314 Matching Results

Search Results

Advanced search parameters have been applied.

Continental scientific drilling program. [Los Alamos, New Mexico, July 17-21, 1978]

Description: The dynamics, structure, evolution, and genesis of the continents offer a major scientific challenge. At the same time, society faces many problems that require information about the continental crust for solution. A workshop on continental drilling for scientific purposes addressed the questions of how to maximize the scientific value of current and planned efforts of federal agencies and industry and how to supplement these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purpoes. Four panels addressed the scientific and associated societal problems relating to basement structures and deep continental basins, thermal regimes, mineral resources, and earthuqakes. These panels identified the main problems in each area that could be solved by information obtained from drill holes. A fifth panel considered needs for technological developments. The importance of a communications and coordinating mechanism to maximize the scientific results was noted. To this end, a Continental Scientific Drilling Program is outlined, including two advisory and guiding committees, one concerned with scientific objectives, the other with operations. (RWR)
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continental scientific drilling program data base: 1982

Description: The Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) data base maintained at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is funded by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy. It is a central repository of information concerning approximately 1800 government funded and scientifically interesting drill holes in the United States. This data base can help reduce drilling costs and maximize scientific value of drilling efforts of government agencies and industry. The services of the CSDP data base are free of charge and available to all.
Date: May 18, 1982
Creator: Pawloski, G.A.; Howard, N.; Hage, G.; Higuera; M.L. & Richardson, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observations of a potential size-effect in experimental determination of the hydraulic properties of fractures

Description: In several recent investigations, experimental studies on the effect of normal stress on the hydraulic conductivity of a single fracture were made on three rock specimens ranging in cross-sectional area from 0.02 m/sup 2/ to over 1.0 m/sup 2/. At the maximum stress levels that could be attained (10 to 20 MPa), minimum values of the fracture hydraulic conductivity were not the same for each rock specimen. These minimum values increased with specimen size, indicating that the determination of fracture conductivity may be significantly influenced by a size effect. The implications of these results are important. Cores collected in the field are normally not larger than 0.15 m in diameter. However, the results of this work suggest that when this size core is used for laboratory investigations, the results may be nonconservative in that fracture permeabilities will be significantly lower than will be found in the field. 6 figures.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Witherspoon, P.A.; Amick, C.H.; Gale, J.E. & Iwai, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1978 Houston-Galveston and Texas Gulf Coast vertical-control surveys

Description: Comparisons between leveling surveys of different epochs are used to determine vertical displacement of permanent bench marks. Displacement of bench marks usually represents the movement of the surrounding area. In this report, the 1978 Houston-Galveston and Texas Gulf Coast releveling surveys are compared to the 1963, 1973, and 1976 releveling results. The changes in elevations of bench marks common to two or more epochs are tabulated and plotted in Appendix A. From these differences, contour maps were prepared for the 1963 to 1978 and 1973 to 1978 epochs in the 2/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ area of maximum subsidence. Annual subsidence rates computed for the 1973 to 1978 period are about 25% less in the maximum subsidence area than the rates computed for the 1963 to 1973 period.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Balazs, E.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetostratigraphy of the Grande Ronde Basalt Pasco Basin, Washington

Description: The paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the holes sampled have shown that there are four magnetic correlation lines, between adjacent flows in holes that have distinctly different mean stratigraphic inclinations, and two magnetic polarity boundaries that can be used for magnetic correlation in the Grande Ronde Basalt in the Pasco Basin. The results of paleomagnetic measurements of samples from the Wanapum Basalt and Saddle Mountains Basalt indicate that the potential for magnetostratigraphic correlation in these sequences is also good.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Packer, D.R. & Petty, M.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a procedure to estimate runoff and sediment transport in ephemeral streams

Description: A distributed hydrologic model for application on small, semiarid watersheds is developed. The distributed model incorporates simplified routing schemes to include the influence of transmission losses on runoff. A sediment transport model, by sediment size fractions, is developed to compute transport capacity and sediment yield in noncohesive, alluvial channels. Based on available information published in soils and topographic maps and on channel and bed sediment characteristics, the procedure is used to estimate runoff rates and amounts together with sediment yields from semiarid watersheds. Example applications include flood frequency analysis and sediment yield. The procedure requires a minimum of observed data for calibration and is designed for practical applications.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Lane, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geological and geophysical signatures of the Jemez lineament: a reactivated Precambrian structure

Description: The Jemez lineament (N52/sup 0/E) is one of several northeast-trending lineaments that traverse the southwestern United States. It is defined by a 500-km-long alignment of late Cenozoic volcanic fields extending southwest from at least the Jemez Mountains in the north-central New Mexico to the San Carlos-Peridot volcanic field in east-central Arizona. Geochronologic data from Precambrian basement rocks indicate that the lineament is approximately coincident with a boundary between Precambrian crustal provinces. Characteristics of the lineament are high heat flow (>104.5 mW/m/sup 2/), an attenuated seismic velocity zone from 25 to 140 km depth, and an upwarp of the crustal electrical conductor inferred from magnetotelluric studies. The high electrical conductivity is probably caused by the presence of interstitial magma in the rocks of the mid-to-upper crust. The average electical strike within the Precambrian basement is N60/sup 0/E, supporting a relationship between the Precambrian structural grain and the Jemez lineament. The geological and geophysical data suggest that the lineament is a structural zone that extends deep into the lithosphere and that its location was controlled by an ancient zone of weakness in the Precambrian basement. Ages of late Cenozoic volcanic rocks along the lineament show no systematic geographic progression, thus indicating that a mantle plume was not responsible for the alignment of the volcanic fields.Most of the faults, dikes, and cinder cone alignments along the lineament trend approximately N25/sup 0/E and N5/sup 0/W. These trends may represent Riedel shears formed by left-lateral transcurrent movement along the structure. Less common trends of cinder cone alignments and dikes are approximately N65/sup 0/W and N85/sup 0/W. The diversity in orientation indicates that the magnitudes of the two horizontal principal stresses within the lineament have been approximately equal for at least the last 5 m.y.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Aldrich, M.J. Jr.; Ander, M.E. & Laughlin, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effective stress model for partially and fully saturated rocks

Description: An effective stress model which calculates the pressure-volume (P-V) and deviatoric stress response of partially and fully saturated rocks is described here. The model includes pore pressure effects on pore crushing and shear strength as well as effects of shear enhanced void collapse and shear caused dilatancy. The model can directly use tabular data for the P-V behavior of the rock solids and the water, and for the drained pore crushing behavior and shear strength, which simplifies model fitting. Phase transitions in the solids and vaporization of the water are also allowed. Use of the model is illustrated by an example of wave propagation in limestone. 6 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Dey, T.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of the location and connectivity of fractures in metamorphic rock with in-hole tracers

Description: In-hole tracer tests were used in a geohydrologic investigation of metamorphic rock at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, SC to locate water-transmitting fractures and to determine the connectivity of these fractures between boreholes. Only after development of a conceptual model of the fracture occurrence and connection could the proper methods of analysis for the hydraulic parameters be selected. In-hole tracers were used to locate fractures in a borehole and supplemented other methods, such as core inspection, geophysical logs, borehole wall imaging techniques, dry drilling, and packer tests. The first three of these do not necessarily investigate fluid-transmitting fractures. In the study of the connectivity of fractures between boreholes, the in-hole tracer techniques supplemented determinations by the rapidity of hydraulic response and the use of between-well tracer tests. In hydraulically transmissive rock, fractures were located by changes in the velocity of the tracer pulse in response to adding fluid to the well. In virtually impermeable rock, the movement of the tracer pulse in the rock was normalized to the movement of another tracer pulse in the cased portion of the well because the movement was so slow that direct measurement was difficult. Connectivity of fractures between boreholes was determined by placing an in-hole tracer in one hole and measuring the movement induced by pumping a nearby borehole. From this test, it was determined that the fractures were interlacing, and single fractures did not extend from one borehole directly to the other.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Marine, I.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geochemical anomalies near the Eocene-Oligocene and Permian-Triassic boundaries

Description: Evidence is presented to support the theory that several mass extinctions, i.e., those that define the Permian-Triassic boundary, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and the Eocene-1 Oligocene boundary, were caused by impact on the earth of extraterrestrial objects having the composition of carbonaceous chondrites and diameters of about 10 km. The evidence consists of anomalously high concentrations of iridium and other siderophile elements at the stratigraphic levels defining the extinctions. (ACR)
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Asaro, F.; Alvarez, L.W.; Alvarez, W. & Michel, H.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynanmic relations between selected parameters describing unsaturated flow

Description: The first law of thermodynamics is applied to unsaturated flow by replacing the usual PdV term (P is pressure and V is volume) for chemical system which appears there by psi d theta/sub s/ (phi is matric suction and theta/sub s/ is the degree of saturation). If the assumption is made that hysteretic behavior of the moisture characteristic can be ignored, all the usual thermodynamic relations can be derived in which P is replaced by phi and V is replaced by theta/sub s/ and the various thermodynamic potentials, internal energy, U, entropy S, and so on, are understood to be normalized to unit void volume of the soil being considered. This leads to a thermodynamically derived theoretical expression for the slope of the moisture characteristic in terms of theta/sub s/, temperature, T, and the thermal expansivity of water, ..beta../sub l/. When hysteresis is considered, it is shown that for certain types of laboratory experiments the area enclosed by the main branches of the hysteresis loop in the phi - theta/sub s/ plane, or by extension any closed loop traversed by the system in the phi - theta/sub s/ plane, represents, to the extent that the sample temperature is kept constant during the adsorption-desorption process, the void volume of the sample multiplied by the integral of the temperature and the differential of the entropy generated by carrying out the cyclic adsorption-desorption process. These results when combined with an explicit representation of phi interms of an integral over the poor radius distribution allow an explicit calculation of the entropy change in terms of physical parameters.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Case, C M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geostatistics software user's manual for the Geosciences Research and Engineering Department PDP 11/70 computer

Description: Geostatistics and kriging are statistical techniques that can be used to estimate a hydrologic parameter surface from spatially distributed data. The techniques produce statistically optimum estimates of a surface and can aid in pinpointing areas of greatest need for data. This document describes the use of geostatistical software routines that have been implemented at Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) PDP 11/70 computer of the Geosciences Research and Engineering Department for use with the Hanford ground water monitoring data base of the Ground-Water Surveillance Program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy. The geostatistical routines were modified to improve input/output file efficiency and to accept larger data sets. Two data processing routines were also developed for retrieving and sorting data into a form compatible with the geostatistical routines. 6 references, 9 figures, 1 table.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Devary, J.L.; Mitchell, P.J.; Rice, W.A. & Damschen, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interactive display of polygonal data

Description: Interactive computer graphics is an excellent approach to many types of applications. It is an exciting method of doing geographic analysis when desiring to rapidly examine existing geographically related data or to display specially prepared data and base maps for publication. One such program is the interactive thematic mapping system called CARTE, which combines polygonal base maps with statistical data to produce shaded maps using a variety of shading symbolisms on a variety of output devices. A polygonal base map is one where geographic entities are described by points, lines, or polygons. It is combined with geocoded data to produce special subject or thematic maps. Shading symbolisms include texture shading for areas, varying widths for lines, and scaled symbols for points. Output devices include refresh and storage CRTs and auxiliary Calcomp or COM hardcopy. The system is designed to aid in the quick display of spatial data and in detailed map design.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Wood, P.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geology of the U12n. 02 (Midi Mist) drift, and postshot observations, Rainier Mesa, Area 12, Nevada Test Site

Description: Mining of the Ul2n.02 drift for the Midi Mist event started on December 31, 1965, in Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, and was completed on December 30, 1966. The drift was mined along a bearing of S. 65/sup 0/ W. at an altitude of 1,850.2 m (6,070.2 ft) to a length of 643 m (2,109 ft). The drift lies in tunnel bed 4 and penetrates stratigraphically up the section through sub-units 4AB, 4CD, 4E, 4F, 4G, 4H, and 4J, all of Tertiary age. Two faults mapped at the surface of the mesa were identified as having cut the complex at drift level. No engineering construction or support problems greater than minor rock slabbing, ravelly ground, or water inflow along fractures were uncountered. Visual inspection showed that shot-induced effects in the rock medium at drift level extended for 237.7 m (780 ft) from the working point in the form of fractures and small shear displacements along bedding planes.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Ege, J R; Danilchik, W & Feazel, C T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental formation of chalk from calcareous ooze. Technical progress report

Description: Samples of calcareous ooze collected from the tropical and equatorial Atlantic Ocean were subjected to hydrothermal alteration in order to simulate the diagenesis of chalk. Changes in mineralogy and morphology of enclosed microfossils were measured. (ACR)
Date: February 15, 1981
Creator: Seyfried, W.E. & Johnson, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gravity inversion code. [SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, AVERAGE, for CDC computers]

Description: The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Burkhard, N.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracture mapping for radionuclide migration studies in the Climax granite

Description: As part of LLNL's program on radionuclide migration through fractured rock, major geologic discontinuities have been mapped and characterized at the 420 m level in the Climax Stock, adjacent to LLNL's Spent Fuel Test. Persistence or continuity of features was the principal sampling criterion, and ninety major fractures and faults were mapped in the main access and tail drifts. Although the purpose and nature of this study was different from previous fracture surveys in the Climax Stock, the results are generally consistent in that three predominant fracture sets are identified: NW strike/vertical, NE strike/vertical, NW strike/subhorizontal. The frequency of major features in the main access drift is somewhat higher than in the tail drift. Those mapped in the main access drift are generally braided, stepped, or en echelon, while those in the tail drift appear to be more distinct and planar. Several of the fractures in the tail drift lie in the NE/vertical set, while most form an entirely different set oriented N5E/55NW. Subhorizontal fractures were common to both drifts. An area of seepage associated with some of these low-angle features was mapped in the main access drift.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Thorpe, R. & Springer, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrologic modeling of soil water storage in landfill cover systems

Description: The accuracy of modeling soil water storage by two hydrologic models, CREAMS and HELP, was tested by comparing simulation results with field measurements of soil moisture in eight experimental landfill cover systems having a range of well-defined soil profiles and vegetative covers. Regression analysis showed that CREAMS generally represented soil moisture more accurately than HELP simulations. Soil profiles that more closely resembled natural agricultural soils were more accurately modeled than highly artificial layered soil profiles. Precautions for determining parameter values for model input and for interpreting simulation results are discussed.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Barnes, F.J. & Rodgers, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bergmounds along the western margin of the channeled scablands, south--central Washington

Description: Distinctive mounds of till occur 100 to 240 meters above the present Columbia River along the western margins of the Pasco and Quincy basins. These mounds were formed by melting of grounded icebergs after inundation of the basins by the catastrophic glacial Lake Missoula flood(s). Most of the bergmounds are circular in plan and range in size from small clusters of erratics to mounds 50 meters in diameter and up to 4 meters high. The detritus is composed predominantly of granite, slate, argillite, quartzite, gneiss, and basalt, with grain size ranging from clay-size paticles to boulders up to 3 meters intermediate diameter. The pebbles and cobbles are glacially polished and fine-grained clasts are often striated. The bergmounds can be grouped into 4 classes on the basis of clast lithology. The most commonly occurring bergmounds are composed of 85 to 100 percent granitic debris. Bergmounds exhibiting mixed lithologies are also common. Less common are bergmounds composed of greater than 85 percent basalt and mounds composed predominantly of quartzite. The bergmounds occur in groups and are rarely found as isolated mounds. The elevation and distribution of bergmounds are related to fluvial currents and depths of the flood waters with iceberg grounding in regions of slack water and/or eddy currents.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Fecht, K.R. & Tallman, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Passive seismic monitoring of hydraulic fracture experiments at the Multiwell Experiment site

Description: Redesign of hardware, software, and data-reduction techniques associated with the Sandia National Laboratories' Borehole Seismic System (BSS) have made possible better estimates of hydraulic fracture geometry at the Multiwell Experiment (MWX) site. The redesigned system now incorporates four geophones per axis and provides up to 112 dB of downhole gain, for 100 times the sensitivity of the original system. Improved signal-to-noise ratios, extended frequency response and increased digitization rates have made possible the acquisition and processing of data which were previously inaccessible. A maximum likelihood event location scheme, which incorporates an algorithm based on the use of spherical statistics, is used to compute the location of microseismic events and error estimates for these locations. Accuracy estimates for the redesigned system, based on the ability to locate perforation shots, indicates a 25 ft (7.6 m) uncertainty in the location of individual microseismic events using data from two BSS receivers. This resulted in a high level of confidence in determination of the azimuth of the November 1, 1986, hydraulic fracture in the Fluvial B sandstone. A reasonable determination of the azimuth, propped wing length and height for the September 23, 1987, hydraulic fracture in the Fluvial E sandstone was possible using data from only one BSS receiver. 15 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1988
Creator: Thorne, B.J. & Morris, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of exploratory drill hole UE7nS East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

Description: Exploratory hole UE7nS was drilled to a depth of 672.1 m in East-Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, as part of a program sponsored by the Nuclear Monitoring Office (NMO) of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The purpose of the program is to determine the geologic and geophysical characteristics of selected locations that have demonstrated anomalous seismic signals. The purpose for drilling UE7nS was to provide the aforementioned data for emplacement site U7n. This report presents lithologic and stratigraphic descriptions, geophysical logs, physical properties, and water table measurements. An analysis of these data has been made and a set of recommended values is presented.
Date: March 2, 1981
Creator: Wagoner, J.L. & Ramspott, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rio Grande rift: problems and perspectives

Description: Topics and ideas addressed include: (1) the regional extent of the Rio Grande rift; (2) the structure of the crust and upper mantle; (3) whether the evidence for an axile dike in the lower crust is compelling; (4) the nature of faulting and extension in the crust; and (5) the structural and magmatic development of the rift. 88 references, 5 figures.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Baldridge, W.S.; Olsen, K.H. & Callender, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Basalt stratigraphy - Pasco Basin

Description: The geologic history of the Pasco Basin is sketched. Study of the stratigraphy of the area involved a number of techniques including major-element chemistry, paleomagnetic investigations, borehole logging, and other geophysical survey methods. Grande Ronde basalt accumulation in the Pasco Basin is described. An illustrative log response is shown. 1 figure. (RWR)
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Waters, A.C.; Myers, C.W.; Brown, D.J. & Ledgerwood, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional assessment of aquifers for thermal-energy storage. Volume 3. Appendices

Description: This volume contains two appendices to the main report. The first lists the aquifers in the 12 geographic regions of the USA and characterizes each as containing sands and gravels or limestones or volcanic rock. The second appendix tabulates the hydrologic characteristics of each aquifer. (LCL)
Date: June 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department