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air and in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decades of study. Direct measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. We discuss here the use of nanoscale radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local deposition and lung dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed based on a comparison of measured exposure in 3 settings: general population, miners, and in a human experiment conducted at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1 nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the unattached activity and aerosol particle surface area, together with a description of its calibration and method for measurement of the unattached fraction.
Date: February 25, 2008
Creator: Ruzer, Lev; Ruzer, Lev S. & Apte, Michael G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of a section of the horizontal tail surface for the Bell XP-63 airplane

Description: Report presenting force tests conducted on a model of a section of the XP-63 horizontal tail surface in the 4- by 6-foot closed-throat vertical wing tunnel. The angle-of-attack range was from the negative to the positive stall for all flap deflections.
Date: August 1941
Creator: Ames, Milton B., Jr. & Hoggard, H. Page, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test of NACA 66,2-116, a = 0.6 airfoil section fitted with pressure balanced and slotted flaps for the wing of the XP-63 airplane

Description: Report presenting tests in the two-dimensional low-turbulence pressure tunnel of a model of the NACA 66,2-116, a = 0.6 airfoil section representing the root section of the wing for the XP-63 airplane. The model was of 24-inch chord, built of wood with dural slot cover plates for the flap.
Date: May 1942
Creator: Underwood, William J. & Abbott, Frank T., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meteore 63 Commercial Seaplane

Description: Societe Provencale de Constructions Aeronautiques, builder of the "Meteore 63" has constructed a three engine (biplane) seaplane which has met conditions for a seaworthy certificate of the first class. A description of the design, hull, tail, power plant, characteristics, performances, drawings, and photographs are provided.
Date: May 1927
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic characteristics for internal-balance and Frise type ailerons on an NACA 6 series low-drag tip section of the wing for the XP-63 airplane

Description: Report presenting testing in the two-dimensional turbulence tunnel of a model of the tip section of the wing of the XP-63 airplane. Several alterations of the skirts and balance on the internal-balance aileron were tested to obtain various aerodynamic characteristics of the aileron.
Date: October 1942
Creator: Underwood, William J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Investigation to Improve the Dynamic Longitudinal Stability and Control-Feel Characteristics of the P-63A-1 Airplane (AAF No. 42-68889) with Closely Balanced Experimental Elevators

Description: Results of flight tests of a control-feel aid presented. This device consisted of a spring and dashpot connected in series between the control stick and airplane structure. The device was tested in combination with an experimental elevator and bobweight which had given unsatisfactory dynamic stability and control-feel characteristics in previous tests. The control-feel aid effected marked improvement in both the control-feel characteristics and the control-feel dynamic longitudinal stability of the airplane.
Date: July 1946
Creator: Johnson, Harold I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Résumé of NACA stability and control tests of the Bell P-63 series airplane

Description: Report on stability and control tests of the Bell P-63 series airplanes. Information about the spin characteristics, lateral control characteristics, longitudinal stability and control characteristics and directional stability and control characteristics is provided. A chronology of testing and detailed description of the airplane and its modifications are also provided.
Date: October 19, 1944
Creator: Johnson, Harold I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of Bell XP-63 Low-Drag Wing Model With Split Flap

Description: Report presenting tests on the Bell XP-63 wing root section fitted with an 0.18c split flap hinged at approximately 0.805c on the lower surface. The tests were conducted to determine the effect of a 10 degree deflection of the split flap on the drag characteristics of the model at low lift coefficients.
Date: September 1941
Creator: Underwood, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimates of the vertical-tail loads of a Bell P-63A-1 airplane (AAF No. 42-68889) in accelerated rolling maneuvers based on flight tests with two vertical-tail arrangements

Description: Report discussing the results of using an enlarged vertical tail on a P-63A-1 on directional stability. The tests included measurements of the amount of sideslip at various speeds and normal accelerations. Potential required modifications for increased performance using the larger tail are also described.
Date: November 30, 1944
Creator: Johnson, Harold I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight Investigation of Effect of Various Vertical-Tail Modifications on the Directional Stability and Control Characteristics of the P-63A-1 Airplane (AAF No. 42-68889)

Description: "Because the results of preliminary flight tests had indicated the P-63A-1 airplane possessed insufficient directional stability, the NACA and the manufacturer (Bell Aircraft Corporation) suggested three vertical-tail modifications to remedy the deficiencies in the directional characteristics. These modifications included an enlarged vertical tail formed by adding a tip extension to the original vertical tail, a large sharp-edge ventral fin, and a small dorsal fin. The enlarged vertical tail involved only a slight increase in total vertical-tail area from 23.73 to 26.58 square feet but a relatively much larger increase in geometric aspect ratio from 1.24 to 1.73 based on height and area above the horizontal tail" (p. 1).
Date: October 7, 1946
Creator: Johnson, Harold I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of ice formations on section drag of swept NACA 63A-009 airfoil with partical-span leading-edge slat for various modes of thermal ice protection

Description: Studies were made to determine the effect of ice formations on the section drag of a 6.9-foot-chord 36 degree swept NACA 63A-009 airfoil with partial-span leading-edge slat. In general, the icing of a thin swept airfoil will result in greater aerodynamic penalties than for a thick unswept airfoil. Glaze-ice formations at the leading edge of the airfoil caused large increases in section drag even at liquid-water content of 0.39 gram per cubic meter. The use of an ice-free parting strip in the stagnation region caused a negligible change in drag compared with a completely unheated airfoil. Cyclic de-icing when properly applied caused the drag to decrease almost to the bare-airfoil drag value.
Date: March 15, 1954
Creator: von Glahn, Uwe H. & Gray, Vernon H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flight tests of a P-63-1 airplane with an electric torquemeter

Description: Report presenting an electric torquemeter that was used to measure the power of an Allison V-1710-93 engine installed in a Bell P-63A-1 airplane. Results of maximum-available-power tests in flight at a range of density altitudes showed good agreement between the measured maximum power output and the maximum power shown on the engine manufacturer's calibration chart.
Date: March 1945
Creator: Hanson, Morgan P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

Description: Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.
Date: June 13, 2008
Creator: Wahl, Linnea & Wahl, Linnea
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY-ION RADIOBIOLOGY: CELLULAR STUDIES

Description: The effects of accelerated heavy charged particles on cellular systems in vitro are reviewed and physical characteristics and beam monitoring and dosimetry are briefly described.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: Blakely, Eleanor A.; Ngo, Frank Q.H.; Curtis, Stanley B. & Tobias, Cornelius A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of a US Department of Energy Emergent Technologies Cohort

Description: As a major user of engineered nanoparticles, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) uses various methods to monitor the health of emergent technologies workers (ETW) who handle or could potentially be exposed to unbound engineered nanoparticles (UNP). Using data from DOE’s Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP), Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) created a registry of ETWs. IISP currently tracks 125,000 workers at 14 DOE facilities. Workers in IISP, who were classified as ETWs, were placed in a separate database using Microsoft Access. Using SAS (Version 9.2; Cary, NC), the health status of this cohort was analyzed by a variety of different variables such as age, gender, occupation, years of employment, number of years classified as an ETW, and site.
Date: December 12, 2012
Creator: Strader, Cliff; Ellis, Elizabeth; Barrie, Martin D; Tankersley, William & Wallace, Phil
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of Halogenated Components Formed from Chlorination of Natural Waters: Preliminary Studies

Description: Chlorination of power plant cooling water is extensively used as a means of controlling biofouling. This practice presents the potential for formation of halogenated organic compounds hazardous to man and his environment. Accordingly, the organic composition resulting from the chlorination of natural waters (northern Olympic Penn1sula sea water and the Columbia River in Washington State} has been investigated. Nonpolar lipophilic organic halogens were extracted by passing large volumes of water over columns of XAD-2 macroreticular resins. Examination of ether extracts from the resin columns using capillary gas chromatography revealed the presence of halogenated methanes, as well as other electron-capturing components~ that were not found when unchlorinated water was sampled. Examination of the chlorinated water extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed complex mixtures which generally were not separable into individual components~ even when high efficiency WCOT capillary columns were used. The samples were separated into fractions of increasing polarity using a water-deactivated silica gel column. Fractions were thus obtained which were more amenable to GC/MS investigation. Haloforms were identified as the major halogenated product from chlorination of the waters studied. Other halogenated products were found at much lower concentrations.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Bean, R. M. & Riley, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

Description: This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These mitochondrial abnormalities in the unstable ...
Date: September 11, 2013
Creator: Baulch, Janet
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental in Biology

Description: Research supported by OHER and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.
Date: January 20, 1983
Creator: Setlow, Richard B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health and Environmental Science: A Brief Review

Description: The detonation of the first atomic bomb heralded the beginning of a new age. Almost everyone agreed that the enormous energy released by the "atomic reaction" would create opportunities and problems far larger than man faced in previous history. However, few foresaw the explosion of knowledge that would also be part of this new age.
Date: September 27, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

Description: Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.
Date: May 21, 2009
Creator: Wahl, Linnea
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Depuration of Bromoform in Five Marine Species

Description: Bromoform has been identified as the single most abundant halogenated organic compound produced by the chlorination of marine waters. To determine the potential biological effects of its release into marine waters, short-term toxicity bioassays and 28-day uptake/28-day depuration studies were conducted with five marine species: Protothaca staminea, Mercenaria mercenaria, Crassostrea virginica, Penaeus aztecus, and Brevoortia tyrannus. The bioassay studies indicate that 96-hr LC50s ranged from approximately 7 ppm for B. tyrannus to greater than 40 ppm for P. staminea. Behavioral changes were noted in P. aztecus and B. tyrannus exposed to sublethal concentrations of bromoform. In all species tested, the uptake and depuration of bromoform was rapid. Bromoform was present in all exposed animal tissues within 24 hours and was depurated within 48 hours. In the mollusk species, there was bioaccumulation above water concentrations in the first week of exposure, and then the tissue concentrations fell to levels approximately equal to the water concentrations. The shrimp and menhaden also bioaccumulated bromoform above water concentrations in the first week of exposure, but then the tissue concentrations fell to approximately 0.4 {micro}g/g and remained at this level independent of water concentrations.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Gibson, C. I.; Tone, F. C.; Wilkinson, P.; Blaylock, J. W. & Schirmer, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department