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Regulatory standards and other guidelines for goundwater monitoring programs

Description: This report has been prepared to provide information on regulatory programs relevant to a groundwater monitoring program. The information provides a framework within which planners and decisions makers can systematically consider the maze of specific requirements and guidance as they develop a groundwater strategy for the Hanford Site. Although this report discusses legislation and regulations as they pertain to groundwater monitoring activities, it is not intended as a legal opinion. Rather, it is provided as a guide to the relationships among the various regulatory programs related to groundwater. Federal and state environmental pollution control statutes and regulations that have been reviewed in this document include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); Washington's Hazardous Waste Management Act; Washington's Solid Waste Management Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability, and Compensation Act (CERCLA); the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA); the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The implications and details of these regulations as they may apply to Hanford are discussed. The information contained within this report can be used to develop the Hanford Site's groundwater quality protection programs, assess regulatory compliance, and characterize the Hanford Site for potential remediation and corrective actions. 5 refs., 14 tabs.
Date: July 1, 1989
Creator: Keller, J.F.; Schmidt, A.J. & Selby, K.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy history chronology from World War II to the present

Description: This report provides a basic guide to the major Presidential, Legislative, Judicial, and Federal agency actions relating to energy policy, research, development, and regulation in recent years. The chronology is arranged synoptically, allowing users to reference easily the historical context in which each event occurred. Summaries of Presidential, Legislative, and Judicial actions relating to energy, rosters of federal energy officials, and a genealogy of federal energy agencies are also provided in separate appendices. The Energy History Chronology was prepared in conjunction with the History Division's series of pamphlets on the Institutional Origins of the Department of Energy. The series includes concise histories of the Department of Energy, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Energy Administration, and the Atomic Energy Commission. All significant events and achievements noted in the institutional history are also listed.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Dean, P.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - environmental protection

Description: In the Federal Register of May 19, 1980, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated final hazardous waste regulations according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. The major substantive portions of these regulations went into effect on November 19, 1980, and established a federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal. In an effort to comply with these regulations, a Hazardous Materials Management and Control Program was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program is administered by two Hazardous Materials Coordinators, who together with various support groups, ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are handled in such a manner that all personnel, the general public, and the environment are adequately protected.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Eisenhower, B.M. & Oakes, T.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oil shale in the Piceance Basin: an analysis of land use issues

Description: The purpose of this study was to contribute to a framework for establishing policies to promote efficient use of the nation's oil shale resources. A methodology was developed to explain the effects of federal leasing policies on resource recovery, extraction costs, and development times associated with oil shale surface mines. This report investigates the effects of lease size, industrial development patterns, waste disposal policies, and lease boundaries on the potential of Piceance Basin oil shale resource. This approach should aid in understanding the relationship between federal leasing policies and requirements for developing Piceance Basin oil shale. 16 refs., 46 figs. (DMC)
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Rubenson, D. & Pei, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of soil contamination guidance

Description: A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).
Date: August 1, 1981
Creator: Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr. & Soldat, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Paraho oil shale module. Site development plan, Task 4

Description: A management plan and schedule which covers all requirements for gaining access to the site and for conducting a Paraho Process demonstration program have been prepared. The oil shale available should represent a regional resource of suitable size and quality for commercial development. Discussed in this report are: proof of ownership; requirements for rights-of-way for access to the site; local zoning restrictions; water rights; site availability verification; and other legal requirements. (DMC)
Date: October 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guidelines for Hanford Site implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act

Description: The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental review process is mandatory for federal agencies. Understanding and complying with NEPA is extremely important to successfully planning and implementing programs at the Hanford Site. This report is intended to help planners and decision makers understand NEPA by describing the NEPA process as it is outlined in NEPA, in regulations, and in guidance information. The requirements and guidance documents that set forth the NEPA process are discussed. Some of the major NEPA concepts and issues are also addressed. This report is intended to be used as a general road map through the maze of NEPA requirements and guidance to ensure that Hanford Site activities are conducted in compliance with NEPA. Enhanced knowledge of the NEPA process is expected to increase the ability of the Hanford Site to work with regulators, interested parties and the public to ensure that the potential environmental impacts of DOE activities are fully considered at the Hanford Site. In addition, an enhanced understanding of NEPA will help project and program managers to integrate NEPA compliance requirements with program planning. 43 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1989
Creator: King, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal and regulatory issues affecting the aquifer thermal energy storage concept

Description: A number of legal and regulatory issus that potentially can affect implementation of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) concept are examined. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.
Date: October 1, 1980
Creator: Hendrickson, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of interstate compacts to energy-facility siting

Description: This paper examines the nature and function of interstate compacts in the US, and explores their potential for helping to resolve environmental issues related to the siting and permitting of energy-producing facilities (e.g., power plants, synthetic fuel plants). Elements of state energy facility-siting programs are identified, and the ability of interstate compacts to assist in accomplishing each element is analyzed. This analysis provides the basis for assessing the potential capabilities and limitations of compacts, and for initially estimating the possible benefits of a Federal program to promote the formation of compacts to address regional energy-siting issues.
Date: October 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal development and environmental protection procedures

Description: The means of implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 in a Federal geothermal development program are discussed. Various geothermal development constraints are discussed, and the role of the Area Geothermal Supervisor (AGS) is outlined. Steps providing for prelease and postlease environmental protection are given. Suggested solutions to various problems arising from implementation of the Geothermal Steam Act and NEPA are summarized. (JGB)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Chiang, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refinery siting workbook: appendices C to O

Description: Applicable laws and permits available for the selection and building of petroleum refineries are enclosed. A glossary of pertinent terms is also included. References related to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Air Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Toxic Substance Control Act, and Wetlands and Coastal Zone are included. Permit information is also presented. (DC)
Date: July 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume One, Libby Dam Project, Operator, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Description: This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Libby Dam project on the Kootenai River and previous mitigation of these losses. The current assessment documents the best available information concerning the impacts to the wildlife populations inhabiting the project area prior to construction of the dam and creation of the reservoir. Many of the impacts reported in this assessment differ from those contained in the earlier document compiled by the Fish and Wildlife Service; however, this document is a thorough compilation of the available data (habitat and wildlife) and, though conservative, attempts to realistically assess the impacts related to the Libby Dam project. Where appropriate the impacts resulting from highway construction and railroad relocation were included in the assessment. This was consistent with the previous assessments.
Date: October 1, 1984
Creator: Yde, Chris A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental radiation standards. [Outline of slide presentation]

Description: This document contains an outline of an oral presentation on environmental radiation standards presented to the American Nuclear Societies' Topical Conference on Population Exposure from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The paper contains several definitions, a summary of current radiation exposure limits; and numerous proposed changes to current standards. 7 figs. (TEM)
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Kocher, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hierarchical decomposition approach to environmental policy analysis

Description: This paper presents a methodology for environmental analysis that starts with the regional and national models, in this case the Multi-Regional energy System Optimization Model (M-RESOM) and the Brookhaven Energy System Optimization Model (BESOM), used in a mode for solar technology assessment. The linkage from BESOM through the National Long Term Inter-industry and Transactions Model (LTIM), also known as the Hudson-Jorgenson Model, ensures that the effect of energy prices and capital requirements on the economy is properly accounted for. Disaggregation to sectors is made through the Brookhaven Univ. of Illinois input-output model, and the national energy supply, energy demand, and non-energy sectoral outputs are calibrated (used as control totals) for the regional model. The regional model is then used for energy siting through the County Level Electric Facility Siting Model (CLEFS) and as a check on the geographic disaggregation for energy activity through the Office of the Bureau of Economic Research Service (OBERS) projections. By following either of these paths, residuals can be generated either by the National Emissions Data System (NEDS) or by allocating the regional emissions in accordance with the outcome of the siting model. Finally, the emissions now localized at the county level are fed into the emissions transport model that determines the air quality. These can be used with a damage function to determine the health impact of energy generation emissions, and with appropriate coefficients, to determine the health impacts of extraction, transport, and processing.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Marcuse, W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of hazardous-waste regulation at federal facilities

Description: This report is organized in a fashion that is intended to explain the legal duties imposed on officials responsible for hazardous waste at each stage of its existence. Section 2 describes federal hazardous waste laws, explaining the legal meaning of hazardous waste and the protective measures that are required to be taken by its generators, transporters, and storers. In addition, penalties for violation of the standards are summarized, and a special discussion is presented of so-called imminent hazard provisions for handling hazardous waste that immediately threatens public health and safety. Although the focus of Sec. 2 is on RCRA, which is the principal federal law regulating hazardous waste, other federal statutes are discussed as appropriate. Section 3 covers state regulation of hazardous waste. First, Sec. 3 explains the system of state enforcement of the federal RCRA requirements on hazardous waste within their borders. Second, Sec. 3 discusses two peculiar provisions of RCRA that appear to permit states to regulate federal facilities more strictly than RCRA otherwise would require.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Tanzman, E.; LaBrie, B. & Lerner, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

Description: As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A. & Soldat, J.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed policy for decontamination and decommissioning

Description: Guidelines for decontamination and decommissioning were presented and discussed at this workshop. Statements considered were: (1) the dose limits will be those currently available as federal guidance from the President or as regulation; (2) the actual cleanup will be conducted to provide final levels as low as can be reasonably achieved; (3) DOE will retain effective direction of the work during its progress; (4) a precleanup survey, including both radiological measurements and thorough documentation of the previous use or uses of the property will be made to assist in planning; (5) the use of single radionuclide to serve as an indicator for a group of radionuclides shall be proven to be valid for each area; (6) all operations during the initial survey, cleanup, and final certification of the area will be thoroughly documented; (7) the final judgment on the suitability of the area for its final use will be made from a final certification survey along with consideration of the information collected during the cleanup; and (8) instrumentation, sampling methods and analytical methods shall be properly calibrated, shall have appropriate sensitivity and shall be capable of giving results in a time meaningful to the cleanup operations or certification survey. (DC)
Date: April 10, 1980
Creator: Healy, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the Office of Surface Mining estimates of the cost of implementing the surface mining control and reclamation act

Description: This report has focused on the adequacy of OSM's cost estimates for implementation of SMCRA's discretionary regulations. In considering whether the Regulatory Analysis included the proper regulations and subparts we determined that only three discretionary regulations were not assessed in the RA. Our analysis of the model mine data base concluded that D'Appolonia Consulting Engineers used sound bases for their cost estimates. There were no apparent methodological errors. In estimating the costs of those additional discretionary regulations which should have been included in the Regulatory Analysis, only one such regulation was found to have a significant or measureable implementation cost. While this cost should have been included in OSM's cost estimate, it amounts to an increase of only three percent in the estimated cost of complying with the discretionary regulations. The Regulatory Analysis should be viewed in its proper light. It is an attempt to estimate the cost of complying with SMCRA's discretionary regulations. It is not an attempt to measure the total cost of implementing SMCRA. It has been shown to be, generally, an accurate analysis.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

Description: This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.
Date: March 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A method for determining allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclide mixtures in soil

Description: An important consideration in the disposal of radioactive wastes, and consequently in the preparation of plans for remedial actions at contaminated sites, is the amount of radioactive contamination that may be allowed to remain at any particular waste site. The allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) is dependent on the radiation dose limit imposed, the physical and environmental characteristics of the waste site, and the time at which exposure to the wastes is assumed to occur. The steps in generating an ARCL are generally as follows: (1) develop plausible, credible site-specific exposure scenario; (2) calculate maximum annual radiation doses to an individual for each radionuclide based on the existing physical characteristics of the waste site and the site-specific exposure scenario; (3) calculate the ARCL for the dose limit desired, including all radionuclides present, uncorrected for site cleanup or barrier considerations; and (4) apply any corrections for proposed cleanup activity or addition of barriers to waste migration or uptake to obtain the ARCL applicable to the proposed action. Use of this method allows appropriate application of resources to achieve uniform compliance with a single regulatory standard, i.e., a radiation dose rate limit. Application and modification of the ARCL method requires appropriate models of the environmental transport and fate of radionuclides. Example calculations are given for several specific waste forms and waste site types in order to demonstrate the technique and generate comparisons with other approaches.
Date: May 1, 1982
Creator: Napier, B.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental protection appraisals: a suggested guide for US Department of Energy field organization. Revision 1

Description: This manual has been prepared to assist DOE field organizations in conducting environmental protection appraisals of activities at DOE operating-level facilities. Its primary use will be by DOE operations offices in their appraisal of facilities operating under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act. However, the manual can also be used by other DOE field organizations. This manual is organized in modules that parallel those in the internal environmental audit checklist. It is assumed that the contractor is using the guide previously described (Internal Environmental Protection Audits) and that operations office staff members will have the opportunity to review or be cognizant of the contractor's completed internal audit, and other material generated within the facility, in preparation for the appraisal. This manual was developed to facilitate the appraisal process by providing operations office staff with a choice of modules that can be used independently or as a unit. The manual gives guidelines for reviewing information submitted to the operations office before the site visit and for conducting an on-site operating-level appraisal.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Barisas, S.; Polich, J.; Surles, T.; Habegger, L.; Anderson, D.; Opelka, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Land use and energy

Description: This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ALARA and de minimis concepts in regulation of personnel exposure

Description: The ALARA process should not be limited by a de minimis level on either collective or individual dose, but should be limited or defined by an acceptable discount-rate on future costs and effects, and a monetary value for detriment, to be used in cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit calculations at dose levels well below the regulatory limits. This approach would provide the desired benefit of simplifying the decision process, it makes it more cost effective, and would avoid the inconsistencies of limits on only one of the four parameters of importance in the optimization process. These are average individual effective dose equivalent rate, number of individuals to be included in the summation, years of exposure, and costs, which include costs of analysis to reduce the exposure. This approach emphasizes that these doses to an individual may not be considered trivial by society when given to a very large population, especially if they could easily be avoided. 32 refs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Baum, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental surveillance data report for the fourth quarter of 1986

Description: The Department of Environmental Management (DEM) within the Environmental and Occupational Safety Division (E and OS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for environmental surveillance to: (1) assure compliance with all Federal, State, and DOE requirements for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution; (2) monitor the adequacy of containment and effluent controls; and (3) assess impacts of releases from ORNL facilities on the environment. To comply with these objectives, both monitoring and sampling of environmental constituents is performed. The surveillance program for 1986 includes sampling and monitoring of air, water from surface streams and point sources, groundwater, fish, grass, soil, and milk for radioactive nonradioactive materials. Surveillance points are located on-site to quantify discharges from ORNL facilities, and off-site to determine public exposures and to establish background reference levels. This data report provides Laboratory and Central Management personnel with the most recent information on environmental conditions.
Date: March 1, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department