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Sandia National Laboratories approach to emergency preparedness

Description: Sandia National Laboratories is located on Kirtland AFB on Albuquerque, NM. The Air Force Base proper covers about 74 square miles in which SNL maintains 5 technical areas and the Coyote Test Field. These SNL areas add up to about 18,000 acres. However, SNL has other locations where we conduct corporate emergency planning: Kauai Test Facility (at Pacific Missile Range Facility in Kauai, Hawaii), and the Tonopah Test Range (Nevada). SNL/California located in Livermore has an independent emergency preparedness organization for their emergency planning activities.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Galegar, F. H.; Yourick, P. D. & Ross, S. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical Potential Transfer Through Grounding and the Concern for Facility and Worker Safety

Description: Electrical grounding is probably the most over-looke~ ignored, and misunderstood part of electrical energy source circuits. A faulty ground circuit am have lethal potential to the worker, can damage electrical equipment" or components, and can lead to higher consequences. For example, if the green-wire ground return circuit (in a three-wire power circuit) is fhulty or is open (someone cut the prong, etc.) a person can receive an electrical shock by touching the conductive enclosure, and the result can be lethal. If high explosives are involved m the process, sneak electrical energy paths may cause electrical threats that lead to ignition, which results to higher damage consequences. Proper electrical grounding is essential to mitigate the electrical hazard and improve work place safety. A designer must ask the question, "What grounding is proper?" continuously through a process design and in its application. This question must be readdressed with any process change, including tiom layout, equipment, or procedure changes. Electrical grounding varies ilom local work area grounding to the multi-point grounding found in large industrial areas. These grounding methods become more complex when the designer adds bonding to the grounding schemes to mitigate electrostatic discharge (ESD) and surfkce potentials resulting from lightning currents flowing through the facility structure. Figure 1 shows a typical facility power distribution circuit and the current flow paths resulting ffom a lightning discharge to a facility. This paper discusses electrical grounding methods and their characteristics and identifies potential sneak paths into a process for hazardous electrical energy.
Date: September 13, 1998
Creator: Konkel, Herbert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE's HAZMAT Spill Center at the Nevada Test Site: Activities and Capabilities

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and operates the Hazardous Materials (HAZMAT) Spill Center (HSC) as a research and demonstration facility available on a user-fee basis to private and public sector test and training sponsors concerned with safety aspects of hazardous materials. Though initially designed to accommodate large liquefied natural gas releasers, the HSC has accommodated hazardous materials training and safety-related testing of most chemicals in commercial use. The HSC is located at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) near Mercury, Nevada. The HSC provides a unique opportunity for industry and other users to conduct hazardous materials testing and training. This is the only facility of its kind for either large- or small-scale testing of hazardous and toxic fluids under controlled conditions. It is ideally suited for test sponsors to develop verified data on release prevention, mitigation, cleanup, and environmental effects of toxic and hazardous materials. The facility site also supports structured training for hazardous spills, nkigation, and cleanup. Since 1986, the HSC has been utilized for releases to evaluate the patterns of dispersion mitigation techniques, and combustion characteristics of select materials. Use of the facility can also aid users in developing emergency planning under U.S. Public Law 99-499; the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA); and other federal, state, and international laws and regulations. The HSC Program is managed by the DOE, OffIce of Emergency Management, Nonproliferation and National Security, with the support and assistance of other divisions of DOE and the U. S. government.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Lelewer, S.A. & Spahn, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Another Look at the Relationship Between Accident- and Encroachment-Based Approaches to Run-Off-the-Road Accidents Modeling

Description: The purpose of this study was to look for ways to combine the strengths of both approaches in roadside safety research. The specific objectives were (1) to present the encroachment-based approach in a more systematic and coherent way so that its limitations and strengths can be better understood from both statistical and engineering standpoints, and (2) to apply the analytical and engineering strengths of the encroachment-based thinking to the formulation of mean functions in accident-based models.
Date: August 1997
Creator: Miaou, Shaw-Pin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk assessment of high altitude free flight commercial aircraft operations

Description: A quantitative model is under development to assess the safety and efficiency of commercial aircraft operations under the Free Flight Program proposed for air traffic control for the US National Airspace System. The major objective of the Free Flight Program is to accommodate the dramatic growth anticipated in air traffic in the US. However, the potential impacts upon aircraft safety from implementing the Program have not been fully explored and evaluated. The model is directed at assessing aircraft operations at high altitude over the continental US airspace since this action is the initial step for Free Flight. Sequential steps with analysis, assessment, evaluation, and iteration will be required to satisfactorily accomplish the complete transition of US commercial aircraft traffic operations.
Date: April 23, 1998
Creator: Kimura, C.Y.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M. & Sanzo, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fire protection for relocatable structures

Description: This standard supersedes DOE/EV-0043, ``Standard on Fire Protection for Portable Structures.`` It was revised to address the numerous types of relocatable structures, such as trailers, tension-supported structures, and tents being used by DOE and contractors.
Date: June 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

What happened after the evaluation?

Description: An ergonomics program including a ergonomic computer workstation evaluations at a research and development facility was assessed three years after formal implementation. As part of the assessment, 53 employees who had been subjects of computer workstation evaluations were interviewed. The documented reports (ergonomic evaluation forms) of the ergonomic evaluations were used in the process of selecting the interview subjects. The evaluation forms also provided information about the aspects of the computer workstation that were discussed and recommended as part of the evaluation, although the amount of detail and completeness of the forms varied. Although the results were mixed and reflective of the multivariate psychosocial factors affecting employees working in a large organization, the findings led to recommendations for improvements of the program.
Date: March 12, 1999
Creator: Bennett, C L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of plutonium and other actinide elements at the center for accelerator mass spectrometry: a comparative assessments of competing techniques

Description: Low-level measurements of the long-lived actinide isotopes have a number of important applications throughout the DOE complex. These include radiobioassay programs, environmental assessments, characterization of radioactive wastes, evaluation of waste storage and treatment options, environmental remediation, basic research in chemistry and geochemistry, and other specialized non- proliferation and national security applications. As an example, it has been estimated that for the next few decades more than 1 million radiochemical analyses per year will be needed in support of US efforts to remediate the legacy of radioactive waste generated by weapons production and the nuclear power industry (Crain, 1996). Traditional radiometric counting methods do not have sufficient sensitivity to address many of these requirements. There is also a growing need to evaluate and monitor exposures to DOE workers involved in decommissioning, environmental management and/or remediation of contaminated sites and facilities. Quantitative measurements based on low-level detection techniques are of particular interest in the validation of radionuclide transport models and improving radiation dosimetry/risk estimates. Quantitative data and information are required to assess the potential health-effects of exposures occurring under special conditions (e.g., resuspension/inhalation of high-specific activity particles), of inhomogeneous radiation exposure and assessment of associated dose distributions to different parts of the body/tissue, of low dose exposure, and to validate and/or develop new and improved dosimetry models. Atom counting technology has now developed sufficiently to provide substantially better sensitivity than ionizing radiation detectors for selected long- lived radionuclides. Clearly the development of a robust, high-throughput, highly sensitive actinide measurement capability based on this new technology would have broad and sustainable impact on a range of DOE initiatives. One potential measurement technique for meeting these requirements is accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS is a widely accepted analytical technique for measurement of isotopes such as 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl (Vogel et al., ...
Date: February 1, 1999
Creator: Hamilton, T H & McAninch, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hoisting and Rigging (Formerly Hoisting and Rigging Manual)

Description: This standard is intended as a reference document to be used by supervisors, line managers, safety personnel, equipment operators, and any other personnel responsible for safety of hoisting and rigging operations at DOE sites. It quotes or paraphrases the US OSHA and ANSI requirements. It also encompasses, under one cover,hoisting and rigging requirements, codes, standards, and regulations, eliminating the need to maintain extensive (and often incomplete) libraries of hoisting and rigging standards throughout DOE. The standard occasionally goes beyond the minimum general industry standards established by OSHA and ANSI, and also delineates the more stringent requirements necessary to accomplish the complex, diversified, critical, and often hazardous hoisting and rigging work found with the DOE complex.
Date: June 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

Description: Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Spray, S.D. & Cooper, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Getting to necessary and sufficient-developing accident scenarios for risk assessment

Description: This paper presents a simple, systematic approach for developing accident scenarios using generic accident types. Result is a necessary and sufficient set of accident scenarios that can be used to establish the safety envelope for a facility or operation. Us of this approach along with the methodology of SAND95-0320 will yield more consistent accident analyses between facilities and provide a sound basis for allocating limited risk reduction resources.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Mahn, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of radiation safety and nuclear explosive safety disciplines

Description: In August 1945, U.S. Navy Captain William Parsons served as the weaponeer aboard the Enola Gay for the mission to Hiroshima (Shelton 1988). In view of the fact that four B-29s had crashed and burned on takeoff from Tinian the night before, Captain Parsons made the decision to arm the gun-type weapon after takeoff for safety reasons (15 kilotons of TNT equivalent). Although he had no control over the success of the takeoff, he could prevent the possibility of a nuclear detonation on Tinian by controlling what we now call the nuclear explosive. As head of the Ordnance Division at Los Alamos and a former gunnery officer, Captain Parsons clearly understood the role of safety in his work. The advent of the pre-assembled implosion weapon where the high explosive and nuclear materials are always in an intimate configuration meant that nuclear explosive safety became a reality at a certain point in development and production not just at the time of delivery by the military. This is the only industry where nuclear materials are intentionally put in contact with high explosives. The agency of the U.S. Government responsible for development and production of U.S. nuclear weapons is the Department of Energy (DOE) (and its predecessor agencies). This paper will be limited to nuclear explosive safety as it is currently practiced within the DOE nuclear weapons
Date: October 10, 1998
Creator: Winstanley, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Laser Safety Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: The Laser Safety Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was formalized in April, 1991, with the publication of a document, {open_quotes}Lasers,{close_quotes} modeled on the ANSIZ136.1 standard. This program has received such wide acceptance by the laser community and line managers that the original Laser Safety Program document has become a Laboratory standard on lasers. As a benchmark of the success of this program is that the Laboratory has experienced no disabling eye injuries because of laser operations since July, 1990, to be compared with a disabling laser eye injury that used to average one every eighteen months prior to the time the formal program was established. The Laboratory Laser Safety Program and program elements will be presented and discussed.
Date: February 1997
Creator: Hyer, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk ranking methodology for chemical release events

Description: Risk ranking schemes have been used in safety analysis to distinguish lower risk accidents from higher risk accidents. This is necessary to identify those events that might warrant additional study or quantitative analysis and to ensure that any resources allocated for risk reduction are properly directed. A common method used for risk ranking utilizes risk matrices. These are typically 3x3 or 4x4 matrices having event consequences along one axis and event frequency along the other. Each block on the risk matrix represents some level of risk, and blocks presenting similar risk are often grouped together into one of three or four risk regions. Once a risk matrix has been identified, events are placed on the matrix based on an estimate of the event consequence and event frequency. Once the risk of each block on the matrix is defined, the relative risk of the events can be found based on where they are placed on the matrix. In most cases, the frequency axis of the matrix has numerical values associated with it, typically spanning several orders of magnitude. Often, the consequence axis is based on a qualitative scale, where consequences are judgment based. However, the consequence scale generally has implicit quantitative values associated with it, which may or may not be recognized. Risk regions are often arbitrarily assigned (or assigned on the basis of symmetry). This presents a problem in that if the blocks Of the risk matrix are incorrectly grouped, then incorrect conclusions can be drawn about the relative risk presented by events at a facility. This paper first describes how risk matrices have typically been established in the past. Problems associated with these risk matrices are identified and discussed. A methodology for logically establishing risk matrices, with specific application to chemical risk, is provided.
Date: April 3, 1998
Creator: Brereton, S. & Alenbach, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - summary report

Description: This report is a summary of the Accident Investigation Board Report on the May 14, 1997, Chemical Explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (DOE/RL-97-59). The referenced report provides a greater level of detail and includes a complete discussion of the facts identified, analysis of those facts, conclusions derived from the analysis, identification of the accident`s causal factors, and recommendations that should be addressed through follow-up action by the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. This companion document provides a concise summary of that report, with emphasis on management issues. Evaluation of emergency and occupational health response to, and radiological and chemical releases from, this accident was not within the scope of this investigation, but is the subject of a separate investigation and report (see DOE/RL-97-62).
Date: August 7, 1997
Creator: Gerton, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) standards/requirements identification document (S/RID)

Description: This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) set forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) standards/requirements for Westinghouse Hanford Company Level Programs, where implementation and compliance is the responsibility of these organizations. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment.
Date: March 15, 1996
Creator: Bennett, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination suit - OST reference No. 1855. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area

Description: Radiation workers at all US Department of Energy (DOE) sites require some form of protective clothing when performing radiological work. A large number of contaminated facilities at DOE site are currently or will eventually undergo some form of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), requiring some type of protective clothing, often in multiple layers. Protective clothing that does not allow perspiration to escape causes heat stress, which lowers worker comfort and productivity. This report describes the NuFab{trademark} anti-contamination. The suit is a one-piece, disposable, breathable, waterproof coverall with a single front zipper. Constructed of tri-laminated composite material using spun-bonded polypropylene and microporous film layers, the suit is certified as incineratorable.
Date: February 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk ranking methodology for radiological events

Description: Risk ranking schemes have been used in safety analysis to distinguish lower risk accidents from higher risk accidents. This is necessary to identify those events that might warrant additional study/quantitative analysis and to ensure that any resources allocated for risk reduction are properly directed. A common method used for risk ranking utilizes risk matrices. These are typically 3x3 or 4X4 matrices, having event consequences along one ixis and event frequency along the other. Each block on the risk mitrix represents some level of risk, and blocks presenting similar risk are often grouped together into one of 3 or 4 risk regions. Once a risk matrix has been identified, events are placed on the matrix based on an estimate of the event consequence and event frequency. Knowing how the blocks on the risk matrix relate to one another with respect to risk, the relative risk of the events will be known based on where they are placed on the matrix. In most cases, the frequency axis of the matrix has some numerical values associated with it, and this typically spans several orders of magnitude. Often, the consequence axis is based on a qualitative scale, where consequences are judgment based. However, the consequence scale generally has implicit qualitative values associated with it, which may or may not be recognized. Risk regions are often arbitrarily assigned (or assigned on the basis of symmetry). This presents a problem in that if the blocks of the risk matrix are incorrectly grouped, then incorrect conclusions can be drawn about the relative risk presented by events at a facility. This paper first describes how risk matrices have typically been established in the past. Problems associated with these risk matrices are identified and discussed. A methodology for logically establishing risk matrices, with specific application to radiological risk is ...
Date: March 1, 1997
Creator: Altenbach, T., Brezeton, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory 1994 epidemiologic surveillance

Description: Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-80 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.
Date: January 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Historical summary and recommendations on Melanoma in the LLNL workforce

Description: This document provides a historical summary and recommendations on melanoma in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) workforce. Melanoma of the skin comprises about 3.5% of the incidence (38,000 new cases in 1991) and 1.7% of the mortality (8500 deaths in 1991) of all cancer in the U.S. However, for several decades it has shown the fastest rate of increase of any cancer site. The following areas are discussed: background and recognition of increased melanoma at LLNL, history of melanoma studies at LLNL, results from occupational factors study, overall conclusion on increased melanoma incidence, and recommendations for future management.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Moore, D.H. II & Hatch, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ergonomics problems and solutions in biotechnology laboratories

Description: The multi-functional successful ergonomics program currently implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented with special emphasis on recent findings in the Biotechnology laboratory environment. In addition to a discussion of more traditional computer-related repetitive stress injuries and associated statistics, the presentation will cover identification of ergonomic problems in laboratory functions such as pipetting, radiation shielding, and microscope work. Techniques to alleviate symptoms and prevent future injuries will be presented.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Coward, T.W.; Stengel, J.W. & Fellingham-Gilbert, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department