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A study of diverging detonation in high-explosive systems. [Detonation in PBX-9502 main charge with two different booster materials; TATB and X-0407]

Description: Initiation of an insensitive high-explosive main charge can be achieved by using a booster. The requirement for the booster high explosive should be high sensitivity rather than high energy. Using a reactive model, this study presents the evolution of detonation in PBX-9502 main charge with two different booster materials: low-density ultrafine TATB and X-0407 in a diverging configuration. 7 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Tang, P.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cyclic recrystallization of Sandia furnished HNS I. Final report

Description: The Pantex HNS recrystallization process followed by a crystal altering step was used to modify 4.77 kg of Sandia furnished HNS IB. The resulting HNS II (2.04 kg) was evaluated by the Navy specification WS-5003 as modified by Sandia Laboratories. The HNS II (Lot 6201-137-01) was shipped to Sandia.
Date: July 1, 1977
Creator: Quinlin, W. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TATB performance and sensitivity. Period covered: January--March 1976. Normal process development endeavor No. 106

Description: Eleven gap test series were conducted with TATB powder and RX-03-BB. Tests on RX-03-BB Blends 8 and 9 revealed nothing unusual. Five series conducted with Teledyne-produced powders again indicated a wide range of sensitivities for TATB from that source. Tests on other powders suspected of possessing abnormal sensitiviy revealed no notable shifts. The temperature controlled wedge tests on RX-03-BB were completed. Final results for the hot (68/sup 0/C) tests are presented and results for all RX-03-BB tests are plotted for comparison.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Kramer, P. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initiation sensitivity of LX-10 by a small diameter confined LX-13. Period covered: January--March 1976. Normal process development endeavor No. 201

Description: A sensitivity test, previously developed to study the configuration dependent excess transit time for transfer of detonation from a small diameter confined donor to a larger diameter unconfined acceptor via the detonation electric effect technique has been utilized for evaluation of an LX-13 donor/LX-10 acceptor system.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Hanes, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Pantex high purity HNS I to a Chemtronics HNS I for their sensitivity to initiation by HNS II MDF. Final report

Description: Two lots of HNS I have been compared for their sensitivity to initiation by an HNS II MDF donor. The sensitivity test utilized was previously developed to study the excess transit time for transfer of detonation from a small diameter confined donor to a larger diameter unconfined acceptor via the detonation electric effect technique.
Date: April 1, 1976
Creator: Hanes, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initiation sensitivity of HNS I by HNS II MDF. Progress report, October--December 1975

Description: A sensitivity test, previously developed to study the configuration dependent excess transit time for transfer of detonation from a small diameter confined donor to a larger diameter unconfined acceptor via the detonation electric effect technique, has been utilized for evaluation of Pantex synthesized HNS.
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Hanes, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Kraton GX-6500 as a binder material

Description: A 23-kilogram batch of a 95 percent HMX/5 percent Kraton GX-6500 PBX formulation has been made and subjected to routine safety evaluation and preliminary physical properties screening. No unusual reactivity was seen; drop hammer sensitivity is similar to LX-10. Diametric disc test parts, pressed to about 98 percent of TMD at 281 MPa/120 C, indicate that the PBX strength lies between LX-04-1 and LX-09.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Johnson, H.D.; Osborn, A.G.; Stallings, T.L. & Anthony, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of explosives by observing growth to detonation using a fiber optics system

Description: A system has been developed to observe the growth to detonation of high explosives using fiber optics to monitor light emission at the detonation front. The corresponding voltage waveform is digitized and fed to a computer for peak location and data analysis. Measurements close to the initiation point reveal an acceleration zone in which the velocity for growth to final detonation occurs. The characteristics of this acceleration region are related to the physical properties and sensitivity of the test explosive.
Date: unknown
Creator: Mohler, J.H. & Moodie, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Acetone/hexane recrystallization of HNAB

Description: In the manufacturing process for hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB), the final step prior to heat treatment is a recrystallization of HNAB from an acetonitrile/tetrachlorethane mixture. The possibility that the above solvents might become unavailable at some future date and the toxicities of these solvents indicate a need for a new solvent system. Initial work using acetone/hexane in place of acetonitrite/tetrachloroethane indicated its feasibility (D. M. O'Keefe, Sandia Laboratories, Private Communication). The objective of the present work was to confirm the feasibility of the use of acetone/hexane system and then to scale-up the recrystallization to the size and type of equipment used in the manufacturing process. A 7.2 kg batch of HNAB was produced with the final recrystallization from the acetone/hexane system. The analysis of the HNAB-II compared favorably with that from the production process. A 50 g sample was furnished to Sandia Laboratory.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Quinlin, W.T. & Evans, V.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity testing and analysis

Description: New methods of sensitivity testing and analysis are proposed. The new test method utilizes Maximum Likelihood Estimates to pick the next test level in order to maximize knowledge of both the mean, {mu}, and the standard deviation, {sigma} of the population. Simulation results demonstrate that this new test provides better estimators (less bias and smaller variance) of both {mu} and {sigma} than the other commonly used tests (Probit, Bruceton, Robbins-Monro, Langlie). A new method of analyzing sensitivity tests is also proposed. It uses the Likelihood Ratio Test to compute regions of arbitrary confidence. It can calculate confidence regions, for {mu}, {sigma}, and arbitrary percentiles. Unlike presently used methods, such as the program ASENT which is based on the Cramer-Rao theorem, it can analyze the results of all sensitivity tests, and it does not significantly underestimate the size of the confidence regions. The new test and analysis methods will be explained and compared to the presently used methods. 19 refs., 12 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Neyer, B.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Formulation of custom sized LX-15 granules

Description: LX-15 is a booster explosive formulation consisting of 95% HNS I and 5% Kel F-800 developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The purpose of this effort was to develop formulation techniques for the production of custom size granules that are amenable for processing in automatic weighing equipment. This report details processes whereby 0.4 and 1.5 kg size batches are produced, meeting those requirements. Efforts to date have found that granule size is dependent on batch/vessel size, water-to-solvent ratio and the degree of vessel agitation.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Stull, T.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inter- and intra-laboratory sieve analysis of TATB

Description: The purpose of this combined laboratory study was to determine inter- and intra-laboratory repeatability and influence procedure changes have on the sieving of TATB. Procedure changes include the use of different sieve sets, technicians, sieving rate, sample size and disperision. Results of this study indicate inter- as well as intra-laboratory repeatability in sieving is influenced by the use of different sieve sets and dispersion techniques.
Date: August 1, 1977
Creator: Duncan, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of the MC3133 reefing line cutter

Description: A pyrotechnic actuated reefing line cutter has been developed which, in response to an incoming programmable time delayed electrical firing signal, severs a nylon or Kevlar parachute reefing line following parachute deployment. The design objectives and final design concept which evolved are described. First order approximations and parameter studies leading to a preprototype design are presented. Significant evaluation studies that resulted in the selection of boron/calcium chromate for the initiating charge and titanium subhydride/potassium perchlorate for the output charge are discussed in detail. Final design verification testing data show that the reefing line cutter will meet functional requirements after the following sequential environments: thermal shock, --54/sup 0/C to 90/sup 0/C; mechanical shock, 9806 m/s/sup 2/, 2 ms duration; vibration, 98 m/s/sup 2/, 26-2000 Hz; and linear acceleration, 1960 m/s/sup 2/ for two minutes.
Date: September 1, 1977
Creator: Craig, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical properties of TATB/Kel-F 800 formulation. Period covered: October--December 1975

Description: The effects of controlled crosshead velocity or strain-rate application on the compression and tensile test results for LLL B8 TATB PBX appeared to be statistically insignificant. Bartherm treatment of billets resulted in a decrease in tensile strength. The thermal growth of the dimensional test specimen thermal cycled under a constant load of 1.72 MPa in L45 silicone oil was 50% less than the control specimen growth.
Date: January 1, 1975
Creator: Johnson, H.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compositional analysis technique for HNS/Kel-F 800

Description: A compositional analysis procedure for the plastic-bonded explosive consisting of HNS and Kel-F 800 is presented. The Kel-F is determined gravimetrically after extraction of the HNS with fuming nitric acid. The HNS content is calculated by difference.
Date: August 1, 1980
Creator: Sandoval, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decomposition of energetic materials on the drop-weight impact machine

Description: The drop-weight impact test is essential for initial characterization of limited amounts of new energetic materials. The mechanisms for reaction of energetic materials on the drop-weight machine are largely unknown. Partly as a consequence of this lack of understanding, results obtained on the drop-weight machine are often misleading and inconsistent. We are investigating mechanisms for decomposition of explosives on the drop-weight machine using radiometric and spectroscopic methods. Initial radiometric results reveal consistent, sequential emissions for specific impacted explosives that probably correspond to time-resolved chemical reactions. Time-resolved C/sub 2/* emission has been tentatively identified using spectroscopic methods to examine impacted explosives. 11 refs., 9 figs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Buntain, G.A.; McKinney, T.; Rivera, T. & Taylor, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermochemistry of mixed explosives

Description: In order to predict thermal hazards of high-energy materials, accurate kinetics constants must be determined. Predictions of thermal hazards for mixtures of high-energy materials require measurements on the mixtures, because interactions among components are common. A differential-scanning calorimeter (DSC) can be used to observe rate processes directly, and isothermal methods enable detection of mechanism changes. Rate-controlling processes will change as components of a mixture are depleted, and the correct depletion function must be identified for each specific stage of a complex process. A method for kinetics measurements on mixed explosives can be demonstrated with Composition B is an approximately 60/40 mixture of RDX and TNT, and is an important military explosive. Kinetics results indicate that the mator process is the decomposition of RDX in solution in TNT with a perturbation caused by interaction between the two components. It is concluded that a combination of chemical kinetics and experimental self-heating procedures provides a good approach to the production of predictive models for thermal hazards of high-energy materials. Systems involving more than one energy-contributing component can be studied. Invalid and dangerous predictive models can be detected by a failure of agreement between prediction and experiment at a specific size, shape, and density. Rates of thermal decomposition for Composition B appear to be modeled adequately for critical-temperature predictions with the following kinetics constants: E = 180.2 kJ mole/sup -1/ and Z = 4.62 X 10/sup 16/ s/sup -1/.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Janney, J.L. & Rogers, R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrostatic sensitivity testing of explosives at Los Alamos

Description: An electrostatic sensitivity test for determining the handling hazards associated with both new and established explosives has been developed at Los Alamos and is now in routine use. The apparatus is a moving electrode device similar to that described by Kusler and Brown. The energy stored in selected capacitors of a capacitor bank is discharged through the sample of explosive. A unique system of confining the samples with lead foil allows one to measure various degrees of sample response to changes in the electrostatic stimulus. Varying the foil thickness provides information about both the ''sensitiveness'' and the ''explosiveness'' of the sample. The lead-foil-confinement technique eliminates the subjective description of the response of a secondary explosive to a marginal stimulus as is common in many explosives tests on secondaries. Variables studied included: particle size, sample weight, electrode material, series resistance, temperature, voltage, sample volume, and degree of confinement. 6 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Larson, T.E.; Dimas, P. & Hannaford, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department