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Replacement by Caenis diminuta walker (ephemeroptera:caenidae) in the mayfly community structure of a thermally-stressed, southeastern stream

Description: Mayfly community structure on sycamore and sweetgum leaf packs in a thermally-stressed, post-thermal and an unstressed stream were compared. Leaves were colonized over an 11 wk (77 d) period from December 1982 to March 1983. Degree-days (> 0/sup 0/C) accumulated were 1014, 638 and 627 for the thermally-stressed, post-thermal and unstressed streams, respectively. Significant differences in mayfly community structure were found between the thermally-stressed vs. the post-thermal and unstressed streams with respect to both Stenonema spp. and Caenis diminuta Walker. No significant differences in community structure were found between the two leaf species. Stenonema spp. dominated the mayfly fauna over the sampling period for both the unstressed (68%) and post-thermal (98%) streams; however, C. diminuta replaced Stenonema spp. as the dominant mayfly (88%) within leaf packs from the stream receiving thermal effluent. Additional data suggest C. diminuta is tolerant of rapidly fluctuating thermal regimes (..delta.. T of up to 11/sup 0/C in 1 h) and high temperatures (up to 40/sup 0/C). 30 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Poff, N L & Matthews, R A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal-nutritional regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Technical progress report, October 1, 1978-November 1, 1980

Description: The research encompassed three general areas: (1) characterization of stream macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups (shredders, collectors, scrapers, and predators) based on morphological and behavioral adaptations and food-source-specific growth responses of selected species; (2) demonstration of the relative importance of temperature and food quality (in which maximum quality is defined as that producing the most growth) in controlling growth rate and survivorship of stream functional groups; and (3) derivation and refinement of conceptual and quantitative models of stream ecosystem structure and function, with particular emphasis on detrital processing. Verification of the functional group concept as a tool for assessing and predicting is reflected in alterations of the relative dominance of various functional groups. Food quality can strongly influence the growth rates of shredders, collectors and scrapers and override the effects of temperature in a number of cases. Gathering collectors may select food particles by size (or at least be restricted to a limited portion of the total range available) but representative species do not appear to select for quality.
Date: November 1, 1980
Creator: Cummins, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal effects on aquatic organisms: an annotated bibliography of the 1977 literature

Description: This bibliography, containing 537 references from the 1977 literature, is the seventh in a series of annotated bibliographies on the effects of heat on aquatic organisms. The effects of thermal discharges at power plant sites are emphasized. Laboratory and field studies on temperature tolerance and the effects of temperature changes on reproduction, development, growth, distribution, physiology, and sensitivity to other stresses are included. References in the bibliography are divided into three subject categories: marine systems, freshwater systems, and estuaries. The references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Indexes are provided for author, keywords, subject category, geographic location of the study, taxon, and title (alphabetical listing of keywords-in-context of nontrivial words in the title).
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Talmage, S.S. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Primary production and biovolume of chroococcoid cyanobacteria in relation to other phytoplankton in southeastern US lakes

Description: Primary production rates and algal biovolumes were measured for various size classes of phytoplankton in three South Carolina lakes. Size classes of less than 3 ..mu..m accounted for 15 to 40% of the total primary production but only represented less than 5% of the total algal biovolume. Fluorescence microscopic analyses and laboratory culturing experiments indicated that chroococcoid cyanobacteria (unicellular blue-green algae) were primarily responsible for the relatively high primary production rates by the less than 3-..mu..m component of the phytoplankton.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Tison, D. L. & Wilde, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interactions of Corbicula sp. with power plants. [Power plant condenser fouling by clams, use of waste heat for control of fouling by clams, and use of thermal effluents in clam aquaculture]

Description: There are three perspectives with which to view the interaction of Corbicula and power plants: as a fouling agent; as an important part of the natural ecosystem; and as a potential species for use in waste heat aquaculture. The first two of these interactions are essentially negative in character, since they involve avoidance of impacts either of Corbicula on power plant operation or of power plant operation on Corbicula. Condenser fouling by these claims has been controlled by mechanical means or by continuous chlorination. Our data support the potential for using heated water to control fouling and a model for determining required thermal dosing is presented. Preliminary data also indicate potential for control by combining simultaneous short-term exposure to hot water and chlorine. The third of the interactions is essentially positive in character. The use of thermal effluents in Corbicula aquaculture systems is proposed.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Mattice, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological surveys on the Savannah River in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (1951-1976)

Description: In 1951, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was contracted by the Savannah River Plant to initiate a long-term monitoring program in the Savannah River. The purpose of this program was to determine the effect of the Savannah River Plant on the Savannah River aquatic ecosystem. The data from this monitoring program have been computerized by the Savannah River Laboratory, and are summarized in this report. During the period from 1951-1976, 16 major surveys were conducted by the Academy in the Savannah River. Water chemistry analyses were made, and all major biological communities were sampled qualitatively during the spring and fall of each survey year. In addition, quantitative diatom data have been collected quarterly since 1953. Major changes in the Savannah River basin, in the Savannah River Plant's activities, and in the Academy sampling patterns are discussed to provide a historical overview of the biomonitoring program. Appendices include a complete taxonomic listing of species collected from the Savannah River, and summaries of the entire biological and physicochemical data base.
Date: April 1, 1982
Creator: Matthews, R. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Presence of pathogenic amoebae in power plant cooling waters. Final report, October 15, 1977-September 30, 1979. [Naegleria fowleri]

Description: Cooling-water-associated algae and sediments from five northern and five southern or western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. In addition, water algae and sediments from five northern and five southern/western sites not associated with power plants were tested. There was a significant correlation at northern power plants between the presence of thermophilic, pathogenic amoebae in cooling waters and thermal additions. Presence of the pathogenic did not correlate with salinity, pH, conductivity, or a variety of various chemical components of the cooling waters. Selected pathogenic isolates were tested serologically and were classified as Naegleria fowleri. Although thermal additions were shown to be contributing factor in predisposing cooling waters to the growth of pathogenic amoebae, the data suggest the involvement of other currently undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic amoebae. 35 refs., 21 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E. & Stevens, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transport and dispersion of pollutants in surface impoundments: a finite difference model

Description: A surface impoundment model by finite-difference (SIMFD) has been developed. SIMFD computes the flow rate, velocity field, and the concentration distribution of pollutants in surface impoundments with any number of islands located within the region of interest. Theoretical derivations and numerical algorithm are described in detail. Instructions for the application of SIMFD and listings of the FORTRAN IV source program are provided. Two sample problems are given to illustrate the application and validity of the model.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Yeh, G.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isolation of pathogenic Naegleria from artificially heated waters

Description: Investigations were undertaken to determine whether heated waters facilitate the proliferation of free-living amoeba that cause primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Water samples were taken close to the discharges of power plants situated on lakes or rivers in Florida and Texas and from cooling towers in Tennessee. The water temperatures ranged from 29 to 42/sup 0/C. Water samples were also taken from several lakes in Florida and Texas without associated power plants. The water temperatures of these ranged from 30/sup 0/ to 34/sup 0/C. Twenty-five-250-ml samples were filtered through membranes. Samples taken from the control lakes and cooling towers showed no growth of pathogenic amoeba, whereas growth was obtained from 2 of the 8 lakes and rivers in Florida and from 1 of the 7 man-made lakes in Texas that were artificially heated. The amoebae were identified as belonging to the genus Naegleria from their trophozoite and cyst structure, ability to grow at 45/sup 0/C, to transform into flagellates, and to produce primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in mice after intranasal instillation. Their identification as N. fowleri was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescent analysis with antiserum produced against N. fowleri. These findings indicate that artificial heating of waters may facilitate the growth of pathogenic free living amoeba.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Tyndall, R L; Willaert, E; Stevens, A R & Coutant, C C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Periphyton responses to nutrient enrichment and elevated temperatures in a low pH South Carolina stream: effects on biomass and productivity

Description: The interactive effects of elevated temperatures and nutrient enrichment on periphyton communities on glass slides were studied for one year in the Flowing Streams Laboratory, operated by Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) for the Department of Energy (Figure 1). Water from a South Carolina stream called Upper Three Runs, characterized by low pH and low nutrient concentrations and with intermittent swamp drainage, was used.
Date: June 19, 1979
Creator: Brown, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Downstream extent of the N Reactor plume

Description: The downstream extent of the N Reactor thermal plume was studied to assess the potential for fisheries impacts downstream of N Reactor. The N Reactor plume, as defined by the 0.5/sup 0/F isotherm, will extend less than 10 miles downstream at river flows greater than or equal to annual average flows (120,000 cfs). Incremental temperature increases at the Oregon-Washington border are expected to be less than 0.5/sup 0/F during all Columbia River flows greater than the minimum regulated flows (36,000 cfs). The major physical factor affecting Columbia River temperatures in the Hanford Reach is solar radiation. Because the estimated temperature increase resulting from N Reactor operations is less than 0.3/sup 0/F under all flow scenarios, it is unlikely that Columbia River fish populations will be adversely impacted.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Dauble, D.D.; Ecker, R.M.; Vail, L.W. & Neitzel, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Predicting effects of cold shock: modeling the decline of a thermal plume

Description: Predicting direct impact of cold shock on aquatic organisms after termination of power plant thermal discharges requires thermal tests that provide quantitative data on the resistance of acclimated species to lower temperatures. Selected examples from the literature on cold shock resistance of freshwater and marine fishes are illustrated to show predictive use. Abrupt cold shock data may be applied to field situations involving either abrupt or gradual temperature declines but yield conservative estimates under the latter conditions. Gradual cold shock data may be applied where heated plumes gradually dissipate because poikilotherms partially compensate for lowering temperature regimes. A simplified analytical model is presented for estimating thermal declines in terminated plumes originating from offshore, submerged discharges where shear current and boundary effects are minimal. When applied to site-specific conditions, the method provides time-temperature distributions for correlation with cold resistance data and, therefore, aids in assessing cold shock impact on aquatic biota.
Date: October 1, 1977
Creator: Becker, C.D.; Trent, D.S. & Schneider, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980

Description: A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem.
Date: March 1, 1981
Creator: Tilly, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-dimensional transient far-field analysis for the excess temperature from an arbitrary source

Description: An analytic solution is presented for the two-dimensional time-dependent advective diffusion equation governing the distribution of excess temperature in a river of uniform width, depth, and downstream flow. The solution is also applicable to a straight coastline with uniform longshore flow. Exact solutions are obtained for a point heat source and a particular line heat source, while an approximate representation is given for an arbitrary time-varying heat source. These solutions are incorporated into a computer program which calculates excess temperature and time rate-of-change of excess temperature in a river or coast as a result of waste heat discharged from various transient sources.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Witten, A.J. & Long, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physiological stress of acidification on fishes and its manifestation. Technical progress report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978

Description: The hypothesis was tested that the reproductive function would exhibit compensation to temperature if the organism was bred and reared at temperatures which produced less than optimal reproductive performance. Desert pupfish, Cyprinodon n. nevadensis, were bred and the eggs reared at the optimum temperature for reproduction, 28/sup 0/C, and at two marginal temperatures, 24/sup 0/ and 32/sup 0/C. Each brood was divided into three groups and reproductive performance was tested at the rearing temperature and at two alternate temperatures to which they had never before been exposed. The eggs laid per spawning and eggs laid per gram body weight per day showed no compensation to rearing temperature. Reproductive performance was optimal at 28/sup 0/C and was poor at both marginal temperatures, regardless of the previous thermal history of the fish. Lower hatchability at 32/sup 0/C was associated with a thin egg coat, small yolk diameter, and low gonosomatic index as compared with the same measurements at the lower temperatures.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Gerking, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water resources research program. Thermal plumes from submerged discharges at Zion Nuclear Power Station: additional prototype measurements of interacting plumes

Description: Measurements were made of the thermal plumes from the two submerged discharges of the Zion plant into Lake Michigan during the summer of 1976. The survey results are reported in the form of horizontal isotherm maps at vertical intervals of 1.0 m, from the surface to a depth of 3.0 m, and of selected vertical cross sections. Ambient lake-water temperatures and currents were monitored throughout the study period. Analysis of data from two mappings of double plumes made in 1975 by Argonne at this site had indicated that significant interaction between the plumes from the adjacent discharges occurred in the presence of an ambient current. The interaction resulted in surface areas of the double plumes that were more than ten times the sum of two separate, single-discharge plumes. Comparisons of the results of the present surveys with the previous mappings are limited somewhat because of the difficulties in defining the ambient, or background, water temperature. Temperature data collected in the 1976 surveys exhibited large spatial and temporal variability. Vertical temperature stratification during one of these surveys resulted in entrainment of cooler near-bottom water, greatly reducing plume surface temperatures; and intrusion of a cool-water mass into the site area during the other survey made it possible to define only a range of ambient temperatures. The conclusions from the analysis of the additional double-plume data, constrained by the variability cited above, are that the surface isotherm areas associated with the downcurrent, shielded plume were larger than those of a single plume discharged in the same direction, and that the total double-plume surface isotherm area in one survey appears to exceed that of the sum of two separate, single-discharge plumes.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Paddock, R.A.; Frigo, A.A. & Ditmars, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of thermal shock on developmental stages of estuarine fish. Final report

Description: Physiological data and ecological data show that the few estuarine spawners have a higher thermal tolerance in the embryonic and larval stages than do the freshwater, coastal, or oceanic spawning species. However, since all three groups (freshwater, estuarine, and oceanic spawners) occupy the estuary and coastal waters at different times of the year, knowledge of their physiology and ecology at different developmental or life cycle stages is critical for estuarine management decisions.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Dean, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Creation of an industry information resource to catalogue power plant cooling system impacts and mitigation measures affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. [Cooling Systems Effects Data Base]

Description: The data base design and scope, as well as the products and services offered, for the Cooling Systems Effects Data Base are summarized.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Hannon, E.H.; D'Angelo, L.J. & Talmage, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLUOMEG: a planar finite difference mesh generator for fluid flow problems with parallel boundaries. [In FORTRAN IV]

Description: A two- or three-dimensional finite difference mesh generator capable of discretizing subrectangular flow regions (planar coordinates) with arbitrarily shaped bottom contours (vertical dimension) was developed. This economical, interactive computer code, written in FORTRAN IV and employing DISSPLA software together with graphics terminal, generates first a planar rectangular grid of variable element density according to the geometry and local kinematic flow patterns of a given fluid flow problem. Then subrectangular areas are deleted to produce canals, tributaries, bays, and the like. For three-dimensional problems, arbitrary bathymetric profiles (river beds, channel cross section, ocean shoreline profiles, etc.) are approximated with grid lines forming steps of variable spacing. Furthermore, the code works as a preprocessor numbering the discrete elements and the nodal points. Prescribed values for the principal variables can be automatically assigned to solid as well as kinematic boundaries. Cabinet drawings aid in visualizing the complete flow domain. Input data requirements are necessary only to specify the spacing between grid lines, determine land regions that have to be excluded, and to identify boundary nodes. 15 figures, 2 tables.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Kleinstreuer, C. & Patterson, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and analysis of aquatic monitoring programs at nuclear power plants.

Description: This report addresses some of the problems of designing, conducting, and analyzing aquatic environmental monitoring programs for impact assessment of nuclear power plants. The concepts discussed are applicable to monitoring the effects of chemical, radioactive, or thermal effluents. The concept of control and treatment station pairs is the fundamental basis for the experimental method proposed. This concept is based on the hypothesis that the relationship between the two stations forming the pair can be estimated from the preoperational period and that this relationship holds during the operational period. Any changes observed in this relationship during the operational period are assumed to be the result of the power plant impacts. Thus, it is important that station pairs are selected so it can be assumed that they respond to natural environmental changes in a manner that maintains that relationship. The major problem in establishing the station pairs will be the location of the control station. The universal heterogeneity in the environment will prevent the establishment of identical station pairs. The requirement that the control station remain unaffected by the operation of the power plant dictates a spacial separation with its associated differences in habitat. Thus, selection of the control station will be based upon balancing the following two criteria: (1) far enough away from the plant site to be beyond the plant influence, and (2) close enough to the treatment station that the biological communities will respond to natural environmental changes consistently in the same manner.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: McKenzie, D.H.; Kannberg, L.D.; Gore, K.L.; Arnold, E.M. & Watson, D.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the potential for fish passage through the N Reactor and the Hanford generating project discharges

Description: The potential for juvenile downstream-migrating salmonids to encounter both the Hanford Generating Project (HGP) and N Reactor discharges was evaluated. Three general scenarios were assessed for fish exposure: (1) HGP plume centerline passage followed by N Reator plum centerline passage, (2) HGP plume centerline passage including intersection with the N Reactor plume, and (3) noncenterline plume passage through the edge of first the HGP and then the N Reactor plume. It is highly unlikely that a fish would pass through both plume centerlines because of the location of the two discharges and because of river-mixing characteristics near the discharges. For the set of conditions that we evaluated, exposure to elevated temperatures would be of insufficient duration to result in mortalities to fish that might encounter both the HGP and N Reactor plumes.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Dauble, D.D.; Vail, L.W. & Neitzel, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Argonne National Laboratory's thermal plume measurements: instruments and techniques

Description: Instrumentation and techniques were developed at Argonne National Laboratory for measuring the three-dimensional temperature structure of thermal plumes from power plants, along with the limnological, meteorological, and plant operating conditions affecting their behavior. The equipment and procedures were designed to provide field data for use in evaluating predictive models that describe thermal plume behavior, and over 100 sets of these data have been collected. The instrument systems and techniques employed in a typical thermal discharge survey are highly integrated. Continuous monitoring of ambient and plant conditions is coupled with plume mapping from a moving survey boat. The instantaneous location of the boat together with subsurface temperature measurements from a towed thermistor chain provide a quasisynoptic view of the plume structure. Real-time, onboard display of the boat path and vertical temperatures supply feedback to investigators for determining the extent and spatial resolution of measurements required. The unique design, reliability, accuracy, calibration, and historical development of the components of these integrated systems are described. Survey system interfaces with data handling and processing techniques are also explained. Special supportive studies to investigate plume dynamics, values of eddy diffusivities, time-temperature histories of water parcels in thermal plumes, and rapid changes in plume shape are also described along with instrumentation used.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Van Loon, L.S.; Frigo, A.A. & Paddock, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department