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A high-speed, low-noise CMOS 16-channel charge-sensitivepreamplifier ASIC for APD-based PET detectors

Description: A high-speed, low-noise 16-channel amplifier IC has beenfabricated in the HP 0.5 mm CMOS process. It is a prototype for use witha PET detector which uses a 4x4 avalanche photodiode (APD) array having 3pF of capacitance and 75 nA of leakage current per pixel. Thepreamplifier must have a fast rise time (a few ns) in order to generatean accurate timing signal, low noise in order to accurately measure theenergy of the incident gamma radiation, and high density in order to readout 2-D arrays of small (2 mm) pixels. A single channel consists of acharge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a pad-driving buffer. Thepreamplifier is reset by an NMOS transistor in the triode region which iscontrolled by an externally supplied current. The IC has 16 differentgain settings which range from 2.085 mV/fC to 10.695 mV/fC. The gain isdetermined by four switched capacitors in the feedback loop. The switchstate is set by two digital input lines which control a 64-bit shiftregister on the IC. A preamplifier 10-90 percent rise time as low as 2.7ns with no external input load and 3.6 ns with a load of 5.8 pF wasachieved. For the maximum gain setting and 5.8 pF of input load, theamplifier had 400 electrons of RMS noise at a peaking time of 0.7 us. TheIC is powered by a +3.3 V supply drawing 60 mA.
Date: December 2, 2002
Creator: Weng, M.; Mandelli, E.; Moses, W.W. & Derenzo, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advantages of improved timing accuracy in PET cameras using LSOscintillator

Description: PET scanners based on LSO have the potential forsignificantly better coincidence timing resolution than the 6 ns fwhmtypically achieved with BGO. This study analyzes the performanceenhancements made possible by improved timing as a function of thecoincidence time resolution. If 500 ps fwhm coincidence timing resolutioncan be achieved in a complete PET camera, the following four benefits canbe realized for whole-body FDG imaging: 1) The random event rate can bereduced by using a narrower coincidence timing window, increasing thepeak NECR by~;50 percent. 2) Using time-of-flight in the reconstructionalgorithm will reduce the noise variance by a factor of 5. 3) Emissionand transmission data can be acquired simultaneously, reducing the totalscan time. 4) Axial blurring can be reduced by using time-of-flight todetermine the correct axial plane that each event originated from. Whiletime-of-flight was extensively studied in the 1980's, practical factorslimited its effectiveness at that time and little attention has been paidto timing in PET since then. As these potential improvements aresubstantial and the advent of LSO PET cameras gives us the means toobtain them without other sacrifices, efforts to improve PET timingshould resume after their long dormancy.
Date: December 2, 2002
Creator: Moses, William W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HEAVY-ION IMAGING APPLIED TO MEDICINE

Description: Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Benton, E.V. & Holley, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aerodynamic characteristics of several modifications of a 0.45-scale model of the vertical tail of the Curtiss XP-62 airplane

Description: From Introduction: "In the course of an investigation to find a satisfactory vertical tail for the XP-62 airplane, a 0.45-scale vertical tail model on a stub fuselage was tested in the Langley 7- by 10-foot tunnel. This model was fitted with a flat plate to represent the horizontal tail surface. The data are presented herein for their general interest value rather than their application to this particular airplane."
Date: July 1946
Creator: Lowry, John G.; Turner, Thomas R. & Liddell, Robert B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-CFD Timing Estimators for PET Block Detectors

Description: In a conventional PET system with block detectors, a timing estimator is created by generating the analog sum of the signals from the four photomultiplier tubes (PMT) in a module and discriminating the sum with a single constant fraction discriminator (CFD). The differences in the propagation time between the PMTs in the module can potentially degrade the timing resolution of the module. While this degradation is probably too small to affect performance in conventional PET imaging, it may impact the timing inaccuracy for time-of-flight PET systems (which have higher timing resolution requirements). Using a separate CFD for each PMT would allow for propagation time differences to be removed through calibration and correction in software. In this paper we investigate and quantify the timing resolution achievable when the signal from each of the 4 PMTs is digitized by a separate CFD. Several methods are explored for both obtaining values for the propagation time differences between the PMTs and combining the four arrival times to form a single timing estimator. We find that the propagation time correction factors are best derived through an exhaustive search, and that the ''weighted average'' method provides the best timing estimator. Using these methods, the timing resolution achieved with 4 CFDs (1052 {+-} 82 ps) is equivalent to the timing resolution with the conventional single CFD setup (1067 {+-} 158 ps).
Date: May 5, 2006
Creator: Ullisch, Marcus G. & Moses, William W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

Description: A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)
Date: June 23, 2004
Creator: Siciliano, Edward R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Tests of the 1/9-Scale Model of the Curtiss XP-62 Airplane with Various Vertical Tail Arrangements

Description: The effect of various vertical tail arrangements upon the stability and control characteristics of an XP-62 fighter model was investigated. Rudder-free yaw characteristics with take-off power and flaps deflected were satisfactory after dorsal fin modifications. Directional stability was obtained with all modified vertical tails. Satisfactory rudder effectiveness resulted partly because the dual-rotation propellers produced no asymmetric yawing moments. Pedal forces in sideslips were undesirably large but may be easily reduced.
Date: July 1943
Creator: Recant, I. G. & Wallace, Arthur R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OBJECT RECONSTRUCTION PROBLEMS IN RADIATION IMAGING WITH LIMITED ANGULAR INPUT

Description: Object reconstruction from limited-angle radiation imaging situations which may be encountered in computerized tomography, nuclear medicine, or electron microscopy poses computational and stability problems. We show that by using various kinds of iteration methods, one obtains an initial rapid convergence to the original object, but the final convergence is slow due to the ill-conditioned character of the eigenvalue distribution. We also show that entropy maximization methods, which have been employed in various kinds of image processing, are not expected to produce significant results in this limited-angle imaging.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Tarn, K.C. & Perez-Mendez, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Timing Calibration in PET Using a Time Alignment Probe

Description: We evaluate the Scanwell Time Alignment Probe for performing the timing calibration for the LBNL Prostate-Specific PET Camera. We calibrate the time delay correction factors for each detector module in the camera using two methods--using the Time Alignment Probe (which measures the time difference between the probe and each detector module) and using the conventional method (which measures the timing difference between all module-module combinations in the camera). These correction factors, which are quantized in 2 ns steps, are compared on a module-by-module basis. The values are in excellent agreement--of the 80 correction factors, 62 agree exactly, 17 differ by 1 step, and 1 differs by 2 steps. We also measure on-time and off-time counting rates when the two sets of calibration factors are loaded into the camera and find that they agree within statistical error. We conclude that the performance using the Time Alignment Probe and conventional methods are equivalent.
Date: May 5, 2006
Creator: Moses, William W. & Thompson, Christopher J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noise propagation in iterative reconstruction algorithms with line searches

Description: In this paper we analyze the propagation of noise in iterative image reconstruction algorithms. We derive theoretical expressions for the general form of preconditioned gradient algorithms with line searches. The results are applicable to a wide range of iterative reconstruction problems, such as emission tomography, transmission tomography, and image restoration. A unique contribution of this paper comparing to our previous work [1] is that the line search is explicitly modeled and we do not use the approximation that the gradient of the objective function is zero. As a result, the error in the estimate of noise at early iterations is significantly reduced.
Date: November 15, 2003
Creator: Qi, Jinyi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Peptide Based Radiopharmaceuticals: Specific Construct Approach

Description: The objective of this project was to develop receptor based peptides for diagnostic imaging and therapy. A series of peptides related to cell adhesion molecules (CAM) and immune regulation were designed for radiolabeling with <sup>99m</sup>Tc and evaluated in animal models as potential diagnostic imaging agents for various disease conditions such as thrombus (clot), acute kidney failure, and inflection/inflammation imaging. The peptides for this project were designed by the industrial partner, Palatin Technologies, (formerly Rhomed, Inc.) using various peptide design approaches including a newly developed rational computer assisted drug design (CADD) approach termed MIDAS (Metal ion Induced Distinctive Array of Structures). In this approach, the biological function domain and the <sup>99m</sup>Tc complexing domain are fused together so that structurally these domains are indistinguishable. This approach allows construction of conformationally rigid metallo-peptide molecules (similar to cyclic peptides) that are metabolically stable in-vivo. All the newly designed peptides were screened in various in vitro receptor binding and functional assays to identify a lead compound. The lead compounds were formulated in a one-step <sup>99m</sup>Tc labeling kit form which were studied by BNL for detailed in-vivo imaging using various animals models of human disease. Two main peptides usingMIDAS approach evolved and were investigated: RGD peptide for acute renal failure and an immunomodulatory peptide derived from tuftsin (RMT-1) for infection/inflammation imaging. Various RGD based metallopeptides were designed, synthesized and assayed for their efficacy in inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation. Most of these peptides displayed biological activity in the 1-100 ┬ÁM range. Based on previous work by others, RGD-I and RGD-II were evaluated in animal models of acute renal failure. These earlier studies showed that after acute ischemic injury the renal cortex displays RGD receptor with higher density. The results have indicated good diagnostic potential for their use in this clinical situation, as an imaging agent to ...
Date: October 21, 1997
Creator: Som, P; Rhodes, B A & Sharma, S S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

Description: Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy.
Date: March 22, 2000
Creator: Green, Mark A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

List mode reconstruction for PET with motion compensation: A simulation study

Description: Motion artifacts can be a significant factor that limits the image quality in high-resolution PET. Surveillance systems have been developed to track the movements of the subject during a scan. Development of reconstruction algorithms that are able to compensate for the subject motion will increase the potential of PET. In this paper we present a list mode likelihood reconstruction algorithm with the ability of motion compensation. The subject moti is explicitly modeled in the likelihood function. The detections of each detector pair are modeled as a Poisson process with time vary ingrate function. The proposed method has several advantages over the existing methods. It uses all detected events and does not introduce any interpolation error. Computer simulations show that the proposed method can compensate simulated subject movements and that the reconstructed images have no visible motion artifacts.
Date: July 3, 2002
Creator: Qi, Jinyi & Huesman, Ronald H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Molecular Engineering of Technetium and Rhenium Based Radiopharmaceuticals

Description: The research was based on the observation that despite the extraordinarily rich coordination chemistry of technetium and rhenium and several notable successes in reagent design, the extensive investigations by numerous research groups on a variety of N{sub 2}S{sub 2} and N{sub 3}S donor type ligands and on HYNIC have revealed that the chemistries of these ligands with Tc and Re are rather complex, giving rise to considerable difficulties in the development of reliable procedures for the development of radiopharmaceutical reagents.
Date: June 30, 2003
Creator: Zubieta, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department