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Compilation of elemental concentration data for the United States geological survey's six geochemical exploration reference materials

Description: Elemental composition data on USGS GXR1 ..-->.. GXR6 have been collected and summarized from 13 journal papers and reports. Data from one report concerning the influence of rock dissolution method on subsequent atomic absorption analysis are summarized for aluminium, silver, calcium, iron, and manganese.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Gladney, E.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acquisition and preparation of specimens of rock for large-scale testing

Description: The techniques used for acquisition and preparation of large specimens of rock for laboratory testing depend upon the location of the specimen, the type of rock and the equipment available at the sampling site. Examples are presented to illustrate sampling and preparation techniques used for two large cylindrical samples of granitic material, one pervasively fractured and one containing a single fracture.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Watkins, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SEM analysis of rock varnish chemistry: A geomorphic age discriminator

Description: Rock varnish, a manganese- and iron-rich coating commonly found on rock surfaces in arid and semiarid regions, has long been of interest as a potential age indicator. Rock varnish has been shown to be an effective medium for dating of geomorphic surfaces over a time range of several thousand to over a million years, utilizing a ratio among minor cations ((K + Ca)/Ti) for the total volume of rock varnish. We have recently, developed a technique using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer (EDAX) to analyze the chemistry of rock varnish. This technique has several advantages over the earlier cation ratio technique.
Date: July 1, 1989
Creator: Harrington, C.D. & Raymond, R. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Extension of the EQ3/6 computer codes to geochemical modeling of brines

Description: Recent modifications to the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling software package provide for the use of Pitzer's equations to calculate the activity coefficients of aqueous species and the activity of water. These changes extend the range of solute concentrations over which the codes can be used to dependably calculate equilibria in geochemical systems, and permit the inclusion of ion pairs, complexes, and undissociated acids and bases as explicit component species in the Pitzer model. Comparisons of calculations made by the EQ3NR and EQ6 compuer codes with experimental data confirm that the modifications not only allow the codes to accurately evaluate activity coefficients in concentrated solutions, but also permit prediction of solubility limits of evaporite minerals in brines at 25/sup 0/C and elevated temperatures. Calculations for a few salts can be made at temperatures up to approx. 300/sup 0/C, but the temperature range for most electrolytes is constrained by the availability of requisite data to values less than or equal to 100/sup 0/C. The implementation of Pitzer's equations in EQ3/6 allows application of these codes to problems involving calculation of geochemical equilibria in brines; such as evaluation of the chemical environment which might be anticipated for nuclear waste canisters located in a salt repository. 26 references, 3 figures, 1 table.
Date: October 23, 1984
Creator: Jackson, K.J. & Wolery, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of NURE regional geochemical data in geologic mapping

Description: The objective of this paper is to point out the copious regional geochemical data available through the U.S. DOE National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program and to demonstrate the potential of such data as a tool for geologic mapping in the southeastern piedmont. The data presented cover the Charlotte NTMS quadrangle. 6 figures.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Price, V. Jr. & Ferguson, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Organic geochemistry of continental margin sediments

Description: Well cuttings from two offshore Gulf Coast stratigraphic test wells (South Padre and Mustang Island) have been analyzed for C/sub 7/-C/sub 15/ hydrocarbon distributions by thermal distillation-pyrolysis GC, for C/sub 1/-C/sub 7/ hydrocarbons by headspace analysis and for C/sub 15//sup +/ hydrocarbons by extraction. The results from the South Padre well show that the threshold of intensive hydrocarbon generation starts around 10,000 feet and peaks around 14,000 feet. The distribution of individual homologs within each hydrocarbon group indicates that the more volatile members are migrating upward from the generation zone. Thus, n-pentane (C/sub 5/) peaks at 10,000 feet, and the higher homologs, C/sub 5/, C/sub 6/, C/sub 7/, C/sub 8/ and C/sub 10/ peak at successively greater depths to 15,000 feet. Benzene also peaks before toluene which peaks before the xylenes. This phenomena was not observed in the Mustang Island well where organic carbon contents and hydrocarbon yields were lower, apparently too low to induce migration. C/sub 1/-C/sub 7/ hydrocarbon distributions also were studied by the headspace technique in offshore samples from the East Coast, Gulf of California and Gulf of Maine. Hydrocarbon yields from wells east of Cape Hatteras and on the Blake-Bahama Plateau were much lower than in most other areas analyzed to date. Some Gulf of California samples had high gas yields due to hydrothermal intrusions and igneous dikes raising sediment temperatures. Gulf of Maine samples were unique in having no aromatic hydrocarbons.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hunt, J.M.; Whelan, J.K.; Huc, A.Y. & Pratt, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Filter-separable constituents of groundwater from the Columbia River plateau

Description: The purpose of this procedure is to prepare groundwaters from the Columbia River basalt, northeastern Oregon, for batch partitioning experiments by concentration dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in water samples by ultrafiltration. Water samples were double-filtered through 0.4-..mu..m Nuclepore polycarbonate filters to remove particulates before beginning the ultrafiltration process. The results of these experiments do not indicate a consistent relation between the distribution of americium with coexisting basalt and groundwater and the DOC content of the groundwater at 25/sup 0/C, but there is some indication of increasing sorption of americium on basalt with increasing DOC at 90/sup 0/C. However, any simple interpretation of the effects of DOC on the sorption behavior of americium must be made with caution, as there are other variables in the chemistry of the groundwaters that may also have important controls on this process. Another important observation from this set of experiments is that ultrafiltration does not seem to be an effective means of concentrating DOC without affecting the other trace constituents of groundwaters. The observed fractionation of groundwater chemistry as a result of the ultrafiltration procedure is not yet understood. However, for further progress in experiments of this type, it may be necessary to develop an alternative means of concentrating organic compounds that would allow the maintenance of constant values of other trace constituents as an experimental control.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Seitz, M.G. & Boggs, S. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geochemical analyses, age dates, and flow-volume estimates for quaternary volcanic rocks, Southern Cascade Mountains, Washington

Description: Data collected over the last three years as part of a continuing study of the Quaternary volcanic rocks of the southern Cascade Mountains are presented. Whole-rock chemical analyses, selected trace element geochemistry, volume approximations, specific gravity determinations, and locations are provided for most of the 103 samples collected, and 21 radiometric age dates are included. In addition, partial information, including names and flow-volumes, are presented for 98 additional samples, collected for related studies. The study extends from the Columbia River north to the Cowlitz River and Goat Rocks Wilderness area, and from the Klickitat River west to the Puget-Willamette Trough. The volcanic rocks are all younger than 3 million years and consist primarily of tholeiitic and high-alumina basalts and basaltic-andesites erupted from numerous shield volcanoes and cinder cones. A few analyses of more silicic rocks, including hornblende and/or pyroxene andesites and dacites characteristic of the stratovolcanoes of the region, are also presented. However, systematic sampling of the stratovolcanoes in the study area, Mount Adams and Mount St. Helens, was not conducted. A map of the areal extent of Quaternary volcanic units and sample locations is included. It has been based on the 1:125,000 reconnaissance geologic map of the southern Cascade Range by Hammond (1980).
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Hammond, P.E. & Korosec, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

Description: A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Rose, A. W.; Smith, A. T. & Wesolowski, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Geochemical Program Plan

Description: Describe the management program for coordinating subcontractors and their work, and integrating research results. Appropriate flowcharts should be included. Provide more information on the overall scope of the program. For each subcontractor, provide specific workscopes that indicate whether analytical activities are developmental or routine, approximate number of analyses to be made, and something of the adequacy of the analyses to meet program goals. Indicate interfaces with other earth-science disciplines like hydrology and with other groups doing relevant geochemical research and engineering design. Address the priorities for each activity or group of activities. High priority should be given to early development of a geochemical statement of what constitutes suitable salt for a repository. Reference standard procedures for sampling, sample preservation, and sample analysis wherever appropriate or, if not appropriate, indicate that any deviations from standard procedures will be documented. Ensure that appropriate quality assurance procedures will be followed for the procedures listed above. Include specific procedures for the choice, verification, validation, and documentation of computer codes related to the geochemical aspects of repository performance assessment. Include activities addressing regional hydrochemistry and make clear that each principal hydrogeologic unit at each site will be studied geochemically. Indicate that proposed plans for obtaining hydrogeochemical data will be included in each site characterization plan. Describe how site geochemical stability will be handled, especially with respect to dissolution, postemplacement geochemistry, human influences, and climatic variations. Minor recommendations and suggested improvements in the text of the plan are given in Sec. 5.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Harrison, W.; Seitz, M.; Fenster, D.; Lerman, A.; Brookins, D. & Tisue, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine

Description: To investigate the movement of brine along grain boundaries in polycrystalline salt, measurements have been made of the radial flow of brine through the interface between cylindrical salt crystals under axial stresses to 140 bar and temperatures to 80/sup 0/C. For constant conditions, the total flow of brine showed a linear dependence on the logarithm of time, and the reciprocal permeability increased linearly with time. Loss of salt from the interface by pressure solution effects was more than enough to account for the decrease in the apparent thickness of the interface (i.e., that which may be estimated for an interface of the same permeability formed by plane parallel surfaces). This apparent thickness, initially as large as 10 ..mu..m, decreased to as little as 0.2 ..mu..m with exposure to stress and flowing brine. It decreased quickly with sudden increases in axial stress and usually increased, though not reversibly, with decreases in stress. The rate of increase in the reciprocal permeability with time was roughly proportional to the stress and to the square of the hydraulic pressure drop. Assuming similar apparent thicknesses for the grain boundaries in polycrystalline salt, permeabilities are predicted that are quite consistent with the low values reported for stressed core specimens.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Gilpatrick, L.O.; Baes, C.F., Jr.; Shor, A.J. & Canonico, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geological and geochemical aspects of uranium deposits: a selected, annotated bibliography. [474 references]

Description: This bibliography, a compilation of 474 references, is the fourth in a series compiled from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Bibliographic Data Base. This data base was created for the Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Project by the Ecological Sciences Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The references in the bibliography are arranged by subject category: (1) geochemistry, (2) exploration, (3) mineralogy, (4) genesis of deposits, (5) geology of deposits, (6) uranium industry, (7) geology of potential uranium-bearing areas, and (8) reserves and resources. The references are indexed by author, geographic location, quadrangle name, geoformational feature, and keyword.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Thomas, J.M.; Garland, P.A.; White, M.B. & Daniel, E.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results from exploratory drill hole UE2ce, Northwest Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, near the NASH Event

Description: Exploratory drill hole UE2ce was drilled in January 1977 to determine geologic and geophysical characteristics of this site. This report presents geophysical logs, lithology, geologic structure, water table measurements, and physical properties for this drill hole. The data are then extrapolated to the NASH site, an event in U2ce, 55.6 m due north of UE2ce.
Date: March 3, 1982
Creator: Pawloski, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical modeling of irreversible reactions in nuclear waste-water-rock systems

Description: Chemical models of aqueous geochemical systems are usually built on the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium. Though many elementary reactions in a geochemical system may be close to equilibrium, others may not be. Chemical models of aqueous fluids should take into account that many aqueous redox reactions are among the latter. The behavior of redox reactions may critically affect migration of certain radionuclides, especially the actinides. In addition, the progress of reaction in geochemical systems requires thermodynamic driving forces associated with elementary reactions not at equilibrium, which are termed irreversible reactions. Both static chemical models of fluids and dynamic models of reacting systems have been applied to a wide spectrum of problems in water-rock interactions. Potential applications in nuclear waste disposal range from problems in geochemical aspects of site evaluation to those of waste-water-rock interactions. However, much further work in the laboratory and the field will be required to develop and verify such applications of chemical modeling.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Wolery, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geotoxic materials in the surface environment

Description: The toxicology and natural occurrence of several recognized geotoxic elements including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, selenium, uranium, and vanadium is reviewed. The behavior of these elements in the environment and in biological systems is examined. The properties of these eight toxic elements are summarized and presented in a toxicity matrix. The toxicity matrix identifies each of the elements in terms of average crustal abundance, average soil concentration, drinking water standards, irrigation water standards, daily human intake, aquatic toxicity, phytotoxicity, mammalian toxicity, human toxicity, and bioaccumulation factors for fish. Fish are the major aquatic environment contribution to the human diet and bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems has been demonstrated to be an important factor in the cycling of elements in aquatic ecosystems. The toxicity matrix is used as a first approximation to rank the geotoxicity of elements for the purpose of focusing future efforts. The ranking from highest to lowest toxicity with respect to the toxicity parameters being discussed is as follows: arsenic, cadmium, lead, selenium, chromium, vanadium, nickel, and uranium.
Date: December 7, 1981
Creator: Koranda, J.J.; Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F. & Ciminesi, F.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radionuclide mobility in the shallow portion of an active high-temperature geothermal system

Description: Accurate knowledge of the behavior of radionuclides in natural rock-water systems is crucial for the prediction of the consequences of failure of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Work in progress at Argonne National Laboratory involves the detailed geochemical analysis of rock, mineral, and water samples from shallow drill holes in a thermal area of Yellowstone National Park. This study is designed to provide data that will increase our understanding of the behavior of a group of radionuclides in an environment similar to that of the near field of a high-level nuclear waste repository.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Sturchio, N.C. & Seitz, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of the WATEQ4 geochemical model for uranium

Description: As part of the Geochemical Modeling and Nuclide/Rock/Groundwater Interactions Studies Program, a study was conducted to partially validate the WATEQ4 aqueous speciation-solubility geochemical model for uranium. The solubility controls determined with the WATEQ4 geochemical model were in excellent agreement with those laboratory studies in which the solids schoepite (UO/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/ . H/sub 2/O), UO/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/, and rutherfordine ((UO/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) were identified as actual solubility controls for uranium. The results of modeling solution analyses from laboratory studies of uranyl phosphate solids, however, identified possible errors in the characterization of solids in the original solubility experiments. As part of this study, significant deficiencies in the WATEQ4 thermodynamic data base for uranium solutes and solids were corrected. Revisions included recalculation of selected uranium reactions. Additionally, thermodynamic data for the hydroxyl complexes of U(VI), including anionic (VI) species, were evaluated (to the extent permitted by the available data). Vanadium reactions were also added to the thermodynamic data base because uranium-vanadium solids can exist in natural ground-water systems. This study is only a partial validation of the WATEQ4 geochemical model because the available laboratory solubility studies do not cover the range of solid phases, alkaline pH values, and concentrations of inorganic complexing ligands needed to evaluate the potential solubility of uranium in ground waters associated with various proposed nuclear waste repositories. Further validation of this or other geochemical models for uranium will require careful determinations of uraninite solubility over the pH range of 7 to 10 under highly reducing conditions and of uranyl hydroxide and phosphate solubilities over the pH range of 7 to 10 under oxygenated conditions.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A. & Deutsch, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MININR: a geochemical computer program for inclusion in water flow models - an application study

Description: MININR is a reduced form of the computer program MINTEQ which calculates equilibrium precipitation/dissolution of solid phases, aqueous speciation, adsorption, and gas phase equilibrium. The user-oriented features in MINTEQ were removed to reduce the size and increase the computational speed. MININR closely resembles the MINEQL computer program developed by Westall (1976). The main differences between MININR and MINEQL involve modifications to accept an initial starting mass of solid and necessary changes for linking with a water flow model. MININR in combination with a simple water flow model which considers only dilution was applied to a laboratory column packed with retorted oil shale and percolated with distilled water. Experimental and preliminary model simulation results are presented for the constituents K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ and pH.
Date: February 1, 1984
Creator: Felmy, A.R.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Zachara, J.M. & Gee, G.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

Description: The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J. & Fossum, A.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural repository analogue program. Progress report, January 1-March 30, 1982

Description: Lead and uranium isotopic abundances in rocks from the Oklo mine show large deficiencies of radiogenic lead in the mineralized regions and enormous excesses of this element outside the uraniferous zones. A fracture lined with secondary minerals and its host rock from distances as far as approx. 13 meters away contain lead that was deposited contemporaneously. The isotopic composition of lead in these samples varies systematically as a function of distance from the fracture. This regularity may reflect the nature of the processes that transported lead from the ores and deposited it in the surrounding rocks.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Curtis, D.B. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information for Department of Energy candidate high-level waste repositories

Description: The experimental work to date has investigated the behavior of technetium, neptunium, and uranium since these may be among the more important key radionuclides. Batch contact methodology under experimental conditions representative of the repository far field are being conducted in order to determine the sorption isotherm and apparent concentration limit. Some column chromatographic experiments are being carried out to explore sorption/desorption disequilibrium and the effects of multiple species or forms of radionuclides.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Kelmers, A.D.; Seeley, F.G.; Arnold, W.D.; Meyer, R.E.; Smith, F.J.; Jacobs, G.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department