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Use of ARM Products in Reanalysis Applications and IPCC Model Assessment

Description: Year-3 of the project was spent developing an observed cloud climatology for Barrow, AK and relating the observed cloud fractions to the surface circulation patterns and locally observed winds. Armed with this information, we identified errors and sources of errors of cloud fraction simulations by numerical models in the Arctic. Specifically, we compared the cloud simulations output by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) to corresponding observed cloud fractions obtained by the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program for four mid-season months: (January, April, July, and October). Reanalyses are obtained from numerical weather prediction models that are not run in real-time. Instead, a reanalysis model ingests a wide variety of historical observations for the purpose of producing a gridded dataset of many model-derived quantities that are as temporally homogeneous as possible. Therefore, reanalysis output can be used as a proxy for observations, although some biases and other errors are inevitable because of model parameterizations and observational gaps. In the observational analysis we documented the seasonality of cloudiness at the north slope including cloud base height and dependence on synoptic regime. We followed this with an evaluation of the associations of wind-speed and direction and cloud amounts in both the observational record and the reanalysis model. The Barrow cloud fraction data show that clear conditions are most often associated with anomalous high pressure to the north of Barrow, especially in spring and early summer. Overcast skies are most commonly associated with anomalous low pressure to the south. The observational analysis shows that low, boundary layer clouds are the most common type of cloud observed North Slope ARM observing site. However, these near-surface clouds are a major source of errors in the NARR simulations. When compared to observations, the NARR over-simulates the fraction of low clouds during the winter months, ...
Date: September 30, 2011
Creator: Walsh, John E. & Chapman, William L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Collaborative Research: Robust Climate Projections and Stochastic Stability of Dynamical Systems

Description: The project was completed along the lines of the original proposal, with additional elements arising as new results were obtained. The originally proposed three thrusts were expanded to include an additional, fourth one. (i) The e#11;ffects of stochastic perturbations on climate models have been examined at the fundamental level by using the theory of deterministic and random dynamical systems, in both #12;nite and in#12;nite dimensions. (ii) The theoretical results have been implemented #12;first on a delay-diff#11;erential equation (DDE) model of the El-Nino/Southern-Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. (iii) More detailed, physical aspects of model robustness have been considered, as proposed, within the stripped-down ICTP-AGCM (formerly SPEEDY) climate model. This aspect of the research has been complemented by both observational and intermediate-model aspects of mid-latitude and tropical climate. (iv) An additional thrust of the research relied on new and unexpected results of (i) and involved reduced-modeling strategies and associated prediction aspects have been tested within the team's empirical model reduction (EMR) framework. Finally, more detailed, physical aspects have been considered within the stripped-down SPEEDY climate model. The results of each of these four complementary e#11;fforts are presented in the next four sections, organized by topic and by the team members concentrating on the topic under discussion.
Date: October 13, 2011
Creator: Ghil, Michael; McWilliams, James; Neelin, J. David; Zaliapin, Ilya; Chekroun, Mickael; Kondrashov, Dmitri et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ON""GENERAL CONSERVATION EQUATIONS FOR MULTIPHASE SYSTEMS: 1. AVERAGING PROCEDURE"" BY M. HASSANIZADEH AND W.G. GRAY.

Description: The author comments upon a point made in the referenced paper on general conservation equations. The author directs attention to the fact that the referenced paper's authors correctly point out that when an averaging operation involves integration, the integrand multiplied by the infinitesimal volume must be an additive quantity. The importance of this requirement is emphasized.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Narasimhan, T.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

World Surface Currents From Ship's Drift Observations

Description: Over 4 million observations of ship's drift are on file at the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Centre, in Washington, D. C., representing a vast amount of information on ocean surface currents. The observed drift speeds are dependent on the frequency of occurence of the particular current speeds and the frequency of observation. By comparing frequency of observation with the drift speeds observed it is possible to confirm known current patterns and detect singularities in surface currents.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Duncan, C. P. & Schladow, S. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probabilistic Simulation of Subsurface Fluid Flow: A Study Using a Numerical Scheme

Description: There has been an increasing interest in probabilistic modeling of hydrogeologic systems. The classical approach to groundwater modeling has been deterministic in nature, where individual layers and formations are assumed to be uniformly homogeneous. Even in the case of complex heterogeneous systems, the heterogeneities describe the differences in parameter values between various layers, but not within any individual layer. In a deterministic model a single-number is assigned to each hydrogeologic parameter, given a particular scale of interest. However, physically there is no such entity as a truly uniform and homogeneous unit. Single-number representations or deterministic predictions are subject to uncertainties. The approach used in this work models such uncertainties with probabilistic parameters. The resulting statistical distributions of output variables are analyzed. A numerical algorithm, based on axiomatic principles of probability theory, performs arithmetic operations between probability distributions. Two subroutines are developed from the algorithm and incorporated into the computer program TERZAGI, which solves groundwater flow problems in saturated, multi-dimensional systems. The probabilistic computer program is given the name, PROGRES. The algorithm has been applied to study the following problems: one-dimensional flow through homogeneous media, steady-state and transient flow conditions, one-dimensional flow through heterogeneous media, steady-state and transient flow conditions, and two-dimensional steady-stte flow through heterogeneous media. The results are compared with those available in the literature.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Buscheck, Timothy Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

Description: In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.
Date: January 10, 2012
Creator: Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P. & Sauter, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESULTS OF A DATING ATTEMPT -CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS RELEVANT TO THE CASE OF THE CRETACEOUS TERTIARY EXTINCTIONS

Description: In Gubbio, Italy, a l em layer of clay between extensive limestone formations marks the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods. This clay layer was known to have been deposited about 65 million years ago when many life forms became extinct, but the length of time associated with the deposition was not known. In an attempt to measure this time with normally deposited meteoritic material as a clock, extensive measurements of iridium abundances (and those of many other elements) were made on the Gubbio rocks. Neutron activation analysis was the principal tool used in these studies. About 50 elements are searched for in materials like the earth's crust, about 40 are detected and about 30 are measured with useful precision. We were not able to determine exactly how long the clay deposition took. Instead the laboratory studies on the chemical and physical nature of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary led to the theory that an asteroid collision with the earth was responsible for the extinction of many forms of life including the dinosaurs.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Asaro, Frank; Michel, Helen V.; Alvarez, Luis W. & Alvarez, Walter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2012 ROCK DEFORMATION: FEEDBACK PROCESSES IN ROCK DEFORMATION GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 19-24, 2012

Description: Topics covered include: Failure At High Confining Pressure; Fluid-assisted Slip, Earthquakes & Fracture; Reaction-driven Cracking; Fluid Transport, Deformation And Reaction; Localized Fluid Transport And Deformation; Earthquake Mechanisms; Subduction Zone Dynamics And Crustal Growth.
Date: August 24, 2012
Creator: Kelemen, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED WAVEFORM SIMULATION FOR SEISMIC MONITORING EVENTS

Description: We conduct a detailed test of a recently developed technique, CAPloc, in recovering source parameters from a few stations against results from a large broadband network. The method uses a library of 1D Green’s functions which are broken into segments and matched to waveform observations with adjustable timing shifts. These shifts can be established by calibration against a distribution of well-located earthquake and assembled in tomographic images for predicting various phase-delays. Synthetics generated from 2D cross-sections through these models indicates that 1D synthetic waveforms are sufficient in modeling but simply shifted in time for hard-rock sites. This simplification allows the source inversion for both mechanism and location to be easily obtained by grid search. We test one-station mechanisms for 160 events against the array for both PAS and GSC which have data since 1960. While one station solutions work well (about 90%), joint solutions produce more reliable and defensible results. Inverting for both mechanism and location also works well except for certain difficult paths that cross deep basins or propagate along mountain ridges.
Date: December 10, 2007
Creator: Helmberger, Donald V.; Tromp, Jeroen & Rodgers, Arthur J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED WAVEFORM SIMULATION FOR SEISMIC MONITORING EVENTS

Description: Earthquake source parameters underpin several aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Such aspects are: calibration of moment magnitudes (including coda magnitudes) and magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); source depths; discrimination by isotropic moment tensor components; and waveform modeling for structure (including waveform tomography). This project seeks to improve methods for and broaden the applicability of estimating source parameters from broadband waveforms using the Cut-and-Paste (CAP) methodology. The CAP method uses a library of Green’s functions for a one-dimensional (1D, depth-varying) seismic velocity model. The method separates the main arrivals of the regional waveform into 5 windows: Pnl (vertical and radial components), Rayleigh (vertical and radial components) and Love (transverse component). Source parameters are estimated by grid search over strike, dip, rake and depth and seismic moment or equivalently moment magnitude, MW, are adjusted to fit the amplitudes. Key to the CAP method is allowing the synthetic seismograms to shift in time relative to the data in order to account for path-propagation errors (delays) in the 1D seismic velocity model used to compute the Green’s functions. The CAP method has been shown to improve estimates of source parameters, especially when delay and amplitude biases are calibrated using high signal-to-noise data from moderate earthquakes, CAP+.
Date: June 17, 2008
Creator: Helmberger, Donald V.; Tromp, Jeroen & Rodgers, Arthur J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fractional Calculus in Hydrologic Modeling: A Numerical Perspective

Description: Fractional derivatives can be viewed either as a handy extension of classical calculus or, more deeply, as mathematical operators defined by natural phenomena. This follows the view that the diffusion equation is defined as the governing equation of a Brownian motion. In this paper, we emphasize that fractional derivatives come from the governing equations of stable Levy motion, and that fractional integration is the corresponding inverse operator. Fractional integration, and its multi-dimensional extensions derived in this way, are intimately tied to fractional Brownian (and Levy) motions and noises. By following these general principles, we discuss the Eulerian and Lagrangian numerical solutions to fractional partial differential equations, and Eulerian methods for stochastic integrals. These numerical approximations illuminate the essential nature of the fractional calculus.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Benson, David A.; Meerschaert, Mark M. & Revielle, Jordan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final technical report for the Award DE-FG02-08ER64574, with list of 30 refereed journal articles that acknowledge support from this award.

Description: In this project, we focused on applications of the new warm-rain and ice microphysics schemes to simulate various cloud systems. The overall goal was either to evaluate and improve specific aspects of the schemes (through comparisons with ARM/ASR observations) or to understand the coupling between aerosols, cloud microphysics and cloud dynamics in variety of situations. These studies are relevant to the indirect impact of atmospheric aerosols on climate. Below we report on selected key aspects of the research and then list all peer-reviewed papers that acknowledge support from this grant. Overall, studies partially supported by this grant resulted in 30 peer-reviewed publications (listed below), several dozens of conference presentations (including posters and oral presentations at the ASR Science Team Meetings), and two PhD dissertations. More detailed summaries of our accomplishments are included in yearly reports. Here we summarize only major efforts.
Date: April 2, 2012
Creator: Grabowski, Wojciech W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accounting for Unresolved Spatial Variability in Large Scale Models: Development and Evaluation of a Statistical Cloud Parameterization with Prognostic Higher Order Moments

Description: This project focused on the variability of clouds that is present across a wide range of scales ranging from the synoptic to the millimeter. In particular, there is substantial variability in cloud properties at scales smaller than the grid spacing of models used to make climate projections (GCMs) and weather forecasts. These models represent clouds and other small-scale processes with parameterizations that describe how those processes respond to and feed back on the largescale state of the atmosphere.
Date: May 17, 2011
Creator: Pincus, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Technical Report - Integrated Hydrogeophysical and Hydrogeologic Driven Parameter Upscaling for Dual-Domain Transport Modeling

Description: The three major components of this research were: 1. Application of minimally invasive, cost effective hydrogeophysical techniques (surface and borehole), to generate fine scale (~1m or less) 3D estimates of subsurface heterogeneity. Heterogeneity is defined as spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity and/or hydrolithologic zones. 2. Integration of the fine scale characterization of hydrogeologic parameters with the hydrogeologic facies to upscale the finer scale assessment of heterogeneity to field scale. 3. Determination of the relationship between dual-domain parameters and practical characterization data.
Date: November 5, 2012
Creator: Shafer, John M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELEMENTARY REACTIONS IN POLYNUCLEAR IONS AND AQUEOUS–MINERAL INTERFACES: A NEW GEOLOGY

Description: Topics include: Molecular Geology; Modeling Tools for Geochemical Systems, including Potential Energy Functions; Obtaining Model Parameters; Example Systems, including Broensted Acid–Base Reactions, Water, Hydroxide, and Oxide Exchange Kinetics, and Polyoxoanions; and Geological Problems with Molecular Level Solutions, including Boron Isotopes in Marine Minerals, and Carbon Isotopes In Soil Minerals.
Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Rustad, James R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hedberg Research Conference on Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates: Request for Travel Support for Post-Doctoral Fellows

Description: Carbonate reservoirs pose a scientific and engineering challenge to geophysical prediction and monitoring of fluid flow in the subsurface. Difficulties in interpreting hydrological, reservoir and other exploration data arise because carbonates are composed of a hierarchy of geological structures, constituents and processes that span a wide spectrum of length and time scales. What makes this problem particularly challenging is that length scales associated with physical structure and processes are often not discrete, but overlap, preventing the definition of discrete elements at one scale to become the building blocks of the next scale. This is particularly true for carbonates where complicated depositional environments, subsequent post-deposition diagenesis and geochemical interactions result in pores that vary in scale from submicron to centimeters to fractures, variation in fabric composition with fossils, minerals and cement, as well as variations in structural features (e.g., oriented inter- and intra layered - interlaced bedding and/or discontinuous rock units). In addition, this complexity is altered by natural and anthropogenic processes such as changes in stress, fluid content, reactive fluid flow, etc. Thus an accurate geophysical assessment of the flow behavior of carbonate reservoirs requires a fundamental understanding of the interplay of textural and structural features subjected to physical processes that affect and occur on various length and time scales. To address this complexity related to carbonates, a Hedberg conference on “Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates” was held July 8 to 13, 2012, to bring together industry and academic scientists to stimulate innovative ideas that can accelerate research advances related to flow prediction and recovery in carbonate reservoirs. Participants included scientist and engineers from multiple disciplines (such as hydrology, structural geology, geochemistry, reservoir engineering, geophysics, geomechanics, numerical modeling, physical experiments, sedimentology, well-testing, statistics, mathematics, visualization, etc.) who encompass experience as well as the latest advances in these multi-faceted fields. ...
Date: April 28, 2013
Creator: Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Potential Leakage Pathways and Mineralization within Caprocks for Geologic Storage of CO(sub 2}

Description: We used a multifaceted approach to investigate the nature of caprocks above, and the interface between, reservoir-­‐quality rocks that might serve as targets for carbon storage. Fieldwork in southeastern Utah examined the regional-­‐ to m-­‐scale nature of faults and fractures across the sedimentiological interfaces. We also used microscopic analyses and mechanical modeling to examine the question as to how the contacts between units interact, and how fractures may allow fluids to move from reservoirs to caprock. Regional-­‐scale analyses using ASTER data enabled us to identify location of alteration, which led to site-­‐specific studies of deformation and fluid flow. In the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a seal for the Navajo Sandstone, we evaluated mesoscale variability in fracture density and morphology and variability in elastic moduli in the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a proposed seal to the underlying Navajo Sandstone for CO{sub 2} geosequestration. By combining mechano-­‐stratigraphic outcrop observations with elastic moduli derived from wireline log data, we characterize the variability in fracture pattern and morphology with the observed variability in rock strength within this heterolithic top seal. Outcrop inventories of discontinuities show fracture densities decrease as bed thickness increases and fracture propagation morphology across lithologic interfaces vary with changing interface type. Dynamic elastic moduli, calculated from wireline log data, show that Young’s modulus varies by up to 40 GPa across depositional interfaces, and by an average of 3 GPa across the reservoir/seal interface. We expect that the mesoscale changes in rock strength will affect the distributions of localized stress and thereby influence fracture propagation and fluid flow behavior within the seal. These data provide a means to closely tie outcrop observations to those derived from subsurface data and estimates of subsurface rock strength. We also studied damage zones associated normal faults in the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone, southeastern Utah. These faults are characterized ...
Date: November 30, 2012
Creator: Evans, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self-Assembling Sup-porosity: The Effect On Fluid Flow And Seismic Wave Propagation

Description: Fractures and joints in the field often contain debris within the void spaces. Debris originates from many different mechanisms: organic and/or inorganic chemical reactions/mineralization, sediment transport, formation of a fracture, mechanical weathering or combinations of these processes. In many cases, the presence of debris forms a “sub-porosity” within the fracture void space. This sub-porosity often is composed of material that differs from the fracture walls in mineralogy and morphology. The “sub-porosity” may partially fill voids that are on the order of hundreds of microns and thereby reduce the local porosity to lengths scales on the order of sub-microns to tens of microns. It is quite clear that a sub-porosity affects fracture porosity, permeability and storativity. What is not known is how the existence/formation of a sub-porosity affects seismic wave propagation and consequently our ability to probe changes in the subsurface caused by the formation or alteration of a sub-porosity. If seismic techniques are to be developed to monitor the injection and containment of phases in sequestration reservoirs or the propping of hydraulically induced fracture to enhance oil & gas production, it is important to understand how a sub-porosity within a fracture affects macroscopic seismic and hydraulic measurements. A sub-porosity will directly affect the interrelationship between the seismic and hydraulic properties of a fracture. This reports contains the results of the three main topics of research that were performed (1) to determine the effect of a sub-porosity composed of spherical grains on seismic wave propagation across fractures, (2) to determine the effect of biofilm growth in pores and between grains on seismic wave propagation in sediment, and (3) to determine the effect of the scale of observation (field-of-view) on monitoring alteration the pore space within a fracture caused by reactive flow. A brief summary of the results for each topic is ...
Date: April 27, 2013
Creator: Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments

Description: In this project we have sought to explain the co-existence of gas and hydrate phases in sediments within the gas hydrate stability zone. We have focused on the gas/brine interface at the scale of individual grains in the sediment. The capillary forces associated with a gas/brine interface play a dominant role in many processes that occur in the pores of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The mechanical forces associated with the same interface can lead to fracture initiation and propagation in hydrate-bearing sediments. Thus the unifying theme of the research reported here is that pore scale phenomena are key to understanding large scale phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments whenever a free gas phase is present. Our analysis of pore-scale phenomena in this project has delineated three regimes that govern processes in which the gas phase pressure is increasing: fracturing, capillary fingering and viscous fingering. These regimes are characterized by different morphology of the region invaded by the gas. On the other hand when the gas phase pressure is decreasing, the corresponding regimes are capillary fingering and compaction. In this project, we studied all these regimes except compaction. Many processes of interest in hydrate-bearing sediments can be better understood when placed in the context of the appropriate regime. For example, hydrate formation in sub-permafrost sediments falls in the capillary fingering regime, whereas gas invasion into ocean sediments is likely to fall into the fracturing regime. Our research provides insight into the mechanisms by which gas reservoirs are converted to hydrate as the base of the gas hydrate stability zone descends through the reservoir. If the reservoir was no longer being charged, then variation in grain size distribution within the reservoir explain hydrate saturation profiles such as that at Mt. Elbert, where sand-rich intervals containing little hydrate are interspersed between intervals containing large hydrate ...
Date: December 31, 2011
Creator: Bryant, Steven & Juanes, Ruben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments

Description: In this project we have sought to explain the co-existence of gas and hydrate phases in sediments within the gas hydrate stability zone. We have focused on the gas/brine interface at the scale of individual grains in the sediment. The capillary forces associated with a gas/brine interface play a dominant role in many processes that occur in the pores of sediments and sedimentary rocks. The mechanical forces associated with the same interface can lead to fracture initiation and propagation in hydrate-bearing sediments. Thus the unifying theme of the research reported here is that pore scale phenomena are key to understanding large scale phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments whenever a free gas phase is present. Our analysis of pore-scale phenomena in this project has delineated three regimes that govern processes in which the gas phase pressure is increasing: fracturing, capillary fingering and viscous fingering. These regimes are characterized by different morphology of the region invaded by the gas. On the other hand when the gas phase pressure is decreasing, the corresponding regimes are capillary fingering and compaction. In this project, we studied all these regimes except compaction. Many processes of interest in hydrate-bearing sediments can be better understood when placed in the context of the appropriate regime. For example, hydrate formation in sub-permafrost sediments falls in the capillary fingering regime, whereas gas invasion into ocean sediments is likely to fall into the fracturing regime. Our research provides insight into the mechanisms by which gas reservoirs are converted to hydrate as the base of the gas hydrate stability zone descends through the reservoir. If the reservoir was no longer being charged, then variation in grain size distribution within the reservoir explain hydrate saturation profiles such as that at Mt. Elbert, where sand-rich intervals containing little hydrate are interspersed between intervals containing large hydrate ...
Date: December 31, 2011
Creator: Bryant, Steven & Juanes, Ruben
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methane Hydrate Field Program: Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

Description: This topical report represents a pathway toward better understanding of the impact of marine methane hydrates on safety and seafloor stability and future collection of data that can be used by scientists, engineers, managers and planners to study climate change and to assess the feasibility of marine methane hydrate as a potential future energy resource. Our understanding of the occurrence, distribution and characteristics of marine methane hydrates is incomplete; therefore, research must continue to expand if methane hydrates are to be used as a future energy source. Exploring basins with methane hydrates has been occurring for over 30 years, but these efforts have been episodic in nature. To further our understanding, these efforts must be more regular and employ new techniques to capture more data. This plan identifies incomplete areas of methane hydrate research and offers solutions by systematically reviewing known methane hydrate “Science Challenges” and linking them with “Technical Challenges” and potential field program locations.
Date: November 30, 2013
Creator: Collett, Tim; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Frye, Matt; Goldberg, Dave; Husebo, Jarle; Koh, Carolyn et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department