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Application of computers in a Radiological Survey Program

Description: A brief description of some of the applications of computers in a radiological survey program is presented. It has been our experience that computers and computer software have allowed our staff personnel to more productively use their time by using computers to perform the mechanical acquisition, analyses, and storage of data. It is hoped that other organizations may similarly profit from this experience. This effort will ultimately minimize errors and reduce program costs.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Berven, B.A.; Blair, M.S.; Doane, R.W.; Little, C.A. & Perdue, P.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PREPAR: a user-friendly preprocessor to create AIRDOS-EPA input data sets

Description: PREPAR is a FORTRAN program designed to simplify the preparation of input for the AIRDOS-EPA computer code. PREPAR was designed to provide a method for data entry that is both logical and flexible. It also provides default values for all variables, so the user needs only to enter those data for which the defaults should be changed. Data are entered either unformatted or via a user-selected format. A separate file of the nuclide-specific data needed by AIRDOS-EPA is read by PREPAR. Two utility programs, EXTRAC and RADLST, were written to create and list this file. PREPAR writes the file needed to run AIRDOS-EPA and writes a listing of that file.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Sjoreen, A.L.; Miller, C.W. & Nelson, C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using TLDs to monitor Los Alamos drillbacks at the Nevada test site

Description: Los Alamos National Laboratory uses LiF TLDs to measure the quantity of radiation in the environment during drilling, sampling and hole cementing operations following underground nuclear testing. The procedures for preparing the TLDs, placing the TLDs in the field and their subsequent analysis and dose evaluation are presented. 5 references, 4 figures, 1 table.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Cucchiara, A.L. & Martin, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Hazardous Material Technician Apprenticeship Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: This document describes an apprenticeship training program for hazardous material technician. This entry-level category is achieved after approximately 216 hours of classroom and on-the-job training. Procedures for evaluating performance include in-class testing, use of on-the-job checks, and the assignment of an apprentice mentor for each trainee. (TEM)
Date: July 1, 1987
Creator: Steiner, S.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental survey of the B-3 and Ford's Farm ranges.

Description: The Army has been firing depleted-uranium (DU) projectiles into targets on the Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. An environmental survey was conducted of two areas known as the B-3 range and the Ford's Farm range to determine the location of DU in their environments. The survey included ground survey measurements and some environmental sampling. Several special studies were also conducted, including analyses of the isotopic composition of uranium in a limited number of samples and a dissolution rate study to estimate the solubility of DU dust in sea and river water.
Date: August 1, 1983
Creator: Stoetzel, G.A.; Waite, D.A. & Gilchrist, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kriging analysis of uranium concentrations in Test Area C-74L, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. [Neutrons]

Description: Soil samples from Test Area C-74L, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, were analyzed for depleted uranium by instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis. The sampling design used was a modified polar coordinate scheme. The resulting data were analyzed with a statistical procedure called kriging to obtain a contour map of concentration and a 95% confidence interval map. The majority of uranium remains in the center of the area near the target abutment.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: White, G.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review and analysis of parameters for assessing transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

Description: Most of the default parameters incorporated into the TERRA computer code are documented including a literature review and systematic analysis of element-specific transfer parameters B/sub v/, B/sub r/, F/sub m/, F/sub f/, and K/sub d/. This review and analysis suggests default values which are consistent with the modeling approaches taken in TERRA and may be acceptable for most assessment applications of the computer code. However, particular applications of the code and additional analysis of elemental transport may require alternative default values. Use of the values reported herein in other computer codes simulating terrestrial transport is not advised without careful interpretation of the limitations and scope these analyses. An approach to determination of vegetation-specific interception fractions is also discussed. The limitations of this approach are many, and its use indicates the need for analysis of deposition, interception, and weathering processes. Judgement must be exercised in interpretation of plant surface concentrations generated. Finally, the location-specific agricultural, climatological, and population parameters in the default SITE data base documented. These parameters are intended as alternatives to average values currently used. Indeed, areas in the United States where intensive crop, milk, or beef production occurs will be reflected in the parameter values as will areas where little agricultural activity occurs. However, the original information sources contained some small error and the interpolation and conversion methods used will add more. Parameters used in TERRA not discussed herein are discussed in the companion report to this one - ORNL-5785. In the companion report the models employed in and the coding of TERRA are discussed. These reports together provide documentation of the TERRA code and its use in assessments. 96 references, 78 figures, 21 tables.
Date: September 1, 1984
Creator: Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L. & Shor, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental research on actinide elements

Description: The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)
Date: August 1, 1987
Creator: Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W. & Schreckhise, R.G. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 8

Description: The 553 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eighth in a series of reports. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Management, Technical Measurements Center, and General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C. & Knox, N.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of uncertainties in selected environmental dispersion models

Description: Compliance with standards of radiation dose to the general public has necessitated the use of dispersion models to predict radionuclide concentrations in the environment due to releases from nuclear facilities. Because these models are only approximations of reality and because of inherent variations in the input parameters used in these models, their predictions are subject to uncertainty. Quantification of this uncertainty is necessary to assess the adequacy of these models for use in determining compliance with protection standards. This paper characterizes the capabilities of several dispersion models to predict accurately pollutant concentrations in environmental media. Three types of models are discussed: aquatic or surface water transport models, atmospheric transport models, and terrestrial and aquatic food chain models. Using data published primarily by model users, model predictions are compared to observations.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Little, C.A. & Miller, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

Description: Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs.
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B. & Richardson, A.C.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interactive planning system for developing decommissioning and decontamination plans at Hanford

Description: The 570-square mile Hanford Project contains facilities with varying degrees of radioactive contamination as a result of plutonium production operations. With the evolution of production requirements and technology, many of these have been retired and will be decommissioned and decontaminated (D and D). Planning for D and D at Hanford requires identification and characterization of contaminated facilities, prioritization of facilities for decommissioning, selection of D and D modes, estimating costs and other characteristics of D and D activities, definition of future scenarios at Hanford, and preparation and assessment of plans to achieve defined scenarios. A multiattributed decision model using four criteria was used to prioritize facilities for decommissioning. A computer-based interactive planning system was developed to facilitate preparation and assessment of D and D plans.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Litchfield, J. W. & King, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological survey and decontamination of the former main technical area (TA-1) at Los Alamos, New Mexico

Description: A radiological survey was conducted on the undeveloped portions of the site of the former Main Technical Area (TA-1) of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in north-central New Mexico. Between 1943 and 1965, research work on nuclear weapons was carried out in TA-1. The area was decontaminated and demolished in stages, and beginning in 1966 the land was given to Los Alamos County or sold to private interests. The survey disclosed traces of radioactive contamination undetected or considered insignificant during original demolition in the 1950s and 1960s. The remaining contamination was removed in 1975 and 1976 to levels considered to pose no health or safety hazards and, further, to the lowest levels considered practicable. Methods used in the survey included measurement techniques for detecting alpha emitters such as uranium and plutonium, extensive surface and subsurface soil sampling, and use of conventional health physics instrumentation to provide detailed information on approximately 16 hectares (40 acres) of land. As a result of the decontamination efforts, approximately 15,000 m/sup 3/ of contaminated or potentially contaminated material was removed to an approved radioactive waste disposal site on ERDA property. Full details of the methods, findings, decision criteria, and as-left conditions are documented.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Ahlquist, A.J.; Stoker, A.K. & Trocki, L.K. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium, americium, and uranium in blow-sand mounds of safety-shot sites at the Nevada Test Site and the Tonopah Test Range

Description: Blow-sand mounds or miniature sand dunes and mounds created by burrowing activities of animals were investigated by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) to determine the influence of mounds on plutonium, americium, and uranium distributions and inventories in areas of the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range. Those radioactive elements were added to the environment as a result of safety experiments of nuclear devices. Two studies were conducted. The first was to estimate the vertical distribution of americium in the blow-sand mounds and in the desert pavement surrounding the mounds. The second was to estimate the amount or concentration of the radioactive materials accumulated in the mound relative to the desert pavement. Five mound types were identified in which plutonium, americium, and uranium concentrations were measured: grass, shrub, complex, animal, and diffuse. The mount top (that portion above the surrounding land surface datum), the mound bottom (that portion below the mound to a depth of 5 cm below the surrounding land surface datum), and soil from the immediate area surrounding the mound were compared separately to determine if the radioactive elements had concentrated in the mounds. Results of the studies indicate that the mounds exhibit higher concentrations of plutonium, americium, and uranium than the immediate surrounding soil. The type of mound does not appear to have influenced the amount of the radioactive material found in the mound except for the animal mounds where the burrowing activities appear to have obliterated distribution patterns.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Essington, E.H.; Gilbert, R.O.; Wireman, D.L.; Brady, D.N. & Fowler, E.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term protection of uranium mill tailings

Description: US Environmental Protection Agency standards for the cleanup and disposal of inactive tailings sites require that control measures for disposal of tailings be designed to be effective for up to 1000 years if reasonably achievable, and, in any case, for 200 years at least. To control the escape of contaminants over such long periods, containment systems must be capable of adjusting to changing environmental conditions. Elements of a containment system include surface covers, biotic barriers, radon barriers, and, in some cases, liners. Each element of the system affects the others, and the whole system responds to the surrounding environment. Interaction is facilitated primarily by soil moisture. Consequently, the control of soil moisture is critical to the effectiveness of containment systems. Protective covers are necessary to prevent disruption of the containment system by physical or biological factors, to provide for the effective functioning of the radon barrier, and to prevent infiltration of excess water that could cause leaching. In order to design protective covers, a working knowledge of the factors and processes impacting tailings piles is required. This report characterizes the major factors and processes, and presents generic solutions based on current research. 65 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Beedlow, P.A. & Hartley, J.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma-ray spectral determinations with a portable analyzer

Description: A portable sodium iodide spectrometer was used in a variety of field applications. The spectrometer is a battery-operated system complete with a 5 x 5 cm NaI(Tl) detector, 1024 channel memory divisible into four quadrants, special summation and calibration circuits, and a telemeter output for data transmittals. The portable spectrometer has been used to make in situ measurements around a radioactive waste burial ground. Typical spectra of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co were easily discernible at one such site. Uptake in vegetation near a sealed trench could be observed by placing the NaI(Tl) probe in the foliage. The extent of the spread of low-level contamination of /sup 60/Co was determined in an area that had previously been decontaminated. The unique response of the two /sup 60/Co gamma-rays could be obtained by subtracting the local background response within the computing spectrometer. The ability to perform qualitative identification and to assess hazards in emergency situations has been demonstrated.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Eldridge, J.S. & Oakes, T.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mathematical and numerical modeling considerations for radionuclide ion migration in porous media

Description: The equations governing radionuclide transport in sorbing, porous media are presented using phenomenological coefficients. Both equilibrium controlled and simple rate controlled chemistry are summarized. Several simplified models are discussed. Finally, various numerical problems are considered. 25 references.
Date: April 1, 1984
Creator: Treadway, A.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field testing and applications of the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data (USRAD) System

Description: The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data (USRAD) System is a patented, computerized data acquisition system developed to relate the radiological surveyor's precise physical location to instantaneous radiation data taken during walk-on surveys. The USRAD System incorporates three technologies: radio frequency communications, ultrasonics, and microcomputers. Initial field testing of the USRAD System has resulted in several improvements to walk-on radiological surveys including real-time position data, reproducible survey results, on-site verification of survey coverage, on-site data reduction and graphics, and permanent data storage on magnetic media. Although the USRAD System was developed specifically for use with a gamma-ray detector, it is adaptable to other instruments. Applications of the USRAD System may include verification of remediated and uncontaminated areas, emergency response in mapping pollutant locations after accidents, and characterization of hazardous waste areas. 2 refs., 8 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Dickerson, K.S.; Pickering, D.A.; Blair, M.S.; Espegren, M.L. & Nyquist, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some solutions to on-line radiological monitoring of difficult streams

Description: On-line monitoring for radiological contamination of dirty, but normally not radioactive, streams is difficult. Described are several new, low-fouling units that are intended to replace the existing sensors that monitor both beta and gamma activity. A sensor was designed, using a thin-wall Geiger-Mueller tube for beta and gamma sensitivity, to monitor the influent of the sanitary sewage treatment plant. The new design eliminates dead volumes inherent in the old unit by use of a double-layer, helically wound solenoid made of 5/16-in.-OD thin-wall (0.02-in.) Teflon tubing. A 4-L Marinelli beaker-based system that used a 3 x 3 NaI(Tl) scintillator was replaced with a multilayer solenoid of 5/8-in.-OD Teflon. Two units for the detection of beta radiation are also described. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Bauer, M.L. & Ramsey, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological characterization of the TAN-IET facility

Description: The Initial Engine Test (IET) facility is located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site at the north end of Test Area North (TAN). The IET facility was constructed and used for the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program during the 1950's and was later used for two other programs: the Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power Transient (SNAP-TRAN) and the Hallam Decontamination and Decommissioning Project. The facility is no longer in use, therefore, a complete radiological characterization was conducted at the IET site. The characterization included measurements of beta-gamma dose rates; beta-gamma and alpha surface contamination; concentrations of selected radionuclides in subsurface storage tanks, surface soil, the exhaust duct, stack and test pad; and a walk-over surface survey of the entire facility. The information contained in this report will be of great value as the IET facility goes through the decommissioning and decontamination process.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Koeppen, L.D.; Rodriguez, S.V.; Wheeler, O.A.; Cadwell, E.D. & Simpson, O.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TRAN-STAT statistics for environmental transuranic studies

Description: This issue of TRAN-STAT is concerned with three related topics: results from the questionnaire included with the 3rd issue of TRAN-STAT, the role of the statistician in transuranic studies, and some effective ways for exploring data sets and communicating this information to others via effective data summaries.
Date: April 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADPIC: a tool for the NEST-On-Scene-Commander

Description: The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability code ADPIC is used to calculate dose and ground deposition from mitigated and unmitigated high explosive detonation of a radiation dispersal device. Comparisons are made assuming differing particle size and activity distributions associated with the mitigation effort.
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Greenly, G.D. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bikini Atoll ionizing radiation survey, May 1985-May 1986

Description: Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 23 nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, which resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of a number of islands in the atoll and prevented the timely resettlement of the native population. Although the external dose rates from beta and gamma radiation have been previously determined by aerial survey and a variety of ground measurement techniques, technical constraints limited the assessment of external beta dose rates that result from the /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y contamination on the islands. Now, because of the recent development of very thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), the external beta dose rates can be measured. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1987
Creator: Shingleton, K.L.; Cate, J.L.; Trent, M.G. & Robison, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department