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Atmospheric source-receptor relationships: Concepts and terminology

Description: This report reviews a number of conceptual bases for the interpretation of atmospheric source-receptor phenomena, including spatial attributes, nonlinearity, and temporal attributes. Source- receptor properties are commonly expressed and interpreted in terms of statistical parameters. Definitions of these parameters often vary from one user to the next, however, and the resulting potential for confusion suggests the need for a standard and accepted set of terms for applied use. Time-averaging is an important consideration in describing system linearity/nonlinearity as well as temporal and spatial variability. Unless expressed in terms of a conceptual model (such as a steady-state system) where a time-averaging is implied, explicit statement of the averaging time, or period of observation, is necessary for satisfactory definition of pertinent statistical features. This plus a number of additional contributing factors tend to complicate the description of source-receptor phenomena and underline the need for consistent terminology. This report provides a description of source-receptor linearity as well as several statistical measures of spatial and temporal variability in the source-receptor sequence. These are suggested for use as standard terminology in future source-receptor studies and in applied emission-control policy analyses. 8 refs., 8 figs.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Hales, J.M. & Renne, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A prompt start: Implementing the framework convention on climate change

Description: A Framework Convention on Climate Change is under active negotiation in the United Nations with the expectation it will be ready for Signature at the Rio Conference this June. Under the most optimistic projections, a Convention will not come into force and be an effective instrument for months, probably years. In recognition of the several institutional tasks that will be of crucial importance whatever the detailed content of the Convention a small group of high international organizations involved in the negotiations was convened at the Rockefeller Foundation's Conference Center at Bellagio in January. The discussions at Bellagio on the need for a Prompt Start on these institutional tasks benefitted from earlier meetings at Harvard in March and at Bermuda in May, 1991, that the co-organizers convened to discuss these and related aspects of the negotiations on a Climate Convention. Those meetings were attended by members of the academic community, officials from the United Nations, and representatives of governments involved in the negotiations.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Chayes, A. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Law School); Skolnikoff, E.B. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for International Studies) & Victor, D.G. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States) Dept. of Political Science)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fractional activation of accumulation-mode particles in warm continental stratiform clouds

Description: The degree of activation of accumulation-mode particles (AMP) in clouds has been studied using continuous (1 second average) aircraft measurements of the number concentrations of cloud droplets (N[sub cd], 2 to 35 [mu]m diameter) and of unactivated AMP (N[sub amp], 0.17 to 2.07 [mu]m diameter) in cloud interstitial air. The magnitude and spatial variation of the activated fraction (F) of all measured particles (defined as F [triple bond] N[sub cd]/N[sub tot], where N[sub tot] = N[sub cd] + N[sub amp]) are investigated, based on measurements made during ten aircraft flights in non-precipitating warm continental stratiform clouds near Syracuse NY in the fall of 1984. Based on instantaneous observations throughout the clouds, the spatial distribution of F was found to be quite nonuniform. In general, F was low in cloud edges and where total particle loading was high and/or cloud convective activity was low. In the interior of clouds, the value of F exceeded 0.9 for 36% of the data, but was below 0.6 for 28%. Factors influencing F the most were the total particle loading (N[sub tot]) and the thermal stability of the cloud layer. The dependence of F on N[sub tot] in cloud interior was characterized by two distinct regimes. For N[sub tot] < 600 cm[sup [minus]3], F was generally close to unity and relatively insensitive to N[sub tot]. For N[sub tot] > 800 cm[sup [minus]3], F tended to decrease with increasing N[sub tot]. This decrease was greatest in a stable stratus deck embedded in a warm moist airmass. The results suggest that, in warm continental stratiform clouds, the process of particle activation becomes nonlinear and self-limiting at high particle loading. The degree of this nonlinearity depends on cloud convective activity (thermal instability).
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Gillani, N.V. (Gillani (N.V.) Associates, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Daum, P.H.; Schwartz, S.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Leaitch, W.R.; Strapp, J.W. & Isaac, G.A. (Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, ON (Canada). Cloud Physics Research Div.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of an analytical technique for distributing air sampling locations around nuclear facilities

Description: A new analytical mechanism for distributing air sampling locations around nuclear facilities, including reactors, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and research centers, has been devised. This method was developed to facilitate the efficient incorporation of past experiences into environmental surveillance programs for now or developing installations. The technique provides an initial distribution of air samplers around a site which correlates well with placements on sites which have been occupied by long established programs with their inherent evolution and refinements. The applicability of this approach has been examined by comparing sampling locations in well-established air monitoring programs scattered worldwide with location distributions recommended by this mechanism. Results of these comparisons will be detailed.
Date: May 1, 1973
Creator: Waite, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A 3-D dynamical/chemical GCM for simulating the anthropogenical effects on ozone

Description: In spite of the significantly increased attention atmospheric ozone has received over the last two decades or so, a fully quantitative understanding of the three-dimensional ozone structure remains unavailable. In the past, one-dimensional (vertical column) models have provided most of the quantitative simulations of atmospheric chemical systems, because these models can treat large ensembles of chemical process economically. More recently, two-dimensional (meridional cross section) models have become popular, in part because of increasing computer capabilities. There has been little work using a sophisticated 3-D GCM coupled with a comprehensive photochemical model to study the chemical-dynamical interactions involving the ozone abundance. Namely, either the dynamics or the chemistry is too simplified in most of the existing models. Relatively more advanced photochemistry has been included in the stratospheric models (dealing the vertical domain from 20 to 70 km above the surface) at the expense of tropospheric details. An important motivation for this research has been the desire to estimate the magnitude of changes in the ozone layer induced by anthropogenic perturbations such as the injection of oxides of nitrogen and chlorine compounds. Accordingly, the attempt has been to develop a complete but feasible photochemical scheme and to combine it with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) 3-D GCM. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Kao, C.Y.J.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)) & Turco, R.P. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

(Acidic deposition and the environment)

Description: The travelers presented several papers at the Fourth International Conference on Acidic Deposition. These covered the following topics: atmospheric chemistry and deposition of airborne nitrogen compounds, soil solution chemistry in high-elevation spruce forests, and forest throughfall measurements for estimating total sulfur deposition to ecosystems. In addition, S. E. Lindberg was invited to organize and chair a conference session on Throughfall and Stemflow Experiments, and to present an invited lecture on Atmospheric Deposition and Canopy Interactions of Metals and Nitrogen in Forest Ecosystems: The Influence of Global Change'' at the 110th Anniversary Celebration of the Free University of Amsterdam.
Date: October 24, 1990
Creator: Garten, C.T.; Lindberg, S.E. & Van Miegroet, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GCM (general circulation model)-data intercomparison: The good news and the bad

Description: General circulation models (GCMs) are being actively used to assess possible climate change due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Because such simulations provide detailed climatic predictions at a wide range of scales, they are of particular interest to those making regional assessments of climatic change. It is especially important that workers using the results of such simulations be aware of some of the limitations of these results. In this study some of the positive results from these model simulations will be shown and some of the deficiencies will also be highlighted. Following an introductory section describing the nature of GCM climate simulations the issue of the spatial scales of such simulations is examined. A comparison of the results of seven GCM simulations of the current climate and the predictions of these models for the changes due to a doubling of CO{sub 2} will be discussed. In these intercomparisons, the spatial scale over which the results are compared varies from global to zonal (longitudinally averaged at a given latitude) to individual slices through the data along specified latitudes or longitudes. Finally, the dangers and pitfalls of relying on simple averages will be highlighted. 19 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.
Date: September 1, 1990
Creator: Grotch, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and application of procedures to evaluate air quality and visibility impacts of low-altitude flying operations

Description: This report describes the development and application of procedures to evaluate the effects of low-altitude aircraft flights on air quality and visibility. The work summarized in this report was undertaken as part of the larger task of assessing the various potential environmental impacts associated with low-altitude military airspaces. Accomplishing the air quality/visibility analysis for the GEIS included (1) development and application of an integrated air quality model and aircraft emissions database specifically for Military Training Route (MTR) or similar flight operations, (2) selection and application of an existing air quality model to analyze the more widespread and less concentrated aircraft emissions from military Operations Areas (MOAs) and Restricted Areas (RAs), and (3) development and application of procedures to assess impacts of aircraft emissions on visibility. Existing air quality models were considered to be inadequate for predicting ground-level concentrations of pollutants emitted by aircraft along MTRs; therefore, the Single-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (SAILS) and Multiple-Aircraft Instantaneous Line Source (MAILS) models were developed to estimate potential impacts along MTRs. Furthermore, a protocol was developed and then applied in the field to determine the degree of visibility impairment caused by aircraft engine exhaust plumes. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: August 1, 1990
Creator: Liebsch, E.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An expanding grid photochemical model for visibility applications

Description: Photochemical models for visibility applications normally suffer from several limitations which impair their application to point-source plumes. Lagrangian type models suffer from an inability to handle wind shear and reversing winds Eulerian based systems smear the plume unrealistically during the early part of its travel. To avoid these problems a new model has been developed and compared to measurements near a southwestern power plant. The new system is quasi-Lagrangian in that the grid at any point in time covers the volume occupied by contaminants at that time. Consequently, the modeled volume is small during the early portion of the plume and expands with time. The model is driven by winds, temperatures, and turbulences provided by a three-dimensional, prognostic, higher order turbulence, atmospheric circulation model (HOTMAC). In comparison with plume measurements in the southwest, the model produced reasonable predictions of dispersion and ozone, but underestimated sulfate formation. Nitrate predictions were much too low. 13 refs., 11 figs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Williams, M.D. & Streit, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precipitation scavenging models: Sensitivities, tests, and applications

Description: Multiphase'' atmospheric-chemistry models can be described as atmospheric-pollutant simulations that explicitly differentiate between physical phases in the atmosphere (.e.g., gas, cloud water, rain water, snow,...), and directly compute chemical transport and transformation behavior between and within each of these individual phases. Initially formulated for specific application to precipitation-scavenging analysis, many attributes of these models have become incorporated into the more general atmospheric-chemisty codes as well. During the past few years, several of these multiphase precipitation-scavenging models have been developed to the point where they can be applied, in a moderately straightforward fashion, by members of the extended atmospheric sciences community. This presentation provides a brief overview of several aspects of a number of these models, including their structure, their application, their sensitivities and uncertainty levels, their evaluation against field measurements, and their availability.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Hales, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scavenging ratios based on inflow air concentrations

Description: Scavenging ratios were calculated from field measurements made during April 1985. Event precipitation samples were collected at the surface, but air chemistry measurements in the air mass feeding the precipitation were made from an aircraft. In contrast, ratios calculated in previous studies have used air concentration and precipitation chemistry data from only surface measurements. Average scavenging ratios were calculated for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, total sulfate, total nitrate, and total ammonium for 5 events; the geometric mean of these scavenging ratios were 8.5 {times} 10{sup 5}, 5.6 {times} 10{sup 6}, 4.3 {times} 10{sup 5}, 3.4 {times} 10{sup 5}, 2.4 {times} 10{sup 6}, and 9.7 {times} 10{sup 4}, respectively. These means are similar to but less variable than previous ratios formed using only surface data.
Date: July 1, 1991
Creator: Davis, W.E.; Dana, M.T.; Lee, R.N.; Slinn, W.G.N. & Thorp, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Why is clean air clean

Description: Air exhibiting very low concentrations of light-scattering aerosol particles is occasionally observed even in industrialized regions. Evidence is presented that this very clean air results from highly efficient removal of aerosol particles coupled to the removal of water in precipitation.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Schwartz, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of measurements of aerosol elemental carbon at Wrangel Island, USSR, and Barrow, Alaska

Description: During the winter and spring seasons of 1989 and 1990, we collected samples of the background aerosol at Wrangel Island in the eastern Soviet Arctic. The samples were analyzed by optical transmission to determine the concentration of aerosol black'' carbon (BC), with results ranging from 5 to 167 nanograms per standard cubic meter. These results are compared with the continuous measurements at the NOAA/CMDL monitoring station at Barrow, Alaska for cases when meteorological trajectories connected the two locations with transit times of from one to two days. The preliminary results suggest that concentrations of aerosol BC are reduced at Wrangel relative to Barrow.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Polissar, A.V.; Kapustin, V.N. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Atmosfery) & Hansen, A.D.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of free-air CO sub 2 enrichment (FACE) technology to a forest canopy: A simulation study

Description: Forest ecosystems constitute an important part of the planet's land cover. Understanding their exchanges of carbon with the atmosphere is crucial in projecting future net atmospheric CO{sub 2} increases. It is also important that experimental studies of these processes be performed under conditions which are as realistic as possible, particularly with respect to photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. New technology and experimental protocols now exist which can facilitate studying an undisturbed forest canopy under long-term enriched CO{sub 2} conditions. The International Geosphere Biosphere Program of the International Council of Scientific Unions has established a subprogram on Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE). This program is driven by two major concerns: to be able to predict the effects of global change on the structure and function of ecosystems, and to predict how these changes will control both atmospheric CO{sub 2} and climate, through various feedback pathways. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a system for exposing field-grown plants to controlled elevated concentrations of atmospheric gases, without use of confining chambers that alter important atmospheric exchange processes. This system, called FACE for Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment. This paper focuses on the fluid mechanics of free-air fumigation and uses a numerical simulation model based on superposed gaussian plumes to project how the present ground-based system could be used to fumigate an elevated forest canopy.
Date: March 1, 1992
Creator: Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.L. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)) & Alexander, Y. (Israel Inst. for Biological Research, Ness Ziona (Israel))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of water spraying of field releases of hydrogen fluoride

Description: The effectiveness of water sprays to absorb HF releases has been recently demonstrated by extended laboratory and field tests. In this paper computer simulations are presented of the Hawk, Nevada Test Site, series of field tests, along with parametric studies of several cases which have not been studied in the field. The model used in these simulations, HFSPRAY, treats the gas-phase as an Eulerean fluid whereas the spray is described according to the Lagrangian approach by a finite number of drops of varying size and trajectory. HFSPRAY simulates the momentum, mass and energy interactions between a water spray and a turbulent plume of HF in air; it is capable of predicting the flow velocities, temperature, water vapor and HF concentration fields in two-dimensional large-geometries, for spraying in any direction, (i.e., down-flow, inclined-down-flow, up-flow, and co-current horizontal flow). 15 refs., 21 figs.
Date: October 14, 1990
Creator: Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Schatz, K.W. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States)) & Zakkay, V. (New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Science)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soot in the stratosphere: The impact of current and HSCT aircraft emissions

Description: One of the trace components of emissions from aircraft engines and other combustion sources are soot particles. These particles are strongly absorbing in the visible and IR spectra, may act as condensation nuclei, and may provide a large surface area for the catalytic promotion of gas-phase chemical reactions. Soot if found throughout the troposphere, even at remote locations, and also in the stratosphere. Present techniques do not allow an unambiguous identification of the sources. This paper discusses the emission of soot from existing and proposed aircraft and the contribution of this soot to concentrations observed in the troposphere and stratosphere. We consider the implications of these emissions for issues in stratospheric physics and chemistry. 11 refs.
Date: August 1, 1991
Creator: Hansen, A.D.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Pueschel, R.F. & Snetsinger, K.G. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Ames Research Center)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

Description: This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Demirgian, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building an advanced climate model: Program plan for the CHAMMP (Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics) Climate Modeling Program

Description: The issue of global warming and related climatic changes from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has received prominent attention during the past few years. The Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics (CHAMMP) Climate Modeling Program is designed to contribute directly to this rapid improvement. The goal of the CHAMMP Climate Modeling Program is to develop, verify, and apply a new generation of climate models within a coordinated framework that incorporates the best available scientific and numerical approaches to represent physical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes, that fully utilizes the hardware and software capabilities of new computer architectures, that probes the limits of climate predictability, and finally that can be used to address the challenging problem of understanding the greenhouse climate issue through the ability of the models to simulate time-dependent climatic changes over extended times and with regional resolution.
Date: December 1, 1990
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lagrangian analysis of contaminant dispersal in bounded turbulent shear flows

Description: Laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of passive scalar contaminant disperal in bounded shear flows have been carried out. Several modifications to the laboratory windtunnel have been carried out which will make possible laser sheet flow visualization along the whole length of the 8m test section. Backward particle paths needed to perform a Lagrangian analysis of scalar transport are in the process of being computed for each of the numerical data sets previously described. A light sheet system is being implemented which is capable of visualizing a 30cm X 30cm X 5cm portion of the wall layer in order to extract quantitative information about the structure of the scalar plumes.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Bernard, P.S.; Wallace, J.M. & Balint, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon dioxide, climate and the deep ocean circulation: Carbon chemistry model

Description: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of oceanic carbon chemistry in modulating the atmospheric levels of CO[sub 2]. It is well known that the oceans are the primary sink of the excess carbon pumped into the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial period. The suspended particulate and the dissolved organic matters in the deep ocean play important roles as carriers of carbon and other elements critical to the fate of CO[sub 2]. In addition, the suspended particulate matter provides sites for oxidation-reduction reactions and microbial activities. The problem is of an intricate system with complex chemical, physical and biological processes. This report describes a methodology to describe the interconversions of different forms of the organic and inorganic nutrients, that may be incorporated in the ocean circulation models. Our approach includes the driving force behind the transfers in addition to balancing the elements. Such thermodynamic considerations of describing the imbalance in the chemical potentials is a new and unique feature of our approach.
Date: September 21, 1992
Creator: Menawat, A.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performing wind-tunnel modeling for better management of near-field risks

Description: All industrial complexes must be able to demonstrate that air pollutant concentrations from normal and accidental releases are within the bounds of stringent acceptance criteria. The offsite concentrations are comparatively easy to compute with the standard Gaussian models. By contrast, the onsite (in particular, near-field) concentrations can be more complex since the wind flows can interact with various structures in complex ways to create regions of relatively high local concentrations. Three methods can be used to predict the air pollutant concentrations: (1) mathematical models, (2) field experiments, and (3) fluid models (wind-tunnel testing). The complex flow in the vicinity of buildings is not amenable to simple mathematical generalizations. Field experiments cannot encompass the wind spectrum of meteorological conditions in the time generally allotted. Wind tunnel testing works best where numerical models fail and field testing is not applicable. This paper covers the following aspects related to the wind-tunnel modeling studies: (1) planning strategies; (2) types of wind-tunnel modeling studies flow visualization and concentration measurement experiments; (3) highlights (video tape show) of the wind tunnel experiments; (4) technical challenges; and (5) various applications.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Huang, Ju-Chrong & Weber, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants. [Foreign Trip Report]

Description: Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.
Date: February 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling the uncertain impacts of climate change

Description: Human and earth systems are extremely complex processes. The modeling of these systems to assess the effects of climate change is an activity fraught with uncertainty. System models typically involve the linking of a series of computer codes, each of which is a detailed model of some physical or social process in its own right. In such system models, the output from one process model is the input to another. Traditional methods for dealing with uncertainty are inadequate because of the sheer complexity of the modeling effort: Monte Carlo methods and the exhaustive evaluation of what if '' scenarios estimate sensitivities fail because of the heavy computational burden. More efficient methods are required for learning about system models that are constructed from a collection of computer codes. A two-tiered modeling approach is being developed to estimate the distribution of outcomes from a series of nested models. The basic strategy is to develop a simplified executive, or simplified system code (SSC), that is analogous to the more complex underlying code. An essential feature of the SSC is that it uses information abstracted from the detailed underlying process codes in a manner that preserves their essential features and interactions among them. Of course, to be useful, the SSC must be much faster to run than its complex counterpart. The success of the SSC modeling strategy depends on the methods used to extract essential features of the complex underlying codes.
Date: August 1, 1992
Creator: Liebetrau, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming

Description: During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Hoffert, M.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department