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A New Standard for Multidisciplinary Health and Safety Technicians

Description: The purpose of this standard (ANSI 13.62)--''Training and Qualification of Health and Safety Technicians''--is to provide a means for the development of technicians with necessary skills in industrial hygiene, industrial safety, radiological safety, fire protection, and other health and safety areas specific to a given work site and its hazards. These individuals should be qualified to handle their roles and responsibilities competently in a variety of safety areas. The standard presented here is intended for individuals who develop, revise, implement, manage, or provide oversight of training for health and safety technicians. The standard is not intended to address the training or qualification of safety professionals (i.e., industrial hygienists and health physicists).
Date: January 18, 2000
Creator: Trinoskey, P.A.; Fry, L. & Egbert, W.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Estimation of environmental noise impacts within architectural spaces.

Description: Public Law 91-596, ''Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,'' Dec. 29, 1970, stimulated interest in modeling the impacts of interior noise on employees, as well as the intelligibility of interior public-address and other speech intra-communication systems. The classical literature on this topic has primarily featured a statistical uniform diffuse-field model. This was pioneered by Leo L. Beranek in the 1950s, based on energy-density formulations at the former Bell Telephone (AT and T) Laboratories in the years from 1930 to 1950. This paper compares the classical prediction approach to the most recent statistical methods. Such models were developed in the late 1970s and included innovations such as consideration of irregularly shaped (e.g., L-shaped) interior room spaces and coupled spaces.
Date: May 3, 2002
Creator: Chang, Y. S.; Liebich, R. E. & Chun, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cryogenic Barrier Demonstration Project. Final report

Description: A long-term frozen soil barrier was implemented at the HRE (Homogeneous Reactor Experiment) Pond facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1997. This was performed to verify the technical feasibility and costs of deploying a frozen barrier at a radiologically contaminated site. Work began in September 1996 and progressed through to December 1999. The frozen barrier has been operational since November 1997. Verification of the barrier integrity was performed independently by the EPA's SITE Program. This project showed frozen barriers offer a proven technology to retain below grade hazardous substances at relatively low costs with minimal effect on the environment.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Johnson, L.A.; Yarmak, E. & Long, E.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

Description: Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.
Date: March 31, 2000
Creator: Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E. & Chun, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of computer program ENAUDIBL for computation of the sensation levels of multiple, complex, intrusive sounds in the presence of residual environmental masking noise

Description: The relative audibility of multiple sounds occurs in separate, independent channels (frequency bands) termed critical bands or equivalent rectangular (filter-response) bandwidths (ERBs) of frequency. The true nature of human hearing is a function of a complex combination of subjective factors, both auditory and nonauditory. Assessment of the probability of individual annoyance, community-complaint reaction levels, speech intelligibility, and the most cost-effective mitigation actions requires sensation-level data; these data are one of the most important auditory factors. However, sensation levels cannot be calculated by using single-number, A-weighted sound level values. This paper describes specific steps to compute sensation levels. A unique, newly developed procedure is used, which simplifies and improves the accuracy of such computations by the use of maximum sensation levels that occur, for each intrusive-sound spectrum, within each ERB. The newly developed program ENAUDIBL makes use of ERB sensation-level values generated with some computational subroutines developed for the formerly documented program SPECTRAN.
Date: March 31, 2000
Creator: Liebich, R. E.; Chang, Y.-S. & Chun, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Linking Molecular Events to Cellular Responses at Low Dose Exposures

Description: The studies proposed in this project are to define thresholds in cell signaling pathways that are required for cellular transformation and may be targeted by low-dose radiation. Defining thresholds in transformation-related signal transduction pathways that are sensitive to low-dose radiation would be an important advancement in risk assessment and could be used to demonstrate nonlinear relationships between low-dose radiation and cancer.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Weber, Thomas J.; Colburn, Nancy H. & Bowman, Michael K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DETERMINING SIGNIFICANT ENDPOINTS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ANALYS ES

Description: Our interest is in obtaining a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks to populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, and radiation with concomitant exposure to chemicals. To do so, we believe that we must understand the extent to which molecular damage is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization. Ecological risk analyses based on molecular damage, without an understanding of the impacts to higher levels of biological organization, could cause cleanup strategies on DOE sites to be overly conservative and unnecessarily expensive. Our goal is to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and populations. We think that we can achieve this by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments, and by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables (such as age-specific survivorship, reproductive output, age at maturity and longevity).
Date: December 31, 2000
Creator: Hinton, Thomas G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining Significant Endpoints for Ecological risk Analyses

Description: Our interest is in obtaining a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks to populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, and radiation with concomitant exposure to chemicals. To do so, we believe that we must understand the extent to which molecular damage is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization. Ecological risk analyses based on molecular damage, without an understanding of the impacts to higher levels of biological organization, could cause cleanup strategies on DOE sites to be overly conservative and unnecessarily expensive. Our goal is to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and populations. We think that we can achieve this by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments, and by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables such as age-specific survivorship, reproductive output, age at maturity and longevity.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Hinton, Thimas G. & Bedford, Joel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Implementation of ANSI 13.36 - Radiation Safety Training for Workers

Description: ''Radiation Safety Training for Workers'' (ANSI 13.36) specifies a process for developing and implementing radiation safety training using performance-based concepts. In general, radiation safety training includes radiological safety policies, fundamental radiological controls, and the technical functions of specific facilities. Actual training, however, can vary significantly from one site to another, depending on the requirements and potential risks associated with the specific work involved. Performance-based training focuses on the instruction and practices required to develop job-related knowledge, skills, and abilities, rather than on simply prescribing training content and objectives. The Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) working group recommended performance-based training, as opposed to a broad training program with prescribed performance objectives, for two main reasons: (1) the wide range of radiological workers to be trained and (2) the concern that a prescriptive program (i.e., 40 hours of training) could be misapplied. In addition, the working group preferred that the scope and depth of training be based on specific hazards and the magnitude of risk posed by those hazards. The group also proposed that passing scores be based on specified goals and the characteristics of test questions used. For instance, where passing scores are established (e.g., multiple-choice exams), they should be based on an analysis of the test questions rather than simply an arbitrary passing score. This standard is not intended to replace regulatory or contractual training requirements that establish minimum objectives, topics, class duration, or passing scores. Nor does it address radiation safety training received as part of an academic program of study. Such individuals would still require site-specific and on-the-job training for certain tasks.
Date: November 18, 2000
Creator: Trinosky, P.A. & Wells, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptive Response Against Spontaneous Neoplastic Transformation In Vitro Induced by Ionizing Radiation

Description: response curve for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells in vitro under experimental conditions where an adaptive response, if it were induced, would have an opportunity to be expressed. During the first two years of the grant an exhaustive series of experiments were performed and the resulting data were reported at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society and then subsequently published (Redpath et al., 2001). The data showed that an adaptive response against spontaneous neoplastic transformation was seen up to doses of 10cGy of Cs-137 gamma rays. At dose of 30, 50 and 100 cGy the transformation frequencies were above background. This indicated that for this system, under the specific experimental conditions used, there was a threshold of somewhere between 10 and 30 cGy. The results also indicated some unexpected, though very interesting, correlations with relative risk estimates made from human epidemiologic studies (for details see the Redpath et al., 2001 ).
Date: June 1, 2002
Creator: Redpath, J. Leslie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sterility Produced in Mice by Deuterium Oxide

Description: Sterility in C{sub 57} and Swiss mice has been produced by substituting D{sub 2}O for a part of the drinking water. The effective range lies between 5% and 30% D{sub 2}O. It appears that the effect is greater in C{sub 57} males than females and that the size and viability of the litter is affected.
Date: December 6, 1957
Creator: Hughes, Ann M. & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of D20 on Survival of Mice with Ascites Tumor

Description: The effect of deuterium oxide (D{sub 2}O) on the survival of mice inoculated with Ehrlich's mouse ascites tumor has been studied. Mice maintained on 25% and 30% D{sub 2}O drinking water showed an improved survival time of about 6 days whereas 40% D{sub 2}O drinking water had no effect on survival time. The effect is interpreted in terms of inhibition of tumor cell division and systemic toxicity.
Date: July 1, 1957
Creator: Hughes, Ann M.; Tolbert, Bert M.; Lonberg-Holm, Karl & Calvin,Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FRAMES User Defined Body Burden Concentration File Module Documentation

Description: The Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) Body Burden Concentration File (BBF) contains time-varying, instantaneous, constituent concentrations for body burden by contaminant. This report contains the requirements for this file and will be used by software engineers and testers to ensure that the file inputs properly.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: Pelton, Mitchell A.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Eslinger, Melany A. & Gelston, Gariann M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment for the Operation of the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Volume 1: Report of Results

Description: Human health and ecological risk assessments are required as part of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act (RCRA) permit renewal process for waste treatment units. This risk assessment is prepared in support of the RCRA permit renewal for the Explosives Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The human health risk assessment is based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved emissions factors and on California Environmental Protection Agency, Air Resources Board and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessment and air dispersion models. The risk assessment identifies receptors of concern and evaluates carcinogenic risk, and acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard. The carcinogenic risk to a 30-year resident at the maximum offsite receptor location is 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. The carcinogenic risk to a 25-year worker at the maximum bystander on-site receptor location is also 0.0000006 or 0.6 in one million. Any risk of less than 1 in a million is below the level of regulatory concern. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 30-year resident is 0.02 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.01. The acute noncarcinogenic hazard for the 25-year worker is 0.3 and the chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 0.2. The point of comparison for acute and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard is 1.0, an estimate less than 1.0 is below the level of regulatory concern. The estimates of health effects are based on health conservative assumptions and represent an upper bound of the possible exposures to the receptors. For the ecological risk assessment, four receptor species were evaluated for potential detrimental effects; none were found to be adversely affected because for each species the predicted ecological hazard quotients are always less than one. Based on these results, emissions from the operations of the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility should not be considered to be of concern ...
Date: November 7, 2005
Creator: Gallegos, G M; Daniels, J I & Wegrecki, A M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department